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of workmanship. The arsenal is said to be the finest

and best furnished in Europe, being three miles in Venice was built in the fifth century; and from the circumference, and contains 100,000 stand of arms. smallest beginnings, it rose to such einence as to be- Venice has seventy churches, thirty-nine inonasteries, come one of the most important states in Europe. For twenty-eight nunneries, and seventcen hospitals : but several centuries, until the discovery of a passage to the religion of the people is that of the Romish church. India by the Cape of Good Hope, it became immensely Scriptural knowledge therefore is exceedingly low, opulent by engrossing most of the trade to the East. corresponding with the prevailing ignorance and super

Venice is one of the most remarkable cities on the stition of that communion throughout the rest of Italy. continent; being built upou sirty, or as some reckon St. Mark's patriarchal church is the cathedral of seventy-two lagunes, or sinall islands : so that a canal Venice: it is situated in the grand Piazza, and is acflows in every street, which are united by five hundred counted one of the richest and most magnificent in the bridges, the most famous of which is the Rialto, ninety world. The Venetians pretend that they possess the feet in the span. The number of inhabitants is sup- body of the Evangelist Mark; and in the treasury of posed to be about 150,000. The Piazza, or square of relics, they believe they have the original copy of the St. Mark, has not its equal in any place, for the magni. Gospel written by that inspired Evangelist's own hand; ficence of the buildings, which are most of them and, above all precious treasures, some of our Saviour's stately palaces, faced with beautiful inarble, and blood : - Learned coppoisseurs have examined the sacred adorned with pillars of several orders. The palace of manuscript : but the writing is, by length of time, go the Doge, the chief magistrate of Venice, is the most greatly defaced, that it cannot be determined whether splendid. Besides these magnificent buildings, there it is Greek or Latin ! are one hundred and fifteen towers of surprising height The architecture of the church of St. Mark is of and costly structure, sixty-four marble statues, and a mixed kind, mostly of the Gothic order, yet many of twenty-five of bronze, which are all master-pieces the pillars are Grecian. The outside is incrusted with VOL. II.


the "

marble; the inside ceiling and floor are all of the most removal as aforesaid, of the sum of Afty pounds as beautiful marble, as are the numerous pillars, and the damages adjusted. And also shall and will keep up such whole is crowned with fire domes. But all this ex- und the sume number of coppers, stills, pats, and other pense and labour has been directed by a very moderate utensils and implements of every denomination.share of taste. The steeple of the cathedral stands in. Another clause is thus: sulated from the church, built of brick, square, and And also shall and will at the expiration or other twenty-five feet broad on each side, and three hundred determination of the suid terin hereby demised, well and fifty feet high, including the figure of an angel, and truly pay or cause to be paid unto the landlords, their made of copper, eighteen feet in height, with expanded heirs and assigns, for such and so many of the slaves wings, pointing with his hand to the quarter whence mentioned in the schedule as shall happen to be then dead the wind blows.

or missing, 80 much lawful money as such deceased slave The front of the cathedral, which looks to the or slaves respectively are vaLUED AT in the said schedule, palace, has five braxen gates, with historical basso- without any deduction or abutement whatsoever. And relievos; over the principal gates are placed the four also that the tenant, his executors, administrators, and famous bronze horses, gilt with brass, and of incoin- assigns, shall not, nor will send off the island, or sell and parable workmanship, said to have been executed by dispose of any of the demised slaves, or the issue of any the famous Lysippus. They were given to Nero the of the females, under the penalty of forfeiting to the Roman emperor, by Tesides, king of Armenia, to landlords, their heirs and assigns, double the value of such be put to the chariot of the sun, for adorning his slave or slaves, 80 sold, disposed of, or sent off the island, triuinphal arch, after he had conquered the warlike according to their respective values mentioned in sai Parthians. The fiery spirit indicated by their counte- schedule, without leave in writing from the landlords.uances, and their animated attitudes, are perfectly An extract from the long and doleful inventory of agreeable to their original and fanciful destination. gang of slaves, stock, &c.” shall now be given. Nero placed them on the triumphal arch consecrated Englishmen, read it and blush! to him. They were removed by Constantine the Great to the Hippodrome at Constantinople, and remained

INVENTORY TO WHICH THE INDENTURE REFERS. there till the capture of that city by the French and


Value. Venetians, in the beginning of the thirteenth century,

£. $. d. when they were conveyed to Venice.

