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TO THE DEITY.

WILBERFORCE’S PRACTICAL VIEW OP

CHRISTIANITY.
O Thou, the great all-moving cause,
Who in creation's self appears,

A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of
Who gave to countless systems laws,

Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle And plac'd them in their glorious spheres ;

Classes in this Country, contrasted with Real Chris

tianity. By W. Wilberforce, Esq., Meinber of ParGreat Guardian of our mortal race,

liament for the County of York. A new Edition, to Our first, our best, unchanging friend,

which is prefixed the Life of the Author, including Who fill'st infinity of space,

a succinct account of the Slave Trade, and its Aboli. And hast nor origin nor end;

tion. 18mo. pp. 316, cloth. London, Wood and Son. Inspire us with a saered awe

We sincerely rejoice in seeing this valuable work At every mention of Thy name,

published in this neat manner, and at a price so unA sense that Thine and nature's law

usually low, and give it our unqualified recommendaAre fix'd immutably the same.

tion. The “Life” of Mr. Wilberforce we have read So by the orb of day we'll learn,

with unusual pleasure, and have no doubt of its being So by the lesser lights be taught,

prized as an interesting appendage to the volume. That Thou art wheresoe'er we turn

Mr. Wilberforce's work embraces most of the grand To every action, word, and thought.

peculiarities of the gospel, as held hy most denominaJ.J. W.

tions of Protestant Christians; and it deserves a place in every family library: Mr. Wilson (the present Bishop

of Calcutta) in his Essay on Mr. Wilberforce's treatise, “ THY WILL BE DONE.”

gives it the following just character: “The design of

the author was to rouse the nation, and especially the Parent of Good, Almighty Power supreme,

higher orders, to a just view of the subject of real Nature's nnchanging, universal theme,

Christianity. It is a manly, and yet conciliatory exTo Thee I bow at this appointed hour,

posure of the false principles and defective practice of My heart's warm tide of gratitude to ponr.

professed Christians, accompanied by a powerful exI ask Thee nought, for I have liv'd to see

hibition of what true religion is, as it is delineated in Thine unask'd bounties shower'd around me free. the Bible, and displayed in the spirit and temper of Father, I give, with grateful sense imbued,

sincere Christians. It is a contrast between ChristiAll Thou requiröst, my warmest gratitude.

anity lowered, misapprehended, obscured, falsified, by Thine omnipresence nature doth reveal ;

the prevailing doctrine and morals of the day; and Thy goodness, Lord, I daily see and feel :

Christianity as it came from heaven, as it remains in all And shall I dare, by self and av'rice taught,

its freshness in the Sacred Records, as it is loved and Breathe Thee a prayer with plaint and murmur fraught? obeyed by those in every age, who, like the primitive No, while with ceaseless song the universe

Christians, or our Reformers of the sixteenth century, Thy vast unchanging bounty shall rehearse,

coine out from the world, and live unto God by the This be my prayer, - my first, niy only one,

faith of a crucified Saviour. It is a book of first prinFather of Light and Life, “ Thy will be done.” ciples, displaying the Christian religion as it ought to

J. J. W. exist in the case of every Christian, and then contrast

ing this with the low and defective standard of the

prevailing religion around us." "Love is stamped on SOLILOQUY ON LIFE.

every page.” Oh, Earth! in maiden innocence, Too early fled thy golden time!

INTEREST IN THE PERFECTIONS OF DEITY. Oh, Earth! Earth! Earth! for man's offence,

Omnipotence is our shield, unerring wisdom our guide, Doom'd to dishonour in thy prime! Of how much glory then bereft;

boundless goodness our present joy and future hope,

infinite huliness and rectitude the example we should Yet what a world of bliss was left!

imitate according to our poor capacity, aud a light to The thorn, harsh emblem of the curse,

show us our own unworthiness ; infinite majesty in. Puts forth a paradise of flowers ;

spires us with awe and reverence, and in 6 nite justice Labour, inan's punishment, is nurse

with a high sense of the importance of righteousnes: To halcyon joys at sunset hours.

and obedience; omniscience and omnipresence strike Plague, famine, earthquake, want, disease, us with terror when we do evil, and fill us with joy Give birth to holiest charities.

when we do well. God's natural and moral govern. And Death himself, with all the woes

ment of the world give peace and security to our mind, That hasten, yet prolong his stroke,

as it satisfies as that the Divine providence can and Death brings with every pang repose,

always will bring order out of confusion, and make With every sigh unbinds a yoke:

every event conducive to our temporal or eternal Yea, his cold sweats and moaning strife,

welfare. Wring out the bitterness of life.

