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PENNY MAGAZINE.

NO 64.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

AUGUST 24, 1833.

PRINTED ASD PUBLISHED BY C. WOOD AND SON, POPPIN'S COUR:, FLELT STREET, LUND.IX.

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ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS TO THE EAST. Our engraving necessarily requires that we give some historical notices of Roman Catholic Missions to the East.

Christianity, it is well known, is pre-eminently inissionary and proselyting in its spirit. But its genius is divinely benevolent, breathing intinite love to inankind. Its Divine Founder gave his last command to his chosen disciples, “Go into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature." Ecclesiastical history shows, that, in ever; age of the world, as genuine Christianity has been possessed, the servants of Christ have endeavoured to disseminate their principles, and to diffuse the

VOL. II.

blessings of salvation among all nations by the Holy Scriptures.

Popery also is peculiarly missionary in its spirit: but, conccaling the word of God, and not allowing its heavenly light to shine among the nations, its early efforts to proselyte the heathen, have left so ne of the deepest stains upon the Christian name. Dr. Moshein remarks, “The Spaniards and Portuguese, if we may give credit to their historians, exerted themselves with the greatest vigour and success in the propagation of the gospel among the darkened nations. And it inust indeed be confessed, that they communicated some notions, such as they were, of the Christian religion to the inhabitants of Ainerica, to those parts of Africa

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man

im, it being discovered he had through you, as it is written.” Should this fall into people of Japan to the Christian the hands of any who have brought scundal upon the linary punishment was inflicted Saviour's cause by immorality of life, let thein read ·lels immured himn with his hands Ezek. xxxvi, 20--23, and humble themselves at the

built so close that he could not throne of grace, in seeking reconciliation with God.
him no other food than a little
vening. This torment sovn put
died about the beginning of the THE BEAUTIES OF CHRISTIANITY.
more than a century, Japan con-

(Continued from p. 260.)
state of heathen darkness : but we
it far distant, in which the word of

of Redemption.
translated into the language of As the Trinity comprehends secrets of the metaphysical
de circulated through the land, to kind, so Redemption contains the wonderful history of

pulation with the true knowledge man's heart and destinatiòn. The one overwhelais our s Christ.

senses with its glory; but the affecting mystery of the

other, while it fills our eyes with tears, prevents them VPT for Roman CATHOLIC IMAGES.

from being too much dazzled, and allows us to fix exhibited in the Holy Scriptures,

them for a moment on the cross. We behold, in the · the reason of every intelligent man. first place, the doctrine of original sin, which explains ke the spirituality of its doctrines, the whole nature of man. Without this, how shall we ips without an examination of its true account for the vicious propensity of our nature ? -*ver they may refuse to humble them- Without a priınitive fall, how shall we explain that e throne of the heavenly grace, to sweat which fertilizes the rugged soil, the sorrows and isdom and those blessings which it misfortunes of the righteous, the triumphs, the un.

even of the most acute and learned, punished success of the wicked ? To be convinced of able to discover that there is any thing the fatal truth, whence springs the mystery of redemp

irrational, or unworthy of God. Mula tion, need we any other proof than the malediction uss, having been induced to consider it pronounced on Eve, a malediction of daily accomplishume, have been converted from their ment? But a God of clemency, knowing that we eans of a candid examination of its should all have perished in consequence of this fall, recepts, and have been constrained to has interposed to save us. Let us, who are all frail and he expression of infinite benevolence, guilty, ask not our understandings but our hearts, how has abounded towards us in all wisdom a God can die. A universal tradition teaches us, that

was created in a more perfect state than the ll its essential peculiarities, is not Chris- present; if man was created, he was created for some refore offensive to the reason of inan : eud or other; and being created perfect, the end for mevailing infidelity in Roman Catholic which he was destined could not be otherwise than 'rayers in a tongue unknown to the people perfect. But the final cause of man has not been

ntiation of the bread and wine in the changed by his fall, since he has not been created 'p--and image-worship, - are an insult to anew; he is therefore, though mortal and imperfect relates of reason, and equally repugnant to through sin, still destined for immortal and perfect of God. Hence the generally prevailing

ends. But how are these ends to be attained in this : the population in countries professing that state of imperfection? Thus we perceive the necessity tigion, and its rejection in proportion as of succour, or redemption. But in order to adjust a become enlightened by scriptural know- redemption, the ransom must be at least equivalent to

the object to be redeemed; and how could man make it for the corruptions of Christianity, was a satisfaction, as well for his own guilt as for the rest rever more strikingly exhibited, than it is of the human race? Heaven seems purposely to have

in Japan, by their annual ceremony of allowed four thousand years to elapsc, to allow men to G ON THE IMAGES OF THE VIRGIN MARY judge how very inadequate were their degraded virtues # CHILD, AND THE CRUCIFIX. This horrid for such a sacrifice. It is clear, then, that Redemp

takes place at the beginning of the year, in tion could only have proceeded from a being superior oration of the expulsion of the Jesuits. The to man. Let us examine if it could have been acre of copper, about a foot in height. Observ. complished by any intermediate being between us and custoin is intended to iinpress every individual