Isaac (Driver).

110 0 0 We have little to record of the progress of evangelical

Manuel, ditto

130 0 0 truth in this splendid old city, except the circulation

Quibus (old)...

25 00 B. Jacob (ruptured)

60 00 of a few Bibles, by the British consul, Mr. Money.


90 0 0 Still we trust, that the time is not far distant, in which Scipio (consumptive)

0 5 0 the pure doctrines of salvation by Jesus Christ, shall Cuffy (ulcered)

35 00 be proclaimed to attentive and believing congregatious


5 00 in the churches of Venice, instead of the mere per

0. Dick (invalid)

0 5 0 formance of senseless and superstitious ceremonies,

0. Pompey, ditto.

0 5 0

0. Sharper, ditto which degrade and abuse the sacred name of divine 0. Exchange, ditto

16 10 0 Christianity.

Negro Womex.

80 0 0 Betty



80 0 0 Matty

85 0 0 We have been favoured by a correspondent, with a

Yellow Nanny

75 00 Black Nanny..

66 0 statement from a legal document relating to a plan. Scibby...

45 tation in the West Indies, which puts Slavery, in all Silvy (invalid)

5 00 its debasing horrors, before us, in a striking way.


85 00 After describing the plantation in technical language,

85 0 0 the “legaltransfer thus conveys with the land

Satyra (invalid)

15 0 0 Lucy, ditto..

5 0 0 “The use and occupation of all and singular the slaves,

Myrtilla, ditto ...

25 00 horses, mules, horned cattle, and other live stock, with the 0. Jenny, ditio

2 0 0 issues and increuse of the females !! and of all copper 0. Lettuce, ditto

2 0 0 stills, vats, and other utensils and implements upon and

Boys. belouging to the said plantation and premises, and Billy

80 0 0 particularized or mentioned in the schedule or inven- Baptiste

66 0 0 tory thereof thereunder written. And all ways, water

Scipio Adam

42 0 Ned Allen

32 00 courses, privileges, commodities, and appurtenances

Dick Lewie

50 0 0 whatsoever to the said plantation, lands, and premises L. Jacob.....

66 00 belonging or appertaining.”

GIRLS. And after the usual forms conveying these

L. Celia

66 0 0 'brethren,” as so much goods and chattels, amongst Cympia

40 00 many other curious covenants by the tenant, is included

55 00 the following:


45 00 Memba.

55 “ That the lessee, his executors, administrators, and


40 0 assigns, shall and will from time to time during the L. Quasheba.

50 00 term granted keep up a gung of able and sufficient

Infant Boys! slares in the said plantation, of not less than eighty in


24 00 number; und when any of then shall die, run away, or Cudanda

24 0 0 otherwise be removed, shall and will place others in their L. Isaac

20 00

1. Joe. stead as often as it shall so happen that the said slaves

20 0 0 shall be reduced to less than eighty in number, under


20 Champagne

24 00 the penalty or forfeiture for every slave, which shall not


10 0 0 be so replaced within twelve months after such death or

0 5 0

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20 0

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Value. the children by the cords of love? Will they carefully,

£. s. d. watch over the development of that carnal mind which Ancilla

10 0 0

is "enmity against God," and apply the remedy held Fanay:

5 0 0 Hannah

10 0 0

forth in the Gospel to every evil in its rise? Will they Juggy

16 10 0 earnestly strive to remove ignorance by sound scripMaryanda

10 00 tural knowledge ? (not merely classical or philoso. Mary

10 0 phical.) Will they endeavour to mortify every evil and Frances Mina (distempered).

2 6 6

corrupi imagination and inclination, and encourage a Malleppo Mlinna...