'Tis foolish in us to muse on vanity, when we have

the love of God to think of: to let the mill grind chaff, Religion our Compass in the Voyage of Life.- Religion when there is plenty of corn at band. - Dr. Mantor. is our compass; the only instrument for directing and deteruining our course : and though it will not save the

London : Priuted and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Conrt,

Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) trouble of workiúg the vessel, nor diminish the neces- should be addressed; - and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the sity of vigilance in guarding against rocks and shoals,

United Kingdoin. yet it constantly points to that star, wliich by ascertain

Hawkers and Dealers Supplied on Wholesale Terms, by STRILL, Paternoster

Row; BERGER, Holywell Street, Strand; F. BAISLER, 124, Oxford ing our course ensures our safety.

Street; and W. N. BAKER, 16, City Road, Finsbury.

PENNY MAGAZINE.

NO 77.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

NOVEMBER 23, 1833 PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY C. WOOD AND SON, POPPIN'S COURT, VLELT STREET, LUNDUN.

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CHAPEL OF HENRY VII, WESTMINSTER

of Cadwallader, the last king of the Britons, from

whom King Henry VII was fond of tracing his descent, ABBEY.

and the foot by an angel. There are likewise other WESTMINSTER Abbey and Henry the Seventh's Chapel, devices, alluding to his family and alliances, such as are deservedly among the chief attractions of the me- portcullises, signifying his relation to the Beauforts by tropolis to strangers visiting London.

his mother's side; roses twisted and crowned, in memory Elegance and art have been so combined in the ar. of the union of the twu royal houses of Lancaster and chitecture and ornaments of the latter edifice, that an York; and at each end a crown in a bush, referring to author of some note a few years ago expressed his the crown of Richard III found in a hawthorn, near sense of its beauty in these terms: “It is the admira- Bosworth Field, where that fainous battle was fought tion of the universe, such inimitable perfection appears for a diadem, which turning in favour of Henry, his imin every part of the whole composure; which looks so patience was so great to be crowned, that he caused the far exceeding human excellence, that it appears knit ceremony to be performed on the spot, with that very together by the fingers of angels, pursuant to the direc- crown his competitor had lost. There are six comparttion of Omnipotence.”

ments, three on the north, and as inany on the south This “wonder of the world,” as it may well be styled, side of its base. The first compartment, on the south is externally adorned with sixteen Gothic towers, beau- side, contains the figures of thc Virgin Mary with our tifully ornamented with admirable ingenuity, and jut- Lord in her arms, and that of the archangel St. Michael. ting from the building in different angles. It is situated The figures in the scales, though now mutilated, were to the east of the Abbey, to which it is so neatly joined, meant for personal representations of moral good and that at a superficial view it appears to be all one build. evil; the saint is weighing them in his balance; the ing. It is enlightened by a double range of windows, good preponderates; but the devil, who is represented which throw the light intó such a happy disposition, as by the figure under his feet, is reaching, with one of at once to please the eye, and inspire reverence.