God. red of the Christian religion and naine, and to "Say, heavenly powers, where shall we find such love ? whether there is any remnant of it left in the Which of ye will be mortal to redeem

It is performed in the places where the Man's mortal crime? and just, the unjust to save ? 18 chiefly resided. ln Nagasaki it continues

Dwells in all heaven charity so dear?” "s; the images are conveyed to the circumjacent It was a beautiful idea of Milton, to represent the and afterwards laid aside till the next anniver- Almighty announcing the fall to the astonished heavens, They are so scrupulously inquisitive, that every and asking if any of the celestial powers was willing to

except the governor and his attendants, even devote himself for the salvation of mankind. All the ungest child, is expected to be present. Some divine hierarchy was mute! What indeed should have said that the Dutch factors are obliged to trample inspired the angels with that unbounded love to man

cross, but this is not true. Still, how serious is which the mystery of the cross pre-supposes ? Nor itumbling-block in the way of the extension of could any angelic being, from the weakness of its divine Christianity!

nature, have taken on itself those sufferings, which, in moral and corrupt professors of the gospel incur the language of Massillon, accumulated upon the head wful accumulation of guilt, in giving such false of Christ, all the physical torments that might be shameful examples to the heathen. To such it is supposed to attend the punishment of all the sins com: the apostle addresses himself, Rom. ii, 24, “For mitted since the beginning of time, and all the inoral, name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles anguish and remorse which the saine sins must have

some

where they carried their arms, and to the islands and reputation than Francis Xavier, who is commonly maritime provinces of Asia, which they reduced under called “The Apostle of the Indies," and by Pope Betheir dominion. It is also true, that considerable nedict XIV, “The Protector of the Indies.” numbers of these savage people, who had hitherto St. Francis Xavier was a native of Nararre, in Spain, lived, either under the bondage of the most extravagant born in 1497: he was educated at Paris, and became superstitions, or in a total ignorance of any object of an eminent professor in that university, where he religious worship, embraced, at least in outward appear- formed an intimacy with Ignatius Loyola, the founder ance, the doctrines of the gospel. But when we con- of the Jesuits. Inflamed with similar zeal, he bound sider the methods of conversion that were employed by himself to attempt the conversion of the heathen. “An the Spanish missionaries among these wretched nations, undaunted resolution,” says Mosheim, “and no small the barbarous laws and inhuman tortures that were degree of genius and sagacity, rendered this famous used to force them into the profession of Christianity; missionary one of the properest persons that could be when it is considered, farther, that the denomination of employed in such an arduous task. Accordingly, in Christians was conferred upon such of these poor the year 1522, he set sail for the Portuguese settlement wretchez as discovered a blind and excessive veneration in India, and, in a short space of time, spread the for their stupid instructors, and were able, by certain knowledge of the Christian, or, to speak more progestures, and the repetition of a little jargon, to per- perly, of the popish religion, over a great part of the forn a few superstitious rites and cereinonies; then, coutinent, and in several of the islands of that remote instead of rejoicing at, we shall be tempted to lament, region." such a propagation of the gospel, and to behold the Xavier was honoured, on entering on his missionary labours of such miserable apostles with indignation and work, with the dignity of Apostolical Nuncio in the contempt. Such is the judgment passed upon these East, and during the voyage, and also in the Indies, he missionaries, not only by those whom the church of was called "holy father.” It is said to have “cost him Rome places in the list of heretics, but also by many no less pains to reclaim the Portuguese, debauched of the inost pious and eminent of her own doctors, in with the riches of Asia, than tu convert infidels." He France, Germany, Spain, and Italy.

