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Letters to a Mother, upon Education.

himself, most insensible to his superior qualifications.

Hence he will consider himself injured by mankind, LETTER XXXIV.

and will learn to avoid, if not to hate them. Should he, On the question of Public or Private Education.

which is very likely to be the case, meet with many

persons equal or superior to himself, this discovery will Dear Madam,

but add to his chagrin. Vanity, the most selfish of all The opinion which I shall endeavour to passions, abhors that its own excellencies should be recoininend in this Letter is, that, in many important shared by another. The vain man will indeed often be respects, the parent should prefer that his son should kind, but it will be to his inferiors in some decided be sent to school, rather than to supply him even with respect; to his equals he will be distant: yet the great the highest advantages of private tuition under his own concerns of human life, the discharge eren of the moral roof.

duties, calls upou us to mingle much with our equals. In the first place, the system of private education is Virtue, too, is chiefly to be estimated by our conduct to exceedingly apt to foster and to establish many habits such as are upon the same level of human life with of mind and body, which would be detrimental to the ourselves. welfare of your son. Upon this supposition, your son, Finding, however, the society of equals, from these and one or two of his brothers perhaps, and the tutor, and other causes, less pleasing, he will be in danger of would form the school. Their acquaintance with boys delighting in low company, the invariable tendency of of their own age would be exceedingly limited, it being the vain mind; or he will be disposed to be servile tothe very principle of a private education, that the sub- wards his superiors, 110 person being capable of greater jects of it should be kept by it from mingling with other apparent humility than those whose predominant pasboys, and thus preserved from the contagion of bad sion is vanity. It should also be remembered, that example. Accordingly, your children will only or owing to the very circumstances selected by the vain principally be each other's companions. But we all man, this ill habit of mind can scarcely ever be corknow, that whatever may be the degree of affection rected. Collision with society, the reciprocal conduct and good arrangement in a family, boys will seldom of man with man, is the cure, but this he shuns. The engage with their own brothers from year to year in disease therefore takes possession of the heart, and at those sports and exercises, which in former Letters I no distant period perhaps degenerates into a selfishness, have frequently recominended. Besides, it is almost whose least repulsive characteristic is misanthropy, an unavoidable evil in private education, that the elder pouring forth its querulous accusations upon the basechildren successively rule over each other, and the ness, meanness, inconstancy, and wickedness of maneldest son over the whole. Hence a habit of dominion kind. The other only alternative is the pursuit of amvery injurious to the governor and the governed is, I bition, to which vanity not unusually is directed. Under believe, universally in such cases established. Should either result you will be aware of the vast mischief your son alone be privately educated, the attendant produced by this passion to your offspring, and to all evils are still more numerous and formidable. No boy those of his fellow-creatures standing to him in any will ever alone engage in the rohust exercises needful to relation of human life. Yet I believe that this habit, him for the development of his constitution and the like most others, is implanted in childhood, and is deestablishment of his health. It is true that the tutor rived froin the early circuinstances of education : it may walk out every day with him, but there will be may be traced to the nursery. The matured and contemplative mind of the tutor can of it peculiarly liable to this desolating passion. I bescarcely, however he may endeavour, respond to all lieve that the morbid sensibility (another word for the the gaiety and exhilaration natural to a healthy child. consuming infinence of vanity) which was the bane of

The evils produced upon the mind next deserve the late Lord Byron, is to be attributed to this cause. attention. One of those which I believe to be nearly This result is however precluded, if a boy be sent at a inseparable from the system is, that your child under proper age to a good school, composed of not less than such circumstances would have no one with whoin to fifty boys, of different ages, and intended for different compare himself in the several stages of the process of pursuits in future life. There your son will find himeducation. Hence, when his tutor is satisfied (for Iself surrounded by many who are his equals, and prohold that no positive expression of praise ought ever to bably by many who are his superiors, in abilities and be heard in the course of education), your son would acquirements. He will find, that if he has any wish to of course be led to think that he had attained so much shine, he can derive no gratification to his desire from as even to satisfy his tutor. Hence his vanity will be the plaudits of friends and relatives. He must gain excited. In nothing, perhaps, is the system of private each succeeding elevation as the result of industry, education so hurtful. always inakes the subject of it merit, and good behaviour. Should he then be ambivain; that is, thinking more highly of himself than he tious, by nature or by the influence of early circumought to think. The cause is, he has no one with whom stances, he will find that the indulgence of his wish to compare himself: he knows of no one cleverer than occasions him to become diligeut and accomplished. himself, and he can only judge of what he does know. Though not the most desirable principle, perhaps, yet, All these feelings will be fostered by the praises and under these circumstances, as far as acquirements are commendations, or indirect tokens of coinplacency, concerned, it is productive of the most desirable which if you and his tutor properly abstain from giving, results. you cannot prevent him from receiving from other per- On the other hand, should he, notwithstanding all

