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No 59.


JULY 20, 1833.


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ARABIANS. Our engraving will receive its most edifying illustra. tion from the history of the fulfilment of a divine prophecy. The Arabs, as most of our reailers know, claim relation to the patriarch Abraham, as their worthy progenitor ; and they trace their descent from his son Ishinael. Concerning that remarkable son of Abraham, the angel of the Lord declared to his mother, before his birth, “I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Be. hold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael (God wcho hears); because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him ; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren." Gen. xvi, 10- 12.

Divine providence concerning Ishmael has been truly wonderful through all generations to the present day. His family so increased, that in the second generation afterwards they were among the principal merchants of the East. Hence we read of “Ishmaelites trading

Vol. II.

into Egypt.” Gen. xxxvii. His posterity became exceedingly multiplied in the people of several famous clans in Arabia. Some of these clans were denomi. nated Hagarenes, probably from Hagar his mother ; others were called Nabatheans, from his eldest sou Nebaioth; and others It eans, from his son Itur. These people increased amazingly; and iu the middle ages, under the terrible name of Saracens, overspread a third part of the earth, conquering many powerful countries, not only in Asia, but in Africa and Europe.

Ishınael himself subsisted by rapine in the wilderness ; and his posterity, in every succeeding age, rendered Arabia dreadful to their neighbours by their predatory incursions. There are almost innumerable clans of the Arabs; and every petty chief, in his own district, considers himself a sovereign : bat though seeiningly divided, they are all united in a sort of league, which has been manifested in a remarkable manner in cases of the invasion of their country. They have lived in a state of continual war with the rest of mankind, generally robbers by land and pirates by sea. And as they have been such enemies to the rest of the world, it can excite no surprise, that, in return, inankind have always been enemies to them. On this ac

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count, travellers, in every age, have been obliged to They were no longer, indeed, the masters of the finest traverse their country in caravans, or large companies, parts of the three great divisions of the ancient world : with arms for their protection ; and to defend thein- | their work was finished ; and, returning to the state in selves from the assaults of freebooters, to march with which Mohammed found them three centuries before, their sentinels, and to keep watch like an army. Thus, with the exception of the change of their religion, according to the literal meaning of the prediction, has they remained, and still remain, the unconquered rovers been fulfilled the declaration of the angel — “His hand of the desert." shall he against every man.”.

As to that part of the prediction which declares, Mohamined, the famons Arabian impostor, was one “He shall dwell in the presence of his brethren," it of this people. His system of religion corresponded has been most remarkably fulfilled. The country of with the depraved character of his countrymen; and Ishmael is situated in that part of the globe where after his escape from Mecca to Medina, he assumed society originated, and the first kingdoms were formed. the command of his followers as their martial chief. The greatest empires of the world arose and fell around Every year after his flight was marked by battles and them. They have not been secluded froin corresponassassinations. In the nine following years of his life, dence with foreign nations, and thus through ignorance he coinmanded his army in eight general engagements, and prejudice remained attached to simple and prini. and undertook, by himself or his lieutenants, fifty tive manners. In the early period of their history, military enterprizes.

they were united as allies to the most powerful The death of Muhammed, A. D. 632, threw a tem- monarchs of the East; and their conquests extended porary gloom over his cause, and the disunion of his