10 00 Phillis

5 0

progress in all godliness and purity of living ? Ritta

6 120

"All knowledge and intellectual development,”

observes a most excellent ininister of the establishinent STOCK !

in a letter to me a few days since, “ that is not made One glandered horse, one glandered mare, one

subservient to this, only iends to pride and ungodliglandered filly,

66 0 0 Five draught bulls, at 551. each

ness."--Now, Sir, I would ask Pastor, where could a

275 00 One old cow

6 12 0

sufficient number of such persons be found among the Then follows a list of plantation and other fixtures and

learned and wise, who not only possess these important utensils.

qualifications, but who could descend to that childlike

simplicity, so necessary in a teacher of babes? If they Can such as this need a comment? Does not the

cannot, literally speaking, become as little children heart sicken at it? Poor Scipio! Consumptive Scipio ! themselves, and do not possess that tact of coming valued at five shillings ! Poor invalids ! How must down to a level with the understanding of their little your distempers have varied, when we see Cyrus worth charge; neither the “highest scholastic attainments or fire pounds, and Poor Dick and Pompey only five shillings profoundest philosophy,

» will ever assist them to aceach, whilst Erchange, with all the accuracy of the inart, quire it; on this account I am led to conclude, such is estimated with all his ills at sixteen pounds ten

persons would make as inefficient writers for infants shillings !

as they would teachers of them. Poor infant boys! Poor infant girls! Ye too come That there are persons not qualified in other rein for your inheritance of woe !

spects, who come forward as candidates for this work, Little Ritta we perceive is of the exact value, six l' allow; and that soine have also been employed :pounds twelve, which in the succeeding inventory is but is it just, is it consistent with the character of a affixed to one old cow "-whilst the glandered horse, Christian Minister (for such I am led to believe Pastor and equally ruined mare and filly, seem more in value to be from his signature) to condeion a whole body than many of the infant girls put together!

generally, for that which may be reasonably termed How long shall these things be? Will not the

the misfortune of a few? Again, his remark tends to Almighty God visit for them? What solemn words are

reflect on such patrons or committees of schools who those contained in Exodus, xxi, 16:

may have elected such individuals; as the teachers of “And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if other infant schools surely cannot be justly condemned HE BE FOUND IN HIS HAND, he shall surely be put for that over which they have no control. to death.”

2dly. Pastor then remarks, that with all the native conOne would think that the sound of these words

ceit of ignorance, the teachers of infant schools are generally would echo like thunder to the heart of every man- impatient of any suggestion from others.Here again stealer and slave-holder ?

W. I must be allowed to differ. From a personal knowledge

of, and frequent conversation with, the majority of such

teachers in and around London, I dare affirm, that, REPLY TO “PASTOR'S” OBSERVATIONS ON

generally, they are seeking forinformation, and would be INFANT SCHOOLS.

inost thankful for hints, or any kind of assistance that [The “Observations on the Infant School System” (No. 31),

might be afforded them: and I appeal to the comwere written by a very estimable Clergyman, to which we gavein.

mittees and visitors of these schools whether such be sertion in the hope of promoting those valuable institutions. We

not the case. did not fully agree with those Observations ;” but though we 3dly. Pastor again affirms, that “the systein does not cannot allow an extended controversy on this subject, we deem

provide for the learning to read of the children, &c.”it only just to insert the following intelligent reply.--Ed.] This was an oversight, or perhaps I should more pro-,

To the Editor of the Christian's Penny Magazine. perly say, an error in the opinion of the first promoSir,

ters of infant schools, who, I am informed, considered Having been a constant reader of your

it quite time to commence learning to read at the age valuable little work from its first appearance on the

of six or seven years : but in the present day, I believe stage of periodicals, with the view to obtain rather

there to be but few infant schools where this necessary than impart inforınation, I ought probably to apolo

appendage is not prominently attended to, and moregize for this intrusion,

over the “old system” forgotten or unknown. In making a few remarks on Pastor's “Observations 4thly. I am sorry, Sir, so frequently, and now so on the Infant School Systein”-it is my most earnest

pointedly, to question the veracity of Pastor; but I, as desire to avoid that feeling of acriinony which appears

well as himself, must state things as they are." I have to have possessed him whilst penning' his “Observa

visited almost every infant school in London, and am in tions."