Add to which, that his inind, by the continual your watchfulness, have acquired habits of vanity, contemplation of itself, acquires the tendency of be- during those years when his education was conducted coming self-enamoured. All this, however, serves but under your own inspection, he will infallibly be cured to foment his vanity; and vanity is the bane of all per- of them if sent to school, provided that this remedy is sons who live and study much alone, and especially of applied early enough. His schoolfellows, from the very those who are privately educated. At the same time no first hour, will perceive it: they will read it in his liabit is so difficult to be eradicated in after-life. When solemn countenance, his reserve, his distance, his dis. your son coines to mingle with the world (and he must dain to mingle in their pursuits. And no sooner will mingle with it), he will find mankind, apparently to they see these things, than they will begin the process.

little congeniality in their minds while thus engaged. The system of private education renders the subject

sons.

courages it.”

Vanity is a weakness, and weukness invites insult. I dishevelled, when praying by divine inspiration (which sympathize with his feelings, writhing and indignant seems to have been the only case in which they could and helpless under the lash; but I sympathize with him regularly pray in public); this made them resemble those as I should with the pangs of a patient under an opera- pagan prieslesses, who prelended to be actuated by their tion which will save his life. After a few days or gods; the apostle therefore with great propriety dismonths of suffering, during which he will plainly be told the cause, and read it in their conduct, he will The principal difficulty in the passage arises from the reflect and examine himself: he will compare his own words "power on her head," and "angels." condition with that of other boys: he will see them, Without troubling our readers with the different, connotwithstanding their acknowledged ability and acquisi- tradictory, and, many of them, absurd expositions, which tions, contented and happy. He will discover that the have been given of this text by learned commentators, reason is, that they really do what he would wish others supposing “ angels" in this place necessarily to mean to think him capable of doing : they really are what he superior spirits, some interpreting it of the grood, and would fain rest contented (for no passion is so indolent others of the evil angels, we proceed to give that which as vanity) with their thinking him to be. He learns his appears to us the only rational and consistent, and, we mistake, applies himself diligently to his studies, and believe, its true signification. Puroer on her head," either gains the eminence he wishes upon proper and here manifestly refers to that subject, concerning which solid grouud, or, finding his inability, gives up the vain the apostle is discoursing in this long paragraph, from and troublesome profession of it without the reality. ver. I to 16 - the propriety and decency of women ap

Should, ho ever, he be sent to school or to college pearing in the assemblies for public worship, or eren too late - should he he eighteen or nineteen years old praying and prophesying by inspiration, having a reil or before he mingles with the world - he will endure in- covering," ver. 5, 13, 15. Hence the marginal note to deed all the process, for mankind will infallibly inflict covering,” in ver. 15, is "veil" - and to the word it. Whenever the rain man, like the owl at noon-day, power," ver. 10, it is, a covering, in sign that she is comes abroad, he will assuredly be recognized and tor. under the honour of her husband.

Angels" properly signifies" messengers," sent for at which habits are changeable is gone by. It is any purpose ; and the holy spirits before the throne of scarcely possible for bird to imagine the cause. Should God are so called, because of their being employed as it erer for a moment force itself upon his attention, he messengers,” to execute his righteous commands. will dismiss it, unable to bear the humiliating thought, The messengers of John the Baptist, Luke vii, 24, were unable perhaps to endure the idea, that every person two of his disciples, see ver. 19: the “ messengers," concerned in his education was mistaken. Self-love Luke ix, 52, whom Jesus sent, appear to have been two will present the barrier of pride to the supposition; and of his disciples : the" messengers," James ii, 25, whom he will, on the contrary, lay all the blame upon an un- Rahab received, were two men sent by Joshua to explore refined and sordid world, whom he will be prepared to the city and country of Jericho. But in all these places desert, to despise, and bate.

the original is in the very same Greek words as the ori. (To be continued.)

ginal of the text in question, 1 Cor. xi, 10.