his clawed feet, at the scale which contains the figure Having entered this beautiful sanctuary, the eye of of evil, in order, by the addition of his own force, to the visitor will naturally look to the lofty ceiling, which render that the heaviest. The first figure in the second is of stone, wrought with such astonishing variety of compartment is, doubtless, intended for St. John the figures, as cannot be reached by any description. The Baptist, be having a book in his left hand, with an stalls are of brown wainscot, with Gothic canopies, Agnus Dei impressed upon it. The other is the most beautifully carved, as are the seats, with strange figure of St. John the Evangelist and the figure of the devices, to which nothing in wood is now equal. The eagle. parement is of black and white marble, done at the ex- The first figure in the third compartment is intended pense of Dr. Killigrew, once prebendary of the Abbey. for St. George; the other figure in the same compartThe east view from the entrance presents the brass ment, from the pig's head visible near him, the frequent chapel and tomb of the royal founder; and round it, syinbol by which he is denoted, intended for St. An. where the east end forms a semicircle, are the chapels thony of Vienna. of the dukes of Buckingham and Richmond. The side “The first figure in the fourth compartinent, north aisles were open to the nave at the east end, on each side, is meant for Mary Magdalen, supposing to hold side the founder's toib; and at the east end of the the box of ointinent. The other figure represents south aisle is the royal vault; and of the other, the St. Barbara, who was the daughter of a pagan, and inonuments of the inurdered princes. The walls, as dwelt with her father in a certain tower. To this tower well of the nave as of the south aisles, are wrought into adjoined a garden, in which the father bad determined the most curious figures iinaginable, and contain one to build a bath, with the necessary accommodation of hundred and twenty large statues of patriarchs, saints, rooms, and therein to make windows to the nuinber of martyrs, and confessors, placed in niches, under which two only. Being to undertake a journey, he left his are angels supporting imperial crowns, besides innume- instructions with the artificers, which his daughter prerable small ones, all of them esteemed so curious, that sumed to vary, by directing them, instead of two, to the best inasters have travelled from abroad to copy make three. Upon her father's return, he inquired them. The windows, which are fourteen in the upper, into the reason of this deviation from his orders; and and nineteen in the lower range, including the side being told, that in allusion to the three persons of the aisles and portico, were formerly of painted or diapered Holy Trinity, his daughter had directed it, he found glass, having in every pane a white rose, the badge of that she was become a convert to Christianity; and Lancaster, or an H, the initial letter of the founder's being exasperated thereat, stimulated the emperor to a name, and portcullises, the badge of the Beauforts, persecution of the Christians, in which she became a crowned, of whic a few only are now remaining. The martyr to the faith. roof is fattish, and is supported on arches between the The first figure in the fifth compartment is intended nave and side aisles, which turn upon twelve stately for St. Christopher, hearing our Saviour upon his Gothic pillars, curiously adorned with figures, fruitage, shuulder. The other figure in this compartment is and foliage. The length of this chapel within, is thought to be St. Anne. ninety-nine feet, the breadth sixty-six, and the height "In the sixth and last compartment, the first figure fifty-four.

is intended for King Edward the Confessor. The other What is ehiefly to be admired here, as well for an. figure is a Benedictine monk.” tiquity az five workmanship, is the magnificent tomb of Henry VII and Elizabeth' his Queen, the last of the Piety, PENITENCE, AND SUPERSTITION OF HENRY. house of York who wore the English crown. This Sir James Mackintosh, in his excellent History of tomb stands in the body of the chapel, enclosed in a England, gives the following character of Henry the curious chantry of cast brass, most admirably designed Seventh's Christianity: “His religion, as far as we are and executed, and ornamented with statues, of which informed, never calmed an angry passion, nor withheld those only of St. George, St. James, St. Bartholomew, him from a profitable wrong. He seems to have shown and St. Edward, are now remaining. Within it are the it chiefly in the superstitious fears which haunted his effigies of the royal pair, in their robes of state, lying death-bed, when he made a feeble attempt to make close to one another, on a tomb of black marble, the amends for irreparable rapine by restoring whai le head whereof is supported by a red dragon, thc ensign could no longer enjoy, and struggled to hurry through

the formalities of a compromise with the justice of passion, and of thy infinite mercy and grace; nathlesse, Heaven for his misdeeds."