over the most considerable kingdoms of the earth. followers threatened its extinction. Any other empire Through successive ages the caravans of the merchant, placed in the same circumstances would have cruinbled and the companies of the Mohammedan pilgrins, have to pieces : but the Arabs felt their power ; they revered passed regularly over their deserts; even their patri. Their founder as the chosen prophet of God; and their archal religion has undergone several total changes. ardent temperament, animated by a religious enthu- Yet all these circumstances, which it might be supposed siasm, gave an carnest of future success, and encouraged would have subdued the inost inveterate habits, pro. the zeal or the ambition of their leaders. The suc. duced no effect upon the Arabs : they still preserve, cession, after some bloodshed, was settled, and un- unimpaired, a inost exact resemblance to the first numbered hordes of barbarians were ready to carry descendants of Ishmael. into execution the sanguinary dictates of their prophet, The Arabians are the only people in the world and with “ The Koran, tribute, or death,” as their who have preserved their descent, their independence, motto, to invade the countries of the infidels. During their language, and their manners and customs, from the whole of the succeeding century, their rapid career the earliest ages to the present tiine; and it is amongst was unchecked; the disciplined armies of the Greeks them that we are to look for examples of patriarchal and Romans were unable to stand against them; the life and manners. Sir Robert Ker Porter has given a Christian churches of Asia and Africa were annihilated; very lively sketch of this mode of life, in the person and from India to the Atlantic, through Persia, Arabia, and tribe of an Arab sheik, whom he visited in the Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Egypt, with the whole of neighbourhood of the Euphrates : He says, “I had northern Africa, Spain, and part of France, the im- met this warrior at the house of the British resident at postor was acknowledged. Constantinople was besieged, Bagdad ; and came, according to lis repeated wish, to Rome itself was plundered; and nothing less than the see him in a place more consonant with his habits, the destruction of the whole Christian world was meditated tented field ; and, as he expressed it, at the head of on the one hand, and tremblingly expected on the other. his children. As soon as we arrived in sight of his

All this was wonderful; but the avenging justice of camp, we were met by crowds of its inhabitants, who, God, and the sure word of prophecy, relieve our with a wild and hurrying delight, led us towards the astonishment. It was to punish an apostate race, that tent of their chief. T'he venerable old man came forth the Saracen locusts (see Rev. ix) were let loose upon to the door, attended by his subjects of all sizes and the earth; and the countries which they were permitted descriptions, and greeted us with a countenance beamto ravage were those in which the pure light of revela- ing kindness; while his words, which our interpreter tion had beey most abused. The Eastern church was explained, were demonstrative of patriarchal welcome. sunk in gross idolatry; vice and wickedness prevailed One of my Hinduo troopers spoke Arabic; hence the in their worst forms; and those who still called them- substance of our succeeding discourse was not lost ou selves Christians, trusted more to images, relics, altars, each other. Having entered, I sat down by my host; austerities, and pilgrimages, than to a crucified Saviour. and the whole of the persons present, to far beyond the

“About a hundred and eighty years from the foun- boundaries of the tent (the sides of which were open), dation of Bagdad, during which periool the power of seated themselves also, without any regard to those the Saracens had gradually decline:l, a dreadful reac- civilized ceremonies of subjection, the crouching of tion took place in the conquered countries. The slaves, or the standing of vassalage. These persons, in Persians on the east, and the Greeks on the west, were rows beyond rows, appeared just as he had described, simultaneously roused from their long thraldom, and the offspring of his house, the descendants of his assisted by the Turks, who, issuing from the plains of fathers, from age to age; and like brethren, whether Tartary, now for the first time made their appearance holding the highest or the lowest rank, they seemed to in the east, extinguished the power of the caliphate, gather round their common parent. I thought I had and virtually put an end to the Arabian monarchy, never before seen so complete an assemblage of fine A. D. 936. A succession of nominal caliphs continued and animated countenances, both old and young; nor to A. D. 1258, but the provinces were lost; their power could I suppose a better specimen of the still existing was confined to the walls of their capital; and they state of the true Arab; nor a more lively picture of the were in real subjection to the Turks and the Persians scene which must have presented itself, ages ago, in until the above year, when Mostacem, the last of the the field of Haran, when Terah sat in his tent-door, Abhasides, was dethroned and murdered by Holagou, surrounded by his sons, and his sons' sons, and the or Huluka, the Tarlar, the grandson of Zingis. This people born in his house. The venerable Arabian event, although it terminated the foreign dominion of sheik was seated on the ground, with a piece of carpet the Arabians, left their native independence untouched. spread under him; and, like the anciens Chaldean

is What

ancestor, turned to the one side and the other, parts of England. How far this mode of proceeding graciously answering or questioning the groups around

differs from the practice of the apostles, may be judgeri him, with an interest in them all which clearly showed

from the direction of Paul to the Corinthians, the abiding simplicity of his government, and their

concord hath Christ with Belial, and what agreement obedience. On the smallest computation, such must

hath the temple of God with idols ? Wherefore, come have been the manners of these people for more than out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the three thousand years ; thus, in all things, verifying the