The messengers received by Rahah, are properly

called " spies" by the apostle, Heb. xi, 31; and such EXPLANATION OF I COR. XI, 10.

we believe to be intended by the Holy Spirit in the pas. “ For this cause the woman ought to have power on her

sage before us. head, because of the angels."

Now let our“ Constant Reader" consider “what re

lation the angels have to the woman,” the text being “Sir,- The text, 1 Cor. xi, 10, has always appeared

translated, as we think, correctly; bearing in mind an. to me to have a deal of obscurity in it. Pray, Sir, can other part of the apostle's argument, that the head of you explain what relations the angels have to the woman, every man is Christ; and the head of every woman is that through then she should have power on her head?

the man;" ver. 3. « On this account, the woman ought If you can spare room in your valuable little work to to have a veil (or covering) on her hend, because of answer this, you will oblige, Sir, yours, &c.

spies." A CONSTANT READER.”

That there were

messengers" (in Greek “angels")

sent by the idolatrous Corinthians to act as "spies," or MANY a “CONSTANT READER,” even of the Holy Scrip- observers, in the asseinblies of the Christians, is certain tures, has been perplexed, we have no doubt, by the from the apostle's directions concerning propriety in passage under consideration. We ourselves were per. public worship, contained in this saine letter to that plexed by it in early life, and considered it, as our Cor- church (see chap. xiv, 23), “ If — there come in those respondent does, characterized by“ a deal of obscurity.” that are unlearned or unbelievers," &c. We presume Dr. Doddridge remarks, in a Note on this verse, " Mr. that our friend will find, on reading this chapter, that Loeke acknowledges, with a modesty which does him the translation here given renders the argument and much honour, that he did not understand this text; and reasoning of the apostle consistent, beautiful, and edify. many seem to have darkened it by their attempts to ing; especially when he recollects the customs of the explain it.”

East in reference to women, and the design of the apostle To understand this passage aright, it will be necessary in reference to the exercises of social worship in the to consider the design of the apostle. Dr. Doddridge, primitive churches. in a Note referring to verse 4, says, “It was certainly (as Dr. Whitby and others have proved) the custom among the Greeks and Roinans, as well as the Jews, to

CASE OF CONSCIENCE. — HEB. X, 26. appear in worshipping assemblies with the head covered ; SIR,- I hope you will excuse the liberty I have taken; and it is certain the Jewish priests wore a kind of tur. but knowing that it is with pleasure you afford instrucban, when ministering in the Temple. But it seems that the Corinthian men wore a veil, out of regard to

tion on passages of Scripture, I have been induced to send you one

which has been much upon my mind, as ! Pharisaical traditions, and in imitation of the custom cannot comprehend the ineaning of it: Heb. x, 26, "If prevailing in the synagogues, which therefore the apostle we sin wilfnlly after that we have received the knowdisapproved. The women seem to have worn their hair Jedge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice

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for sins." I feel that I have in mauy points done ac- This remarkable providence, brought to recollection cording to the former part of the verse. I have not what had passed at the sessions. In a little time, prized the word of God so much as I ought to have Mr. Sherwood was released and returned home; but done: I have not practised secret prayer so much as I was shortly afterwards sent for to Penzance, where ought to do: I feel my heart prove to wauder from God some justices met. He immediately went, expecting and from the things that make for my everlasting peace. to be sent back to jail. But when he came there, These I know to be sinful; but whether these are Mr. Godolphin caine out, and taking him into another amongst those that the apostle alludes to, I know not: room, said, “Sir, I sent for you, to learn how you but, Sir, if you please, give some thoughts on that pas- came to express yourself as you did when we comsage, and I shall feel very thankful, as it has been of mitted you? You know, I suppose, Sir, what has since great discouragement to me.

befallen Mr. Robinson.” Mr. Sherwood replied, “Sir, An Answer in our next Number. - Editor.

