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THE SATURDAY EVENING PRAYER MEETING. the very small degree of civilization existing in this

elevated region is more calculated to retard than faciliCome, my Father's family,

tate the progress of Divine truth. — Many of their cotYe adopted heirs of grace,

tages have no chimneys, and nearly all are without From the toils of business free,

windows. Indeed, their habitations can only be deLet us seek our Saviour's face.

scribed as dark and noisome hovels, seldom cleaned out Worldly pleasure we disdain,

more than once a year; and in which, during the eight All its boasted mirth is vain.

months of winter, the whole family are accustomed to At the throne of grace we meet,

reside, in the midst of filth and smoke. — As is the case Here the past week's sins we mourn.

amongst barbarous nations, the women live in a state of Jesus, from his mercy-seat,

degrading servitude, and are invariably treated with Kindly answers in return,

harshness and brutality. They are seldom allowed to “Freely I your sins forgive;

sit; and when this privilege is granted, they are comGo, and to my glory live.”

pelled to crawl on their knees to their seats. They dare

not place themselves at the same table, nor partake of ( what pleasure fills the room!

the same food, as the men. Their unfeeling masters Love Rows sweet through every breast:

hand them the allotted portion across the shoulder, Jesus in his Spirit's come,

never deigning 10 turn their heads; whilst the poor With his presence we are blest. Here's a happy company!

women are obliged to acknowledge this beneficence, by

kissing the hand and making obeisance.” P. 130-132. This is pure felicity.

In what manner Neff-succeeded in elevating and Cease, ye worldlings, cease to boast,

evangelizing such a rude and degraded people, must be All your pleasures end in pain;

a subject of deep interest and inquiry, and in this voWhen you quit this mortal coast,

lumne will be found a most delightful record.“ Such You'll a mighty loss sustain,

was the extent of his pastoral jurisdiction, and so diffiSinking deep in misery,

cult of access were in any of the hamlets within its Through a long eternity.

limits, that he was unable to spend more than two or But the pleasures we enjoy,

three days in the course of each month, at his nominal They shall never, never end;

residence at La Chalp. When issuing from this seDeath will not our bliss destroy,

cluded glen, to prosecute his arduous and disinterested Death, indeed, will be our friend;

labours, the pastor of the Alps bad to travel twelre Death will let our spirits fly

miles to the west, sixty to the east, twenty to the south, To their better house on high.

and thirty-three to the north. The life of Neff, from

this period, was one of almost constant migration; nor Then, in sweet society, With the glorified above,

was it until his physical energies were completely exThere through all eternity

hausted, that he allowed himself a single day of relaxaWe shall sing redeeming love.

tion and repose. From the commencement of his Brethren! raise your voices high,

labours here, to his last illness, he never slept three

nights in the same bed. No sooner had the time exYour redemption draweth nigh.

pired which he had allotted for the religious instruction G. M. B.

of the inhabitants of one hamlet, than he was seen with

his staff in his hand and his wallet on his back, vigorMEMORIALS OF FELIX NEFF,

ously scaling the mountain side, or winding his solitary

course through deep and dreary defiles, leading to some The Alpine Pastor. By T. S. Ellerby. 12mo. cloth,

other portion of his beloved parishioners. It was the Hamilton and Adains. 1833.

whole aim of his existence to follow closely in the footNeff was an extraordinary individual, and his “Me- steps of his Divine Master, and to be constantly going morials” contain a most interesting illustration of the about doing good.” P. 127-129. character and labours of a “ Home Missionary.” Such was the lamented subject of this Memoir, stationed on the “Higher Alps,” in the province of Dauphiny in

Literary Notice. France. His early religious history is peculiarly in

BRITISH ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. structive, including various ministerial operations before his ordination, which took place in London, May 19, By Thomas Timpson, author of “ Companion to the 1823, at the chapel of the Rev. John Clayton. From Bible," and "Church History through all Ages.” that period to the termination of his mortal course, Designed especially for Families, Sunday School April 12, 1829, he prosecuted his labours with astonish