my moste mercyful Redeemer, Maker, and Saviour, Í Henry's "will" appears to have been drawn up by trust that, by thc speciall grace and mercy of thy moste some of the most distinguished prelates of that age, a blessed mother, ever virgin, our Jadie St. Mary, in few days before his death ; and the contents of that re- whom, after thee, in this mortall lyfe hathe ever hyue markable document justify the statement of Sir James ; my moste singuler truste and confidence: to whom in and the services which the dying monarch, by the all my necessities I have made iny continuall refuge, advice of his royal chaplains, coinmanded to be used for and by whome I have hitherto in all my adversities ever the repose of his soul after death, will serve to exbibit hadd my speciall comforte and reliefe; will now in my the inanners, customs, and superstitions of those tiines. most extreame neede, of her infinite pitie, take my They have been taken from a very rich volume now in soule into her handes, and it presente unto her most the British Museum, and inserted by Malcolm in his dere sonne; whereof sweetest ladie of mercie, verie “LONDINUM REDIVIVUM," with his observations. mother and virgin, wel of pitie, and surest refuge of

“ The first article binds every monk in the monastery all needfull, most humblie, moste entirelie, and most to assist at high mass at the high altar, to pray for the hartile, I beseech the ; and for my comforte in this king's prosperity and welfare during his life. Then behalfe, I trust also to the singuler meditacon and follows the service, to be pronounced while the world praiers of all the holie company of Heaven : that is to shall last, at high mass, at the high altar, after the saye, angeles, archangeles, patriarks, profits, apostles, king's decease,

evangelistes, masters, confessours, and virgines; and "These priests, after the king's decease, addressed especiallie to mine accustomed avours I calle and crie, the congregation thus : "Sirs, I exhorte and moeve you St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. specially and devoutly of your charitie to praye for the George, St. Anthony, St. Edwarde, St. Vincent, St. Anne, soule of the most christen Prince, Kyng Henry the 7th, St. Mary Magdalen, and St. Barbara ; humblie beseechlate Kyng of Englonde, founder of thre daily masses, inge not onlie at the hower of death soe to aide, socore, perpetually to be sayed at this altier, whosys body

and defend me, that the aunciente and gostlie ennemye, restesth here buried.' At a quarter of an hour before nor non other evell or dampnahle sperete, have no each mass, the great bell of the Abhey was tolled forty power to envade me, nor with his terribleness to’anoy strokes. As this altar was intended only for a tempu

me,' &c." rary purpose, it was removed on certain days of cere

FUNERAL OF HENRY VII. mony to the south aisle, facing the chapel of St. Beaedict.

Henry gave particular directions for his funeral, “On the 12th of February, annually, the hearse for charging his executors to avoid dampnable pompe, the king, and his altar, were adorned with 100 tapers, and outrageous superfluities ;' a piece of advice little cach weighing twelve pounds, and nine feet in length; consistent with other parts of his will, which indicate twenty-four almsmen were arranged round it with the excessive grandeur of his establishment, and from torches, twenty-four pounds in weight. After those which we further learn, that the high altar, dedicated were prepared, the bells began to toll, as for the anni. to our lady, was to be adorned with the large image of versary of Richard the Second.

her in his possession ; a cross plated, with gold and “A procession then commenced through the choir silver gilt candlesticks; the vestments for the priests to the high altar, formed by the monks, prior, and officiating were to be of gold tissue ; and on solemn abbot; the lord chancellor, lord treasurer, chief justice, feasts was placed a fragment of the real cross, set in inaster of the rolls, chief baron of the exchequer, and gold, and resplendent in jewels, with golden and silver five other justices, together with the lord mayor, re- chalices, crueis, candlesticks, embroidered altar cloths, corder, and sheriffs of London. The abbot then pro- vestments, &c. ceeded to the high altar, and began the mass of requiem, Lest his soul inight not rest in peace, although while the monks kneel before it. The officers of state every precaution certainly was taken by him that poor kneeling before the hearse said the psalın De profundis, sinner could take, he requested 10,000 masses shoull with the prayers belonging to the office.

be said in the monastery, London, for its repose ; 1,500 “The hearse had four tapers, eleven féet in length, in honour of the Trinity: 2,500 in honour of the five placed on the middle of each side (to burn perpetually), wounds of the Lord Jesus Christ; 2,500 to the five joys and thirty to be lighted only during the obit, mass, and of our Lady; 450 to the nine orders of angels ; '150 even song. The sockets were set in crests of roses and to the honour of the patriarchs ; 600 to the twelve portcullises ; and the tapers never consumed lower apostles; and 2,300 to the honour of all saints; and than four feet, when they were replaced.