the habit frequently of conversing with, and questioning Ist. I certainly agree with Pastor, that the suc- the little children ou the lessons which they have been cess attending these institutions inust depend in a

taught, and do not remember, in one instance, disgreat measure on the teachers ; and that the greatest covering the lamentable defect specified in his remarks care and circumspection should be used in selecting

on the tables. I for one dare thus publicly challenge them ; but not to reject thein, as Pastor would suggest,

Pastor to a mutual questioning on the part of my little inerely because they have not received a superior edu- ones, on any or all of the tables coininonly taught, cation. In my huinble opinion, the grand and chief

Surely the many public examinations which have points to ascertain are--whether they have the humble,

taken place, where individuals, strangers, have quesinild, meek, and lowly spirit of Jesus. Will they draw

tioned the children, must prove to the contrary, not only on this, but on every part of weir little acquire.

CHEAP COTTONS ! micuits. 5thly. The circumstance of the teacher miscalling

Mr. Editor,-) rejoice to find you raising your voice Naaman Naomi, appears to me to indicate that Pastor

against the great abomination of modern times - the

accursed systein of Negro Slavery; and shall be glad has not profited much by his visits to “several infant schools, for several years," or he must have perceived

to see in your excellent publication a complete exthese seeining mistakes to be intentional, in order to

posure of its enormities. It is a duty imposed upon keep up the attention of the children, who delight to

every one who has a share in leading the public inind jog Teacher's memory--and, in all probability, had he

at the present important period, to take arms against awaited the result he might have been rather gratified

the monster that has so long devoured the unhappy than otherwise.

sons of Africa.

But as an Englishman, Mr. Editor, I feel impelled In conclusion, Sir, after having several times read over these “ Observations,” and maturely considered

to call your immediate attention to our own country. them, my firm belief is,--that whatever the outward

Turn your eyes to the North of England, and say in profession of Pastor may be, he is not in heart a

what other part of the world the cruelties there perFRIEND to infant schools.

petrated are to be paralleled. Read the Evidence taken before the Parliamentary Committee.

Children too Your insertion of these remarks will be esteemned a favour by, Sir, yours respectfully,

young to work at all, driven to labour day and night, R. B. RIDGWAY.

by the terror of straps and sticks, which are unHart Street, Jan. 16, 1833.

sparingly used upon their tender bodies to force their attention when over-wearied nature demands the re

freshment of sleep! Fathers exercising these cruelties “I CANNOT DIE!”

upon their own children! The most debasing and dis“In August last," says a pious writer in the early part

gusting exhibitions of vice and iminorality; joined of 1811,"" four men, named Marshall, Sawer, Wakelin,

with a degree of poverty and wretchedness that barely and Atkinson, were executed near Lincoln. They

enables the victims of this atrocious factory system to sererally addressed the surrounding multitude, hoping

drag on a miserable existence that hardly deserves the that their unhappy situation would serve as an awful

navie of life! And as the necessary consequence of warning. Wakelin had been a great comfort to his

all this, a total absence of any thing like religion or fellow-prisoners; and in the hours when the clergyman

morality! was not with them, read to them continually. Atkinson

Can it be that all this is occurring in Christian Brihad given one of the best proofs of repentance of his

tain? Is this the reason we can buy" cheap cottons.crime, by having given to the governor of the gaol,

Oh! the moustrous evils that are generated by the bills to the amount of 351. to be sent to Messrs. G. and

cursed love of money! And in the face of all this C. of Boston, whose property he declared it to be,

horrid cruelty and depravity, the men at the head of lamenting that that was all the return he could then

these earthly hells have the disgusting hypocrisy to call make to them. Just before the moment of the scaffold

themselves Christians ! Reasoning with them, Mr. Edifalling, Atkinson turned to shake hands with Wakelin,

tor, would be in vain ; but I hope you will not fail to and in so doing shifted the knot of the halter from his

arouse the feelings of your Readers on this harrowing car to under his chin. Marshal, Sawer, and Wakelin,