Teachers, and Young Persovs. To be completed in ing zeal and success, establishing prayer-ineetings ten or eleven numbers. No. III, was published on the throughout the various villages in his district, schools

Ist of September, price Sixpence: to be continued for the young, Bible and Tract societies, and preaching monthly. many times a week throughout his sphere of labour. Neff was an agent of the English “ Continental So

W. E. H. in our next Number. ciety” formed to promote the advancement of Scriptural Christianity in the ignorant and formal churches Many inquiries having been made at the Publishers' through the continent of Europe ; and we cannot but

to the conclusion of the Second Volume, our rejoice in the contemplation of the divine blessings dif- Readers are respectfully informed, that it is not in. fused by means of such missionaries as the devoted

tended to close the Volume till the end of December, Felix Neff.

when a Title-page and Index will be printed, anni the The difficulties in the way of this servant of Christ

new volume will commence with the New Year. may be conceived in a tolerable degree by a few extracts from this Memoir. “In many respects, the work of London ; Priuted and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, P-ppiu's Court, an evangelist upon the Alps bears a striking resem

Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) blance to that of a missionary amongst savages; for

should be addressed; — and sold by all Booksellers and Newsuieu ia the United Kingdom.

pp. 334.


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“Mexico,” in its pagan state, as Dr. Robertson

remarks,“ was the pride of the New World, and the America, on several accounts, must be far more noblest monument of the industry and art of man, interesting to Britons, than any other portion of the while unacquainted with the use of iron, and destitute habitable globe. Colonized, in its most populous, in- of aid from any domestic animal; and the Spaniards, telligent, and religious division, by our own country- who are most moderate in their computations, reckon inen, and participating in cominon with us in the bless. that there were at least 60,000 inhabitants in the city.” ings of our language, literature, institutions, and divine - History of America, vol. ii, p. 205. Christianity, with branches of numberless English “Ferdinand Cortes," and his “Conquest of Mexico," families settled there, - we cannot but take pleasure in are familiar to many of our readers : but those who every thing recorded of its advancement, improvement, are not acquainted with the discovery and colonization and prosperity. Our present view of that vast conti- of this “ New World,” including the West Indies, nent relates to its condition before the eriod of its should at least read the History of America by Dr. Roco:quest by the Spaniards.

bertson. Vol. II.

2 P

Clavigero, a Mexican historian of reputation, remarks, surrounding cities, and a great part of the valley, pre. "" The city and kingdom of Mexico, was begun by the senting, according to the testimony of those who had building of the temple of Huitzilopochtli, or rather an opportunity of beholding it, an extensive view of Megitli, from whence the city took its name. This incomparable beauty, building at the commencement was only a poor cabin, “On the upper platform was the altar for ordinary but a new and magnificent temple was afterwards sacrifices, upon the open space below, that for the erected by the zeal of several successive sovereigns. sacrifice of the gladiators. Before the two sanctuaries Various and very different accounts have been given of were two stone vessels, about the height of a man, in the magnitude of this proud monument of superstition, which the sacred fire was constautly preserved with the but the most probable is the following :

utmost care, for it was believed that the greatest cala“This great temple occupied the centre of the city, mities would occur if it should ever bappen to be exand, together with other tein ples and other buildings tinguished. In the other temples and sacred edifices, annexed, covered a great portion of the present city comprised within the precincts of the external wall, of Mexico. The wall, by which it was surrounded, there were six hundred vessels of the same size and formed a square, and was so large as to be capable of form, which at night, when the whole were kindled, precontaining a town of 500 houses. It was built of stone, sented a inost beautiful spectacle.". eight feet high, of a proportionate thickness, and Horrible in the extreine were the religious rites of adorned at the top with representations of serpents. the Mexicans, “ formed,” as Robertson remarks, “into There were four gates pointing towards the four quar- a regular system, with its complete train of priests, ters of the heavens, and above each gate was a building temples, victims, and festivals.” — “The aspect of abundantly supplied with every kind of arms, where in superstition in Mexico was gloomy and atrocious. Its case of necessity the troops were accustomed to retire. divinities were clothed with terror, and delighted in