all those to be sung in a little month after his de.. We have little reason to wonder at his thus besieg. ing heaven, after perusing the prelude to his will, which “He directed that a statue of himself kneeling, three he made in March 31st, 1509 :-'We saye at this tyme, feet in height from the knees, should be carved in wood, as sithence the first yeres of discresonne we have been representing him in armour, with a sword and spurs, accustomid, theis wordes, Dne Ihu Xe, qui me ex and holding the crown of Richard III, won by him at nibilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti, et predestinasti ad hoc

Bosworth Field. quod sum, tu scis quid de me facere vis; tac de me “ This figure was to be plated with fine gold; an: sdm voluntatem tuam cum misericordia *. Therefore enamelled with his arms, to be placed on a table of doe of mee thy will; with grace, pitie, and mercy, most silver-gilt, on the shrine of Edward the Confessor, ant humbly and entirelie I beseeche thee. And thus unto dedicated to God and the Virgin. the I bequeth, and into thy most mercifull handes my “Henry died on the 22d of April, and on the 9th of soule I committe. And howbeite I am a sinful creature, May, 1509, his body was placed in a chariot, covered in sinne conceyved, in synne have lyved, knowing

with black oth of gold, which was drawn by fire perfectlie that of iny inerites I cannot attaine to the spirited horses, whose trappings were of black velvet, İyfe everlastinge, but onlie by the merits of thy blessed adorned with quishions of gold: The effigies of his O Lord Jesus Christ, who hast created me from nothing,

inajesty lay upon the corpse, dressed in his regal babiliwho hast made, redeemed, and predestinated me to what I am,

ments. The carriage had, suspended on it, banners vf thou knowest what thou wilt do with me, deal with me in mercy

arms, titles, and pedigrees. A number of prelates preaccording to thy will.

eeded the body, who were followed by the deceased

cease.

, doy

king's servants; after it were nine mourners; 600 men posts of the door sbake, the ponderous and magnificent bear ny torches surrounded the chariut.

pillars of brass tremble as a leaf before the blazt of The procession was met in St. George's Fields by ihe desert, and the whole temple is involved in that all the pries's and clergy of London and its neighbour- cloud of sinuke, wherein God is said to make his pahool, and at London Bridge by the lord mayor, alder- vilion. To which of the deities of Greece and Rome men, and commun-council, in black. To render this shall we refer for similar accounts of their manifestaawful scene sublimely granı, the way was lined with tion? What human inind ever conceived such surpasschildren, wbo held burning tapers ; those, with the ing splendour? Who does not feel ready to join in the Bashes of great torches, whose red rays darting in shout of those spotless beings who surround the Alévery direction upon the glittering objects, and ein- mighty's throne? brojilored crpes, showing the solemn pace, uplifted ÎV. God's requirements of his servants and people, eyes, and mournful countenauces, must have formed shuv his huliness. The revelation which he has written noble picture. The slow monotonous notes of the does not consist merely in lofty descriptions, and chant, inixed with the sonorous tones of the great bells, wondrous manifestatious of his greatness: oh! no, it were not less grateful to the ear. When the body had appeals to the heart and life of all whu profess to bearrived at St. Paul's, which was superbly illuminatell, Jieve in it, and is throughout full of entreaties to cease it was taken from the chariut, and carrierl to the choir, to do evil, and to learn to do well. I am the morc where it was placed benearth a hearse, arrayed with all anxious to enforce this on the attention of our readers, the accompaniments of death. A solemn mass and

as men of the present day are apt to insinuate that dirge were then sung, and a serinon preached by the Christianity is a cloke for lieentiousness. The only Bishop of Rochester." It rested all night in the church. effectual reply to this unfounded slander is “to live it On the following day the procession recoininenced in down.”