Lord, and touch not the unclean thing." 2 Cor. vi. prediction given of Ishmael at his birth, that he, in his

“Meantime the poor Christian Britons, living peaceposterity, should "be a wild man,” and always con- ably at home, there enjoyed God, the gospel, and their tinue to be so, though " he should dwell for ever in the mountains ; little skilful in, and less caring for the presence of his brethren.” And that an acute and

ceremonies a la mode, brought over by Augustin : and inactive people, surrounded for ages by polished and deed their poverty could not go to the cost of Augustin's luxurious nations, should from their earliest to their silver cross, which made tbein worship the God of their latest times, he still found a wild people, dwelling in the

fathers after their own homely, but hearty fashion ; presence of all their brethren (as we may call these not willing to disturb Augustin and his followers in nations) unsubdued and unchangeable, is indeed a

their new rites, but that he had a miod to disquiet standing miracle; one of those mysterious facts which

thein in their old service.” establish the truth of prophecy.”

Augustin being thus confirined by the pope in his Arabian religion, we again remark, has changed. new dignity as primate of all England, claimed jurisdicOriginally it was the patriarchal, as was that of Abraham,

tion over the ancient British Churches. These were embracing the only living and true God, and the tradi

considered schismatics : because, as Bede states, they tion of Christ as the Redeemer of a guilty world: it

did not keep the feast of the Passover on the same day became corrupted to idolatry, from which it was par

with the Romans, “but observed many other things tially reformed by the imposture of Mohammed. Ara- contrary to the unity of the church." By the assistance bians were among the first converts to Christianity on of King Ethelbert, Augustin summoned the British the day of Pentecost, Acts in, and the apostle preached bishops to meet him in a synod, on the borders of the the gospel in Arabia, Gal. i, 17. Patriarchal simplicity West Saxons, as is supposed on the boundaries of in their mavners may still be retained by the Arabs,

Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Augustin informed but they are included in the fulness of the Gentiles,'

them of his archiepiscopal authority, constituted by who are ordained to be brought into the Church of Pope Gregory, and made four propositions for their Christ. Rom. xi, 25.

acceptance: First, To observe the Roinan time of the Passover. Second, To adopt the Roman baptism and ceremonies. Third, To co-operate with hiin as the pri

mate, and with the Roman clergy, in converting the BRITISH ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. Saxons. Fourth, To acknowledge the jurisdiction of No. VII.--The mission of Augustin to the Anglo-Saxons. Much time was vainly spent in arguing : for the (Concluded from p. 209.)

British were unwilling to believe that their religious

customs were improper, or that the pope had any Confirmed in his dignity by the authoritative grant authority over them. Bede seems to intimate that the of the pope, and in favour with the king, Augustin latter point was inost strenuously urged: but they adopted various plans for the pronotion of his ambi- could not be moved, either by threats or promises. tion. Gregory had charged the king to destroy the Augustin is said, therefore, to have proposed that the idols and demolish their temples; but he afterwards dispute should be decided by a miracle. A blind Saxon sent instructions by Mellitus to pursue a different was introduced to the assembly; and when the Britons course, a policy adopted universally in that age. He tried in vain to cure him, Augustin restored his sight directs Augustin to convert the 'idol temples into by his prayers. “But whether the miracle adınitted of churches, consecrating them by sprinkling holy some dispute, because the blind man was a Saxon; or water, and placing under their altars soine sacred relics Bede, who lived long after the fact, was wrongly inof saints,” of which he sent an abundant supply from formed, the Britons stood out against this evidence." Rome. As to the idolatrous festivals, he gives him All that Augustin could obtain on this occasion was a these directions. “Whereas they were accustomed to promise that they would meet again, and determine the kill many oxen in their sacrifices to devils, you may matter in a morc numerous assembly. persuade them to make this change in that solemnity,

This second synod having been appointed, seven that on the anniversary day of the dedication of their