converted the king of the island of Ceylon; and thence, “When the Roman pontiffs saw their ambition after several times traversing the Indian islands, and checked by the progress of the Reformation, which de

parts of the continent, he proceeded to prived them of a great part of their spiritual doininion in Japan, where he succeeded in an extraordinary manEurope, they turned their lordly views towards the other ner, assisted by other Jesuits and friars from Goa, parts of the globe, and became more solicitous than ever Macao, and the Manillas. At first, the undertaking about the propagation of the gospel among the nations advanced with the most rapid success. Many houses, that lay yet involved in the darkness of paganism. especially seventy-three of splendid appearance, with This they considered as the best method of making several churches and seminaries, were possessed by the amends for the loss they had sustained in Europe, and Jesuits, besides what were in the possession of the the most specious pretext for assuming to themselves, Augustins and Dominicans. Their converts are said to with some appearance of justice, the title of heads or have amounted to 600,000 persons; and they were in parents of the universal church. The famous society, such favour at court, that an embassy, with rich which, in the year 1540, tock the denomination of presents, was sent to Pope Gregory XIII. The conJesuits, or the Company of Jesus, seemed every way duct of the missionaries, however, convinced the governproper to assist the court of Rome in the execution of ment that they had other views beyond the conversion this extensive design. And accordingly, from their of the people to God; and as they began to preach first rise, this peculiar charge was given them, that boldly the supremacy of the pope, it was believed they their missionaries should be at the absolute disposal were conspiring against the state. A persecution comof the Roman pontiff, and always ready, at a moment's inenced against them; and an affront which was offered warning, to repair to whatever part of the world he to a Japanese prince by a Portuguese prelate, produced should fix for the exercise of their ministry. The an order, that all Christians who did not leave the many histories and relations which mention the empire immediately should be put to death. From labours, perils, and exploits of that prodigious multi- 1596 to 1640, persecution ragel dreadfully; as the tude of Jesuits, who were employed in the conversion Jesuit fathers did interfere in the business of the state. of the African, American, and Indian infidels, abun- Their hardships and sufferings were great; many of dantly show, with what fidelity and zeal the members their members were inartyred. A general massacre of this society executed the orders of the Roman took place, when, it is said, that besides multitudes of pontiffs. And their labours would undoubtedly have private persons, no less than 40,000 Roman Catholic crowned them with immortal glory, had it not ap- soldiers were sacrificed to the fury of the pagan Japeared evident, from the most authentic records, that panese. In 1640, the Portuguese were expelled the the greatest part of these new apostles had more in country, and no man was suffered to be a Christian. view the promoting of the ainbitious views of Rome, Millar, in the second volume of his “ History of the and the advancing of the interests of their own society, Propagation of Christianity,” remarks, “The persecuthan the propagation of the Christian religion, or the tion of missionaries coutinues to this day in Japan; for honour of its Divine Author. It may also be affirmed, I find in the public news from Madrid, Jan. 30, 1720, from records of the bighest credit and authority, that the following paragraph: “We have received letters the Inquisition erected by the Jesuits at Goa, and the from Madraspatam in the East Indies, of the 25th of penal laws, whose terrors they employed, contributed December, 1718, that adrice was come to that place, inuch inore than their arguments and exhortations to that the Abbot, Baptist Lidotti, a Sicilian, died in the engage the Indians to embrace Christianity. The con- country of Japan, in the torinents he suffered for the verting zeal of the Franciscans and Dominicans, which Christian faith. His zeal for the conversion of infidels had for a long tipe been not only cooled, but almost induced him to go into that country, notwithstanding totally extinguished, was aniinated anew by the ex- the severe laws of that government, whereby all Euro. ample of the Jesuits.”

peans in general, and most particularly missionaries, But of all the Jesuits who distinguished themselves are forbid coming there. He was no sooner arrived, by their zealous and laborious atteinpts to extend the but he was taken up, and condemned to die; he was liinits of the churcb, none acquired a more shining sent to the governor of the province, and after soine small liberty allowed him, it being discovered he had through you, as it is written.” Should this fall into converted some of the people of Japan to the Christian the hands of any who have brought scandal upon the faith, a very extraordinary punishment was inflicted Saviour's cause by immorality of life, let thein read upon him ; for the infidels immured him with his hands Ezek. xxxvi, 20-23, and humble themselves at the tied between two walls, built so close that he could not throne of grace, in seeking reconciliation with God. stir himself, allowing him no other food than a little rice and water every evening. This torment soun put an end to his life: he died about the beginning of the

THE BEAUTIES OF CHRISTIANITY. year 1714." After the lapse of more than a century, Japan con

(Continued from p. 260.) tinues in the same state of heathen darkness : but we trust the time is not far distant, in which the word of

Of Redemption. God, which is being translated into the language of As the Trinity comprehends secrets of the metaplıysical that country, will be circulated through the land, to kind, so Redemption contains the wonderful history of bless its teening population with the true knowledge man's heart and destination. The one overwhelms our of salvation by Jesus Christ.

senses with its glory; but the affecting mystery of the JAPANESE Contempt for ROMAN CATHOLIC IMAGES.