I was far from bearing any malice against Mr. Robinson, and can give no other auswer than that, When we are called before rulers for his name's sake,' whom we

serve, it shall be given us in that very hour what we MY SCRAP BOOK.

shall speak' (Matt. x, 19). To which Mr. Godolphin LEAF X.

answered, “Well, Sir, for your sake, I will never more “The Bee that wanders, and sips from every flower, disposes

have a hand in persecuting Dissenters.” And he was what she has gathered into her cells."-SENECA.

as good as his word. See this extraordinary story well

attested in CALAMY, vol. iii, REMARKABLE ANECDOTE OF REV. JOSEPH SHERWOOD.

ADDRESS TO THE Deity. Soon after his ejectment by the Bartholomew Act, he was cited to the Spiritual Court for not going to church.

GREAT SPIRIT! whose creative breath, He appeared, and gave for a reason, that there was

Quicken'd to being all we see, no preaching, and he could not with any satisfaction Waken our slumb'ring minds from death, attend there merely to hear the clerk read the prayers; Lead us through all thy works to Thee. but promised to go the next Lord's day if there was a The bleating sheep, the lowing herd, sermon. Finding upon inquiry there was no minister And insects humming as they fit, then, he did not go; so he was cited again, and gave The pebbly brook, the warbling bird, the same answer. The Lord's day following, being In harmony their hymns emit. informed by the churchwarden, who was his friend, that there would be no sermon, he determined to go

Shall inan be mute, when all is praise !

Great chieftain of the grateful throng! to church, when great numbers out of curiosity followed him. He seated himself in the clerk's desk

Lofty his gifts — then let him raise

Above them all the loftier song. all the time of the prayers, and then went up into the pulpit, and preached from Lev. xxvi, 25, “I will bring

And if he seek the pensive grove, a sword upon you that shall avenge the quarrel of my

Or tread the smiling meadows green, covenant.' The rumour of tbis was soon spread

Or gaze on worlds that wheel above, abroad ; but such was the affection of the people for

Let him view Gon in every scene. Mr. Sherwood, that though there was a crowded con- GREAT SPIRIT! when thy works we scan, gregation in a large church, his eneinies could not get Oh! teach us what we ought to be; any one to lay an information against him ; till by These wonders all were made for man, artifice, they got an acknowledgment from his friend But man --- vast thought !- was made for Thee! the churchwarden, and by threats frightened him into

E. BUTTON. a formal information. He was carried to a petty session of justices, where one Major Robinson, a mem

The Duty of SERIOUSNESS. ber of parliament, sat as chairman, who bitterly reviled Ah, my friends ! while we laugh, all things are serious Mr. Sherwood, calling him a rehel, &c. This he bore around us. God is serious, who exerciseth patience very patiently, making only this reply, “That as he towards us : Christ is serious, who shed his blood was a minister of the gospel, and at the church where

for us :

the Holy Ghost is serious, who striveth there was so great an assembly, he could not but have against the obstinacy of our hearts : the Holy SCRIP. compassion on the multitude, and give them a word of TURES bring to our ears the most serious things in the exhortation,Robinson. “But did ever inan preach world: the Holy SACRAMENTS represent the most from such rebellious text?” Mr. Sherwood. “Sir, I serious and awful matters: the whole creation is know man is a rebel against his Creator, but I never serious in serving God and us: all that are in heaven knew that the Creator could be a rebel against his and hell are serious : how then can we be gay?? creature.” On which, Robinson cried out, "Write his

Sir Francis Walsingham. mittimus for Launceston jail ;” and then turning to Mr. Sherwood, said, " I say, Sir, it was a rebellious

BONAVENTURE. text." Mr. Sherwood, looking him full in the face, The devil tempting Bonaventure, suggested to him addressed him in these words, Sir, if you die the com- that he was a reprobate, and persuaded him to drink mon death of all men, God never spake by me.