British bishops attended, from Hereford, Llandaff, churches in honour of the saints whose names they St. Paterns, Bangor, Ciwyd, Worcester, and Morgan, bear, or whose relics are deposited in them, they may with Dinoih, abhot of Bangor, and several monks. raise tents or booths about the same, and celebrate the Previously to the meeting they consulted an aged solemnity with merry feasting; at which time they bermit, fained for wisdom and sanctity, how they must not sacrifice their beasts to the devil, but kill should determine in this affair. He expressed his thein for meat to be eaten to the praise of God, their opinion that it was unreasonable to make alterations giver. By this means, while we allow them a continu. in divine service merely at the request of a stranger : ance of their furiner jollities, their minds will more but as the essence of religion consisted in union of easily be brought to relish spiritual joys! For it will heart, in charity, it would not be wrong in some degree not be possible at once to draw such rude untractable to comply with Augustin, if he were a holy man, and minds from all their former customs; they will not be really a messenger from God. The bishops desired to brought to perfection by sudden leaps, but leisurely by be informed how this could be ascertained: he replied, steps and degrees.”

that they might know this by the inost certain mark of Augustin acted according to the criminal policy of a true Christian-humility; reminding them of the Gregory in relation to the Saxon heathen festivals; and words of Jesus, “Take my yoke upon you, and learn hence arose those shocking and immoral custoins, of of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart.” They would wakes, revels, and fairs, which are still held at the sec, he added, whether Augustin was endued with this anniversaries of the dedication of churches in many virtue, by his respectfully rising to salute them on

the pope.

their entrance into the place of meeting ; for if he if he were dead before this bloody affair, yet the should not show them such courtesy, it would be a invasion, with its consequent calamities, might have certain proof of his pride and irreligion. Agreeably originated with his recommendation. Bishop Jewell, to this counsel, they contrived to enter after Augustin however, considers the evidence against Augustin as was seated; when he allowed them to come in without conclusive ; and having referred to many ancient any expression of civility, and thus their prejudices writers on the subject, he says, “Hereby it appeareth were confirmed.

that this Augustin not only enkindled this cruel war, In the synod, no arguments or entreaties could pre- but also was alive and present in the army." vail on the British bishops to comply with the wishes To what lengths of vindictiveness prelatic ambition of Augustin, cither to adopt the Romish rites, or to may lead, we find illustrated in the whole history of the receive him for their archbishop. Mortified yride ap- papal wars; and had this affair of Augustin been faithpears to bave urged the anubitious prelate to press his fully reported to Pope Gregory, it would still seem claims with increasing warmth, and to insist upon their doubtful whether he would have censured him, while subinission to the pope; when Dinoth replied to this we recollect his own unprincipled conduct towards that effect: “Be it known unto you, that we all are, and usurper and murderer, the einperor Phocas ! every one of us, obedient and subject to the church Augustin died, according to Bede, A. D. 604, having of God, to the pope of Rome, and to every godly appointed Laurentius to succeed him. He trode in Christian, to love every one in his degree in perfect the steps of his predecessor,” Milner remarks, "and charity, and to help every one of them, by word and laboured to promote the best interests of the English, deed, to be the children of God: and other obedience by frequent preaching of the word, and by a diligent than this I do not know due to him whom you name to and useful example. I doubt not the sincerity of this be Pope, nor to be Father of the Fathers, to be claimed prelate; though, seduced by the charms of a nominal and to be demanded. And this obedience we are ready to unity, he laboured, as the first missionary had done, to give, and to pay to him, and to every Christian cor bring the British churches to a conformity with the tinually. Besides, we are under the government of the church of Rome. He was actuated by the same spirit bishop of Caerlion upon Uske, who is to oversee us, of selfish ambition, of which even the best of men in to cause us to keep the way spiritual.”

all ages have not been void.” Augustin, it is said, despairing to overcome their Charity would lead us to hope some good both of firmness, terminated the long dispute by an indignant Augustin and of Laurentius; but Mr. Milner gives no threatening : "Since you refuse peace with your bre- evidence of this prelate's "frequent preaching of the thren, you shall have war with your enemies; and word;” and as the services of religion were almost since you will not upite with us in preaching the word entirely the reading of Latin forms, and the performof eternal life to your neighbours, you shall have death auce of certain ceremonies, we have reason to doubt at their hands."