subject; and let them know, that buyers of cheap

cottons seemed to be dead in two minutes after suspension ;

are in a measure partakers in this enormous but at that time, to the inconceivable horror of all

guilt, if they forbear to use their utınost efforts for the around, Atkinson cried out, () God! 0 God! I can

overthrow of such an abomination as the present not die, I cannot die! Lift me up!'. The emotion ex

factory system. cited by such a scene can be but faintly imagined. A

I hope you will treat the subject fully and fearlessly soldier had the presence of mind to run to him, lifted

at the very earliest opportunity; and in the mean time him up a little, and then, by hanging at the body,

allow me to apprise your Readers, that for their “cheap mercifully put a speedy end to the misery of the poor

cottonsthey not only pay the little money that is creature by accelerating the death which the sufferer

charged for them; but, by consulting the “ Evidence” had sought, but had so feelingly expressed that he

alluded to, they will find that they ought to reckon the could not obtain.” — Multitudes of lost souls will

following itens as fornuing part of the price :— to wit, eternally cry, in guilt and torment, “I cannot die!”

I. The most hard-hearted cruelty. 11. The most disgusting indecency.

III. A total depravity of manners. “IT IS FINISHED."

IV. A consequent absence of even the semblance of * Jesus said, It is finished.” – John xix, 30.

religion. Tis finished" - our Redeemer cried ;

V. The premature destruction of the body.
And bow'd his blessed head ;

VI. The everlasting perdition of the immortal soul !
Tis finished-heaven and hell replied ;

These, Readers of the Christian's Penny Magazine! And earth has claim'd its dead.

these are part of the price you pay for cheap cottons ; Tis finished" ---the dark tomb has vcild

and now wrap yourselves round, and rejoice in their The Saviour's form froin view :

cheapness - if you can ! Again, “'tis finished,” He is hail'd

I am a father, Mr. Editor, and this I hope will be A Conqueror, bursting through.

my sufficient excuse for the warmth of this Letter. I Now, Lord of glory! sec him rise,

trust you will take up the subject with energy. Suffer To claim an endless reign,

not yourself to be blinded by the interested cant of the Bless him all ril, and shout, ye ukies,

danger of interfering with the freedom of trade; which The Lamb for sinners slain !

in this case means just the freedom to oppress those

who are unable to resist :- trade had better perish He died, creation's cruwn to raise,

altogether than be carried on as it is at present in the Then boundless be his sway!

inanufacture of cotton. Do your duty fearlessly; and And wide as nature he the praise

way the Lord add his cffectual blessing to your la. Which hearen and earth shall pay,

S. F. W. bours.

the music to be studied is of great importance. HapLetters to a Mother, upon Eduoation.

pily there is no scarcity of that species of it which is LETTER XIV.

required. In the works of Handel, Mozart, Haydn,

and the writers of church music in our own country On Amusements.

and on the continent generally, the best materials may Dear Madam,

be found for the culiivation of this science. Nor do The woril amusements signifies those many later productions offer any thing oljectionable. pursuits to which we turn from laborious avocations. The“ Sacred Melodies," so well known, both in words Such pursuits seem required by the very nature of and music, are unobjectionable. The songs by the same man, whose universal and therefore native tendency is, author, or indeed any other songs which inerely exhibit to seek relief froin severe exertion, whether, of body or the emotions of war, or the complaiuts of love, or the of mind, by applying to other employments which he moanings of the sorrow of this world, are not to be can perform with ease, and which relieve the fatigue chosen. We have all of us a sufficient tendency to beof steadfast attention.