He was

iu the pleasures of this life, because he was excluded sent to prison, but being favoured by the keeper, he from the future joys with God in heaven. Bonaven. had liberty to walk about the castle and town. "Robin,

ture's graces being active, he answered, No, not so, son returned home; and a few days after, walking in Satan; if I inust not enjoy God after this life, let me the fields, a hull that had been very tame, came up to a enjoy him as much as I can in this life." - Brooks. gate where he stood, and his maid servant before him,

S. J. B***** who had been milking; the creature turning her aside with his horns, ran directly upon Robinson, and tore out his bowels. The Major's sister, hearing of this. “ Holy Desire cuts the cable, - Faith hoists the flag, disaster, came, and said, “Alas! brother, what a heavy - Prayer spreads the sail, -and God's Spirit breathes judgment is this.” He replied, “It is a heavy judg- the auspicious breeze, in our celestial voyage through inent indeed.” He was carried home, and soon died. the ocean of this world.”

JANE.

LINES IN MEMORY OF H. W.

and bitterness of thought. This alone endureth for

ever - this alone embraces equally the present and the Who died May 10, 1833, aged seventeen years. future -- this alone can arm a man against every calaHow soon are the dawnings of Providence clouded! inity — can alene shed the balm of peace over that How soon bends the filower with a withering breath!

scene of life when pleasures have lost their zest, and So soon were her youth and her loveliness shrouded,

the mind can no longer look forward to the dark and And the spark of her genius extinguish'd by death.

mysterious future. Above all, beware of the ignis fa

tuus of false philosophy : that must be a very defective How rich were the gems that her young fancy scatter'd!

system of ethics which will not bear a man through the How pure were the first einanations of mind ! But the silver cord 's loos'd, and the golden bowl

most trying stage of his existence; and I know of none

that will do it but the Christian. -H. K. White. shatter'd, The spell that enchanted no longer can bind. When sinking to rest, there was glory around her ;

THE SCRIPTURE TEACHER'S ASSISTANT, 'Twas joy to the soul on that brightness to gaze: E'en the Angel of Death, as in fetter; he bound her,

With Explanations and Lessons. Designed for Sunday Could not tarvish its splendour, nor darken its rays.

Schools and Families. By Henry Althans. London:

Sunday School Union Depository. 18mo. pp. 140. Oh, no! 'twas a radiance reflected from heaven, And it heam'd on the hearts that were mourning her loss:

Sunday School Teachers and Families are indebted to 'Twas the light (when the veil of the Temple was riven,

Mr. Althans for other valuable works besides this “As. And the earth sunk in darkness) that shone on the Cross. sistant;" and this little work, so worthy of its titic,

will increase the obligation. It contains Fifty-two SubShe lean’d on that Rock which no tempest could shiver :

jects from the Gospel History of our Lord and Saviour She rested her hope on the pillar of Truth:

Jesus Christ, arranged according to Dr. Doddridge's She drank of the waters that flow from that River,

Harmony. We think this an admirable guide to mothers Whose streams heal the soul, and give strength to our

and governesses, in their infinitely important work of youth.

Scripture instruction on the Lord's day; and in that And the halo of mercy encircled her pillow;

view we especially recommend it to our Readers. A seraph hung over her fluttering breath;

Eleven interesting * Subjects for Bible Classes,” are And the voice that could calın ev'n the turbulent billow added in an Appendix. Cheer'd her soul through the shade of the valley of death.

KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S OPINION OF Now see her with ministring angels surrounding; Hear the chorus uf heaven as she reaches the skies;

A SERMON. Behold her pure form o'er a golden harp bending,

The late Bishop F. of Salisbury having procured a The raptures of holiness bright’ning her eyes.

young man of promising abilities to preach before the Then why to these sorrowful scenes are we clinging; king; and the young man having, to his Lordship's apWe'll wipe from our eyelids the tears as they rise ;

prehension, acquitted himself well, the Bishop, in conFor see, from her beautiful corpse there is springing

versation with the King afterwards, wishing to get the The Angel of Hope, and she points to the skies. King's opinion, took the liberty to say, “Does not your

Majesty think that the young man, who had the honour Manchester.

to preach before your Majesty, is likely to make a good

clergyman, and has this morning delivered a very good SUBSTANTIAL PLEASURE.

sermon?" To which the King,' in his bluut mauner,

hastily replied, “ It might have been a good sermon, ADDRESSED TO YOUTH.

my Lord, for aught I know; but I consider no serinon

good that has nothing of Christ in it.”—Dr. A. Clarke's I would therefore exhort you earnestly -- you who are

Commentary. yet unskilled in the ways of the world to beware on what object you concentre your hopes. Pleasures inay allure, pride or ambition inay stimulate ; but their