other, while it &ills our eyes with tears, prevents them

from being too much dazzled, and allows us to fix Christianity, as exhibited in the Holy Scriptures, them for a moment on the cross. We behold, in the commends itself to the reason of every intelligent man. first place, the doctrine of original sin, which explains Infidels may dislike the spirituality of its doctrines, the whole nature of man. Without this, how shall we and reject its claims without an examination of its true account for the vicious propensity of our nature ? nature: but however they may refuse to humble them- Without a priinitive fall, how shall we explain that selves before the throne of the heavenly grace, to sweat which fertilizes the rugged soil, the sorrows and implore that wisdom and those blessings which it misfortunes of the righteous, the triumphs, the un. promises, none, even of the most acute and learned, punished success of the wicked ? To be convinced of have ever been able to discover that there is any thing the fatal truth, whence springs the mystery of redempin its institutions irrational, or unworthy of God. Mul- tion, need we any other proof than the malediction titudes of that class, having been induced to consider it pronounced on Eve, a malediction of daily accomplishin the sacred volume, have been converted from their ment? But a God of clemency, knowing that we infidelity, by means of a candid examination of its should all have perished in consequence of this fall, doctrines and precepts, and have been constrained to has interposed to save us. Let us, who are all frail and pronounce it the expression of infinite benevolence, guilty, ask not our understandings but our hearts, how in which “God has abounded towards us in all wisdom a God can die. A universal tradition teaches us, that and prudence."

inan was created in a more perfect state than the Popery, in all its essential peculiarities, is not Chris- present; if man was created, he was created for some tian, and therefore offensive to the reason of man: end or other; and being created perfect, the end for hence the prevailing infidelity in Roman Catholic which he was destined could not be otherwise than countries. Prayers in a tongue unknown to the people perfect. But the final cause of man has not been - Transubstantiation of the bread and wine in the changed by his fall, since he has not been created Lord's Supper--and image-worship, -are an insult to anew; he is therefore, though mortal and iinperfect the sound dictates of reason, and equally repugnant to through_sin, still destined for immortal and perfect the oracles of God. Hence the generally prevailing

ends. But how are these ends to be attained in this ignorance of the population in countries professing that state of imperfection? Thus we perceive the necessity form of religion, aud its rejection in proportion as of succour, or redemption. But in order to adjust á the people become enlightened by scriptural know- redemption, the ransom must be at least equivalent to ledge.

the object to be redeemed; and how could man make Contempt for the corruptions of Christianity, was a satisfaction, as well for his own guilt as for the rest probably never more strikingly exhibited, than it is of the human race? Heaven seems purposely to have still done in Japan, by their annual ceremony of allowed four thousand years to elapse, to allow men to TRAMPLING ON THE IMAGES OF THE VIRGIN MARY judge how very inadequate were their degraded virtues WITH HER CHILD, AND THE CRUCIFIX. This horrid for such a sacrifice. It is clear, then, that Redempceremony takes place at the beginning of the year, in tion could only have proceeded from a being superior commemoration of the expulsion of the Jesuits. The to man. Let us examine if it could have been acimages are of copper, about a foot in height. Observ. complished by any intermediate being between us and ing this custom is iutended to inpress every individual

God. with hatred of the Christian religion and naine, and to “Say, heavenly powers, where shall we find such love? discover whether there is any remnant of it left in the Which of ye will be mortal to redeem country. It is performed in the places where the Man's mortal crime? and just, the unjust to save ? Christians chiefly resided. In Nagasaki it continues

Dwells in all heaven charity so dear?' four days; the images are conveyed to the circumjacent It was a beautiful idea of Milton, to represent the places, and afterwards laid aside till the next anniver. Almighty announcing the fall to the astonished heavens, sary. They are so scrupulously inquisitive, that every and asking if any of the celestial powers was willing to person, except the governor and his attendants, even devote himself for the salvation of inankind. All the the youngest child, is expected to be present. Some divine hierarchy was mute! What indeed should have have said that the Dutch factors are obliged to trample inspired the angels with that unbounded love to inan on the cross, but this is not true. Still, how serious is which the mystery of the cross pre-supposes ? Nor this stumbling-block in the way of the extension of could any angelic being, from the weakness of its pure, divine Christianity!

nature, have taken on itself those sufferings, which, in Immoral and corrupt professors of the gospel incur the language of Massillon, accumulated upon the head an awful accumulation of guilt, in giving such false of Christ," all the physical torments that might be and shameful examples to the heathen. To such it is supposed to attend the punishment of all the sins comthat the apostle addresses himself, Rom. ii, 24, “For initted since the beginning of time, and all the inoral, the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles anguish and remorse which the saine sins must have

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