“The space within the exterior part of the wall was vengeance. They were exhibited to the people under curiously paved with stones, that were so smooth and detestable forms, which created horror; the figures of polished, as to cause the horses of the Spaniards to serpents, of tigers, and of other destructive animals, stumble avd fall at every step. In the midst of this decorated their temples. Fear was the only principle space there arose a vast oblong square building, all which inspired their votaries. Fasts, mortifications, solid, and built with square bricks of equal dimensions. and penances, all rigid, and many of them excruciating It consisted of five stories of an equal height, but un- to an extreme degree, were the means employed to equal in the length and width. The first, or base of appease the wrath of their gods, and the Mexicans the building, was, from east to west, more than 300 never approached their altars without sprinkling them feet, and nearly 258 feet from north to south : the with blood drawn from their own bodies. But, of all second was six feet less, both in length and width, than offerings, HUMAN SACRIFICEs were deemed the most the square below. The other stories continued dimi. acceptable. This religious belief mingling with the nishing in the same proportion, so that upon each story implacable spirit of vengeance, and adding new force there was a space or open gallery turning round from to it, every captive taken in war was brought to the the higher story, by which three and even four men temple, was devoted as a victim to the deity, and could walk abreast.

sacrificed with rites no less solemn than cruel. The The steps, which were placed towards the south, heart and head were the portion consecrated to the gods ; were built of great stones, well wronght. There were the warrior, by whose prowess the prisoner had been in all 114 steps, each a foot high. It was not a single seized, carried of the body to feast upon it with his continued staircase, but there were as many flights of friends ! Under the impression of ideas so dreary and steps as there were stories in the building, as may be terrible, and accustomed daily to scenes of bloodshed seen in the engraving ; so that having arrived at the rendered awful by religion, the heart of man must top of the first fligut, it was necessary to go all round harden, and be steeled to every sentiment of humanity. before ascending the second, and thus with the remain- The spirit of the Mexicans was accordingly unfeeling, ing portion.

and the genius of their religion so far counterbalanced Upon the fifth and last story there was a platform, the influence of policy and arts, that notwithstanding 240 feet long and 204 wide, which was as well paved as their progress in both, their inanners, instead of softenthe square or open space below. In the eastern ex- ing, became more fierce.” tremity of that space were erected two towers, 56 feet Robertson adds, in a Note, “The exaggeration of high ; each of these towers consisted of three stories, the Spanish historians, with respect to the number of the lower one being built of stone, and the other two human victims sacrificed in Mexico, appears to have of wood. The lower story or base was properly the been very great. According to Gomara, there was no sanctuary; where, upon a stone altar 5 feet high, were year in which 20,000 human victims were not offered placed the tutelary idols. One of these sanctuaries was to the Mexican divinities, and in some years they consecrated to Huitzilopochtli and the other gods of war, amounted to 50,000. The skulls of those unhappy and the other to Tezcatlipoca, who was said to be the god persons were ranged in order, in a building erected for of providence, the soul of the world, the creator of that purpose, and two of Cortes's officers who bad heaven and earth, and the lord of all things. The counted them, informed Gomara, their number was other two stories of these towers were used to preserve 136,000! Herrera's account is still more incredible, the necessary utensils for the worship of the idols, and that the number of victims was so great, that 5,000 have the ashes of some kings and chiefs, who, from peculiar been sacrificed in one day; nay, on some occasions, no motives of devotion, were deposited there. The doors less than 20,000. Torquemada goes beyond both in exof these two sanctuaries were placed towards the west, travagance, for he asserts, that 20,000 children, exand the two towers terminated with beautiful wooden clusive of other victims, were slaughtered annually. cupolas ; but of the interior decorations of these sanc- The most respectable authority in favour of such high tuaries, as well as the dimensions of the towers, we are numbers, is that of Zumurraga, the first bishop of unable to forın any idea, no author having left an Mexico, who, in a letter to the chapter-general of his account of them. But it may be asserted without fear order, A. D. 1631, asserts that the Mexicans sacrificed of error, that the height of the building was not less annually 20,000 victiins !! than 114 feet, and to the top of the towers, about 168 Human sacrifices were common in Mexico, how. feet. From this elevation might be scen the lake, the ever exaggerated these accounts may have been; and

the horrible fact is full of instruction to us, in relation consideration the accidents of time and place, we shall
to the apostacy of man froin God; especially while we be compelled to acknowledge, that all the reasons
reflect upon the happy circumstances of those who are drawn from history in favour of the antiquity of the
blessed with the full light of the Christian Scriptures, globe, are as unsatisfactory as useless.
and who have been favoured with the faithful ministry