The thoughts, which inen are disposed to regard as before on a fine charger, clothed with drapery, on sacred to themselves, come under ihe scrutiny of the which was the king's arıns.

Gospel, and are regarded by him who is to be the “We will now suppose him retroved hy six lords future Judge of mankind in the light of actions worthy from his chariot to the hearse prepared for him, formed of reward and punishment. Let therefore those who by vine pillars set full of burning tapers, inclused by a imagine that there can be no harm in indulging sinful double railing ; view him placed under it, and his effi- thoughts, provided they never practise them, beware of gies on a rich pall of gold close to himn; the nine the wickedness and sorrow they are entailing on themmouruers, near them knights bearing banners of saints, selves. The habit is one of a most pernicious characand surrounded by officers of arins. The prelates, ter, and like all other sinful dispositions, when un. abbot, prior and convent, and priests, in measured checked grows with amazing rapidity. And for their paces silently taking their places; when, breaking caution I would advise them to remember, that all those ihrough the awful pause, Garter, king at aruis, cried actions, the commission of which has excited the horror with an audible voice, “For the soul of the noble Prince

and amazement of mankind, have originated in that King Henry the Seventh, late king of this realm.' A secret recess of thought which is hidden from every deep peal from the organ and choir answers in a chant human eye. Cleanse then, O God, the thoughts of our of pluceho and the dirge; the sounds die away, and heart, by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit. with thein the whole as embly retires."

Our words also must be regulated with a strict regard to the requirements of Christianity. That religion

which breathes vothing but love, is perfectly inconsisON THE DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.

tent with the slander and detraction that is daily going on No.VII.- THE HOLINESS OF GOD).

in the world. it then be impressed on the remem

brance of all, that evil-speaking, lying, and slander(Continued from p. 364.)

ing, are expressly prohibited ; that henceforth they are III. God's manifestations of himself will also be found bound to keep their mouth as it were with a bridle; to establish the doctrine now attempted to be illustrated : and that the language of insult, of falsehood, of blasbut as space will not permit me to refer to all these phemy, or folly, is an open violation of His commands wondrous displays that are recorded, I must content with whom we have to do. inyself with selecting one, though at the saine time it Our actions likewise are subjected to the same stanwill be convenient to mark some of the passages for dard. So that whatever be the scene of life in which the perusal of those who are disposed fully to examine we are placed, whatever may be the duties that are the subject : Exod. xix; Job xl, xlii; Isa. vi; Ezek. i; exacted of us, we must ever bear in mind our responand the various visions of Daniel, ch. vii. The one which sibility to a higher tribunal than any which the princes I shall select is from Isaiah, wherein the prophet de- of this world can establish. We have before our eyes a scribes the appearance of the Lord, who gave biin his pattern of purity and excellence, a resemblance to which commission to preach to the stiff-necked Israelites. The we are required to cultivate. Whatever therefore may personages said to surround the throne of God, are the

be our sphere of action, there let this virtue shine; very highest in the scale of created beings, the doini. and while we thus grow in grace and the knowledge of nions and principalities of heaven, of whose lofty and Christ Jesus, we shall be reading to the world a lesson exalted pature we know but little, save only, that they which the scoff of ridicule can neither gainsay nor are far superior to ourselves : and yet, great and deny: “That the grace of God which bringeth salvamighty as ihey are, they stand beforc the throne of tion bath appeared to all ineo, teaching thein to deny Jehovah, veiling their faces from the beams of uncreated ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righglory, too bright for the seraphin themselves to en- teously, and godly, in this present world.”.

but they are not mute spectators of the glorious V. The society of heaven, proes the Divine holiness. scene, their time is occupied in chanting the praises of The dwelling place of God is ever represented as pure, their Maker; and the language they employ is of the spotless, and holy. The ideas which men forin of most fervent and devout description, ascribing to Him heaven are altogether imperfect, if they do not make it that sitteth on the throne the marvellous appellation, a fundamental principle, that sin is excluded from its "Holy! Holy! Holy!” The effect of these august regions for ever. The declarations of Scripture on this sounds is commensurate with their greatness, for the point are most explicit, and are so well known to all,

dure;

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