Death of w. Wilberforce, Esq. fruits are hollow and deceitful, and they atford no sore,

This highly-distinguished and venerated Christian phino solid satisfaction. You are placed on the earth in a lanthropist finished his earthly course on Monday last state of probation : your continuance here will be, at

at the house of Mrs. Smith, in Cadogan Place; having the longest, a very short period; and when you are

heen permitted to see the great object of Negro Eman. called from hence, you plunge into an eternity, the

cipation, to which the best energies of his mind had been completion of which will be, in correspondence to your past life, unutterably happy or inconceivably miserable.

so many years devoted, just on the eve of its accomplish

inent before his reinoval. The sorrow which must be Your fate will probably depend on your carly pursuits :

produced by the loss of so bright a luminary in the it will be these which will give the turn to your cha- Christian world, will, we trust, be tempered by gratitude racter and to your pleasures," I beseech you, therefore,

that he has been spared so long, and enabled to acwith a meek and lowly spirit, to read the pages of that

complish so much; and by a sincere and ardent desire book, which the wisest and best of men have acknow

to emulate the example of his benevolent life on the same ledged to be the word of God. You will there find a rule of moral conduct, such as the world never had any

principle of a living faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Mr. W. was in his 74th year; and we understand has idea of before its divulgation. If you covet earthly directed that his body shall be interred in the grave of a happiness, it is only to be found in the path you will find there laid down; and I can confideutly promise

relative at Stoke Newington, in a strictly private mander.

We shall give a Memoir of this eininent inan in an early you, in a life of simplicity and purity, a life passed in Number. accordance with the Divine word, such substantial bliss, such unruffled peace, as is nowhere else to be found. London : Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court, All other schemes of earthly pleasure are fleeting and

Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid)

should be addressed; - and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the unsatisfactory. They all entail upon them repentance United Kingdom.

J. H.

PENNY MAGAZINE.

NO 62.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

AUGC8T 10, 1833.

PRINIED AND PUBLISHED BY C. WOOD AND SON, POPPIN'S COURI, FLLET STREET, LONDON,

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PART OF THE PRINCIPAL STREET IN BETHLEHEM. 19. I dgtod ai

3097 98 iw shle dose sto babicord BETHLEHEAL OF JUDAH...

ably to this sublime prediction, on the memorable

notning, the glorious spirits," the angels of God, proExcepting the "Holy City"- the “ City of God”. claimed its fulfilment'; and there appeareil. "a multiJerusalem, no place upon earth has been so deservedly tnde of the heavenly host, praising God, and saying, celebrated as Bethlehem. Here, as is supposed, is Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good laid the delightful scene of the beautiful narrative of will towards men.” Luke ii, 13, 14. Ruth. In this distinguished city, David, the royal Bethlehem is situated on a rising ground, about two psalmist, was born, and spent the early years of his hours' distance, or six miles south from Jerusalem. It life, under the tuition of the Holy Spirit, qualifying was called also Ephrath, Gen. xlviii, 7, and the inhahim to become “the sweet singer of Israel," and the bitants were called Ephrathites, Ruth i, 2; 1 Sam. universal instructor of the Christian church. But its xvii, 12. In the New Testament it is called Bethlehem most transcendant honour is, that here was the first of Judea, Matt. ii, 1; tu distinguish it from Bethlehem exhibition of God INCARNATE! “without controversy of Zabulon, Josh. xix, 15. the great mystery of godliness, God inanifest in the Modern Bethlehem is described by travellers as at flesh,” for the redemption of a ruined world!

first view somewhat imposing in its appearance, coverDivine inspiration foretold this glory as appointed to ing the ridye of a hill on the southern side of a decp anıl rest upon the favoured city. Micah, the holy seer, in extensive valley extending from cast to west. The his prophetic strains, sung, “And thou, Bethlehem most conspicuous object" is the monastery, which Ephratal, though thou be little among the thousands of superstition has erected over the supposed “Cave of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me, the Nativity,” and its walls and battlements have the that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have air of a strong fortress. From this point, the Deaul Sea is been from of old, from everlasting.” Mic. v, 2. Agree- seen on the east below, seemingly at but a short distance. Vol. II.

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