In the history of the firmament are sought the

second proofs of the errors of Scripture. Thus the THE BEAUTIES OF CHRISTIANITY. heavens, which declare the glory of God, proclaim

nothing to the Infidel. (Continued from p. 283.)

Astronomy owes its origin to shepherds. In the The Mosaic Chronology.

deserts of the primitive creation, man wanted a conSome writers have maintained, that the world exhibits

pass to direct him through the trackless forests, or on

rivers where never sail before was set. It was natural inarks of too high an antiquity for the modern origin ascribed to it in the Bible. To begin with chronology.

that he should place himself under the direction of the The ancient Roman year consisted, at first, of ten

stars ; each family followed the course of a constellamonths ; after that was the Julian year, of 365 days.

tion, each star shone as the leader of a flock. India is

still both astronomical and pastoral, like Egypt of old. The ancient Jewish year had but 354 days ; sometimes 12 days, or a inonth of 30 days, were added, to form a

By an ordination not a little remarkable, the simplest solar The Syriac year also varies ; the Turkish

nations were best acquainted with the system of the year. or Arabic year admits il extra months in 29 years.

heavens. The immense discoveries, however, in this Besides these various modes of measuring time, all

art, are but of recent date. Of the various philosothese years have not the same beginning, or the

phical plans of the machinery of the heavens, it was

Sir Isaac Newton who selected the noblest, the most same divisions of days and hours; the first month of

sublime design, for it was that of the Deity himself. the Persian year corresponds with our June; and

But who could have thought, that at the moment, so China and India begin from the first of March. We find days also of two kinds: the one commencing at

many new proofs of the greatness and wisdom of

Providence were discovered? There were men who sunrise, as among the ancient Babylonians, Syrians, and Persians; the other at sunset, as in China and in

shut their eyes closer than ever against the light. modern Italy, and of old among the Athenians, the

How can the world be so modern,” it was said, "the Jews, and the barbarians of the North. The Arabs

very composition of the skies iinplies millions of begin their days at noon; the French, English, and

years." It is the feeling we possess of immortality, other European nations at midnight. Lastly, the very

which makes men ashamed of the short period of their hours are not without their perplexities, being divided

existence: they conceive, that by piling tombs upon into three classes, of Babylonian, Italian, and astro

tombs, and adding cypher to cypher, they shall at nomical; and were we to be still more particular, we

length produce an eternity. should no longer reckon 60 minutes in an hour, but

The Deluge. 1080 scruples, as the Chaldeans and Arabians. Is there one candid person who will refuse to admit, that so Astronomy having been found insufficient to destroy many arbitrary modes of calculating time are sufficient the veracity of Scripture, natural history has been to make history a frightful chaos ?" The annals of the

called to its aid. It has been said, that all the seas of Jews, by the confession of scientific men themselves, the globe would not be sufficient to cover the globe to are the only ones whose chronology is simple, regular,

the height mentioned in Scripture. To this we answer, and clear. This, then, is a new evidence in favour of that to drown the earth, ocean need only overleap his the Holy Scriptures.

bounds : and who is there that has penetrated into the Next to the chronological objections against the

treasures of the hail? God has indeed commanded the Bible, come those which are pretended to be deduced seas to retire within their beds, but he has impressed from historical facts. The traditions of the priests of on the globe everlasting traces of his wrath. The Thebes, assigned to the kingdom of Egypt a duration relics of the elephant of India are piled up in the of 18,000 years. But one who cannot be suspected of regions of Siberia, and whole beds of marine substances Christianity, Plutarch, says of them, “Their year at settled upon the summits of the Alps and the Corfirst consisted only of a single moon : it is thus that

dilleras. their origin appears extremely long; and though it It has been said, Examine the fossils, the marbles, was late before they settled in their country, they are

the lavas of the earth ; and you discover in them a reputed to be the most ancient of nations.”