come earthly-minded, even when the attractions of the This appears to be the proper idea of amusements, world are presented in their own unassisted fascinations. and this their proper use. "When, on the other hand, Most of the songs of the present day tend to cultivate a the pursuits coming under this denomination occupy sickly sentimentality, equally inimical to a vigorous more of a person's attention than they ought, or the state of the understanding, or rectitude and genuine whole of the attention, then we may justly say of him, sensibility of heart. Agreeably with these sentiments, that he spends his time in dissipation. li is however there seems to be no objection to attending those public evident, that the amusements of different individuals musical entertainments which have none of the objecmay be widely different. I have read of a celebrated tionable qualities now named. A valuable impression natural philosopher, whose amusement consisted simply may be derived from the full tide of music to be heard in varying the object of his pursuit. Thus, if he had in public performances, which can be heard nowhere been reading pure mathematics all the morning, he else. How happy is that family, however, which infound it a sufficient amusement to enter his laboratory, cludes within itself the requisites for a concert! I and make experiments in natural philosophy. This have heard a mother and her children sing in a manhowever is the case of one inan in many inillions. The ner which reminded me of that line iu Burns' “ Cot. generality of inankind feel an irresistible need of amuse- ter's Saturday Night," inents of a different kind. The question then is, of

Compar'd with this, Italian trills are tame." what sort they ought to be for persons in general. Nor

With regard to the theatre, as conducted in its prewill the question seem of secondary importance, when

sent state, no Christian parent will hesitate for a moyou consider that our amusements, like all our other

ment as to the propriety of permitting his children to pursuits, have a reflex action upon our mental and

attend even for a single occasion. The fascination of moral character. In order to improve the taste, or to theatrical amusements cannot be denied, nor that they maintain and confirm it when good, it is often needful

frequently afford the highest exhibition of the powers to regulate the amusements. At the same time, the

of the human mind : at the same time, these attractaste when good requires to be directed in its choice. In the preceding Letters I have several tiines expressed

tions are attended by the most dangerous circum

stances. The audience of inost large theatres contains my sentiinents relating to this topic. They are un

an admixture of evidently abandoned characters: what favourable to toys, properly so called, of all kinds ; but

parent could feel happy at the idea that his son or his they advocate those recreations which are connected with health and inental improvement. Bodily exercise,

daughter should be taken to a place where these are

beheld surrounded with every glittering and fallacious associated with the contemplation of scenes of nature,

quality? The plays themselves are generally replete or even of public buildings, &c. &c., gardening, robust

with the most worldly, and not unfrequently with imgaines, drawing from nature, the care of birds and ani

moral sentiinents. What play is there, as it came from inals, and similar pursuits, tend to afford the recreation


pen of the author, and as it is frequently acted on which is required, while they assist the cultivation of

the stage, that a Christian brother could read to his health, of the understanding, and the affections. To these incidental remarks I shall now attempt to add a

sisters, or a Christian parent to her child ? How often

would the reader be required to pass over whole scenes, more systematic consideration of the subject.

and to leave out many profane and blasphemous exIn the first place then, let music, by all means, be

pressions, even in those scenes which he could venture carly cultivated, with a view to its becoming a source

to read? But I feel that to you as a Christian parent of amusement afterwards. Let music be cultivated

these remarks are unnecessary. The theatre is one of rery early; and then, like most things learnt at the

those amusements which the feelings and sympathies of beginning of life, the fatigue which disheartens the late

the Christian's mind lead him sincerely and voluntarily learner will be unfelt, and a proficiency secured which

to renounce; and if a person's mind be destitute of such he can seldom attain.

feelings, then the theatre is one of those subjects upon The instrument selected must depend inuch upon the

which, with him, all argumentation is cominonly taste of the learner. The more portable and the least

thrown away. In the words of a celebrated writer, expensive are the best, because then the recreation to

" If any persou were to ask the question as to the lawbe derived from it is inore independent of circumstances.

fulness of the theatre as an amusement, I would waive And next to these qualities, those instruments should

any reply, being convinced, that if he in his own mind be preferred which do not require the breath, in order

felt inclined to go thither, nothing that I could say that singing, which is of equal importance, may be

would prevent him. I would rather strive to fill his associated with the performance by the performer him

mind with better feelings and principles, and then he self. You will not need that any argument should be

would relinquish the theatre of his own accord.” used to recommend the cultivation of music and sing

I remain, dear Madam, &c. ing. It formed, with good reason, a principal branch

Clericus. of education among the ancients. They justly deemed that it was intimately counected with the sensibility of heart which is so valuable to the usefulness and even “It is not a new head that God has promised, but a happiness of its possessor. The choice, however, of new heart,"

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