series of innumerable years, marked by their various What necessity is there, after all, to lay so much

circles or strata. To this we answer, God could not stress on orthographical disputes, when we need but but create, and doubtless did crcate, the world with all open the volumes of history, to convince ourselves of

the marks of maturity and completeness which we bethe modern origin of man? We ourselves are a striking hold in it. If the world had not been at the same instance of the rapidity with which nations become time young and old, the grand, the moral, and the civilized. Scarcely twelve centuries ago, our ancestors

melancholy, would have been banished froin the face were as barbarous as the Hottentots; and now we sur. of nature. Every scene would indeed have lost its pass Greece in the refinements of taste, luxury, and

wonders. The very day that ocean poured forth his first

waves, he doubtless washed shores already worn by the The general logic of languages cannot furnish any

billows. Without this original antiquity, there would valid reason in favour of the antiquity of man. The have been neither beauty nor magnificence in the work idioms of the East, far from announcing nations grown

of the Almighty, but an insipid infancy of plants, old in society, betray men very little removed from a animals, and" elements. But God was not so wretched state of nature. Their mechanism is simple in the a designer as infidels pretend. Adam was born at the highest degree. If to all these difficulties of chrono- full age of manhood; and in like manner did Eve shine logy and facts, we add the errors arising from the in all the blooming graces of female beauty, passions of the historian; if we moreover take into our

(To be continued.)

the arts.


by the Christians at Rome, Cornelius, being less strict turd'cestuBY.

in his discipline than Novatian, gained the strongest

party, and excommunicated him, denouncing him as a 33. CYPRIAN. - Thascius ('ecilius Cyprian was a native

schismatic. Cyprian, in a letter to Cornelius, expressed of Carthage, and descended from a noble family. His his approbation of this sentence, on account of Novatus parents were idolaters, and he continned such till the having opposed his lax discipline. last twelve years of his life. Cyprian was educated in Dr. Haweis, in his "Impartial History of the Church," a manner'suited to his senatorial condition ; and accord- says, “ The reply of Cornelius to the bishop of Car. ing to Lactantins, he publicly taught rhetoric in his thage bears an acrimony, an insolence, and abuse, that native eity with extraordinary reputation. At that pe

speak as little in favour of the man who could receive riod he lived in great splendour and magnificence, his it with complacence, as of him who could indite it in dress sumptuous and his retinue stately, never going the bitterness of his heart; and they must be sad Chrisabroad but he was thronged with a crowd of clients and tians indeed whose state I should not prefer to the followers. His popular talents as an orator, and his bishop's who could write these letters. Novatian, by eminent authority as a senator, were einployed in de- his revilers, is admitted to be a man of genius, learning, fence of the superstitions and idolatries of paganism; and eloguence. His moral character was unimpeachbut Cecilius, one of the ministers of Christ at Carthage,

able. However, it required singular 'excellence to induced himn to listen to the gospel, which led to his

maintain himself and his congregation against the conversion to the doctrine of God our Saviour. At his weight of power and influence which were against him. baptism, Cyprian took the name of his spiritual bené- One of the best, the clearest, and most precise treatises factor, Cecilius ; and, until the day of his death, he which antiquity can produce, of the Triune God, comes cherished for him the sincerest friendship, and received;

from his pen.

He states distinctly, that the Holy as his dying charge,' the care of his family.

Ghost is the author of regeneration — the pledge of the Cyprian's whole spul was not engaged in the study promised inheritance — the hand-writing of eternal salof Christianity; and his progress in divine knowledge vation -- who makes us the temple of God and his abode was astonishing. In proof of his sincerity, Cyprian - who intercedes for us with groanings which cannot advocated the cause of Christ with his pen, and wrote

be uttered our advocate and defender dwelling in a treatise “On the Grace of God,” which he addressed us - and sanctifying us for immortality,' &c. When I to Donatus, bishop of the Christian church at Carthage. hear Cyprian anathematizing such a inan, I can only He also wrote another piece “On the Vanity of Idols;" say, I would rather be under the curses with Novatian, and being married, he resolved upon a state of conti

than utter them with Cyprian.” nence, which was absurdly considered a high degree of Cyprian at length died a martyr for Christ, A.D. 258, piety in that age. He consigned most of his property in the persecution under Valerian and Gallienus. Noto the church for the use of the poor, and consecrated vatian about the same period died a martyr for Christ! himself to the service of the Redeemer. Donatus, Cornelius died in prison, a confessor of Christ! On therefore, ordained him to the office of the ministry, these good, but imperfect men, Dr. Haweis makes the and that bishop dying A.D. 248, Cyprian was chosen as following beautiful reflections : "Ah! that great men, the most proper person to render service to the church, good men, confessors, martyrs, should quarrel, and not and to succeed him in the episcopal office. With some be willing to bear and forbear! If one is our Master, expressions of reluctance, having been a Christian but even Christ, to him let us be content to be responsible; two years, Cyprian entered upon his responsible

follow the best dictates of our conscience, according to duties.

our views of God's word, and be happy to indulge vur During a period of forty years the Christians had brethren with the same liberty. Cyprian and Novatian, enjoyed much peace; through which professors had at the right hand of the great Shepherd and Bishop of become luxurious in living and dress, and greatly cor- souls, must be ashamed of their hard spirit, and their rupted in inanners. Cyprian resolved on a reformation, harsh speeches. It is a mercy for us all, that we have and published a treatise : On the Dress of Virgins," in such a compassionate High Priest, who knows how to which, besides what he says on that particular, he in- pity our infirmities, and to pardon our iniquities. I am culcates many excellent lessons of modesty and so- the longer on this point, because Mr. Milner calls these briety. Decius, the emperor, A.D. 249, issued severe

the first Dissenters from the church, not a title of edicts against the Christians, when a dreadful persecus which I can' perceive; for Novatian was a bishop as tion arose ; and the following year, the idolaters assern.

truly chosen and ordained, from any thing which apbling at the Circus and the Amphitheatre, insisted on

pears, as Cornelius.” Cyprian being thrown to the lions. To avoid the popular fury, Cyprian withdrew from: Carthage; and in his THE BEST GEOGRAPHY OF THE HOLY LAND. retirement he wrote many pious and instructive letters to his friends, encouraging them in their profession of A young man of fortune, lately of Trinity college, Christ; and also to the Libellatici, those pusillanimous Mr. Blane, returned to Cairo with his friend, Mr. CrompChristians, who were so denominated from having ob- ton, on the 15th of last May, after a journey across the tained certificates from the heathen magistrates, of their desert, which was attended with a good deal of hardship, having complied with the emperor's orders in sacri. from the want of water and from excessive heat. They ficing to idols !

had pursued the route of Moses and the Israelites, and Cyprian was allowed to return to his pastoral charge travelling with the Book of Exodus in their hands, had at Carthage, where he held several councils concerning reached Mount Sinai. They drank their coffee on the the proper mode of proceeding with those who pro- spot where Moses received the Decalogue, visited the fessed repentance for their cowardice in falling from their stedfastness during the persecution. Cyprian re

cave in which Elijah had taken refuge at Horeb; and

placed themselves on the stone whereou Moses sat when ceived them to the communion of the church; but his hands were lifted up whilst Israel fought against Novatus, a presbyter, opposed this laxity, and withdrew Amalek. They discovered also several caves containing to Rome, where he joined Novatian; who, with him, curious objects of antiquity, not hitherto known nor thought that, though they might possibly be saved, they visited by any traveller. On their return to Cairo they ought not to be received back into full communion. were preparing to start for Jerusalem and Damascus.

Noratian and Cornelius being both chosen bishops Cambridge Chronicle.


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