the good effects of his ministry in the bringing of souls Dinoth’s reply bas been charged with undue warmth, to Christ. Of the "selfish ambition" of Laurentius, and a spirit of obstinacy; and perhaps it does not dis- we have abundant proof. Popc Boniface being A.D.606 play all the meekness and gentleness of Christ: but declared Universal Bishop by the emperor Phocas, what shall be said of Augustin? It seeins clearly Laurentius was more determined in his policy, and manifest that Augustin gave serious provocation by his wrote pressing letters to prevail on the "Scots who whole behaviour, and exhibited the vindictive haughti. inhabited Ireland,” to conform to the English church. ness of the papal antichrist. Writers of the greatest He bitterly complained of Dagham, a Scotch bishop, judgment have been divided in opinion respecting the who, passing through Canterbury, refused to eat with prophecy of Augustin, and to what degree he was con- him, on account of their difference in ceremonies. cerned in its dreadful fulfilment as regards the monas- But his letters were fruitless. The British churches tery of Bangor: for Bede remarks, "Events came to remained in Bede's tiine still distinguished from the pass as Augustin had predicted." The fact is, that English shortly afterwards Ethelfrid, king of Northumberland, Ethelbert died A. D. 612, when his son Edbald aban. invaded North Wales with a great army; when the doned the profession of Christianity; and Sebert, king ecclesiastics sought protection from their kiug Broch- of Essex, dying A. D. 616, his sons having relapsed to mail. The Northuin briaus had advanced to Chester, idolatry, forbade the return of Mellitus bishop of Lonwhere they cut off the little army of the Welsh prince, don, who had been long absent at Rome, receiving who fell with his soldiers. Ethelfrid, provoked by counsel from Pope Boniface. Laurentius, however, hearing that a company of the monks of Bangor had received him at Canterbury, and also Justus bishop of asseinbled to pray for the success of their countrymen, Rochester, as the ill-instructed people of Essex and threatened them as equally his enemies, endeavouring Kent had given up their profession of Christianity. to engage their God against him. They retreated to After consultation, these three prelates resolved on their inonastery, and Dinoth sent two hundred to Ethel- leaving the reprobate Saxons, and retiring to France: frid, entreating him to spare their establishinent, and Laurentius remaining behind, contrived to impose upon allow them in peace to serve and praise God, at the the king, by pretending that St. Peter had appeared to same time offering him all their property. But having him in the night, and had severely whipped him for heard their proposition, the savage pagan ordered the purposing to desert his station. The vision itself may defenceless messengers to be immediately massacred; justly be doubted: but Laurentius showed wounds on and advancing to Bangor, he reduced the monastery to his body to Edbald. The king, touched with those apa heap of ruins, and appointed above a thousand more peals, returned to the profession of his former faith, to be put to death, very few of its pious inmates escap- and recalled Justiis and Mellitus. The Londoners, ing his murierous sword

however, refusing to allow Mellitus again to reside British writers charge that ambitious prelate with among them, he returned to Canterbury, and, A.D.624, having persuaded Ethelbert to procure, or at least to succeeded Laurentius as archbishop. On his death, promote, that invasion, out of enmity to the principles about A. D. 634, this diguity was sustained by Justus. of that learned establishinent; while others assert that Honorius and Deusdedit are mentioned as successively the massacre was not perpetrated till after lois decease. archbishops of Canterbury, but we know nothing of Others again assert, that Augustin was personally en- their labours to evangelize the people, or to diffuse the gaged in encouraging this enormous cruelty. But even purc doctrines of salvation by Jesus Christ.



every sort shalt come unto thee, to keep them alive,

And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and NOAH.

thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be food for

thee and for them.” Gen. vi, 13-21. The Ministry of Nouh.

Prompt obedience distinguished Noah in relation to The book of Genesis commends Noah to our admira. this difficult, and apparently iinpossible comipand. He tion, chiefly as an example of uprightness and holiness : had never seen such a prodigious vessel, and he could but it seeins also to suggest, that this was not the whole not fail to reflect upon the care and labour inseparable of his character. The New Testament affords us addi. from the undertaking. Noah too was a philosopher, tional information. That which was omitted by Moses, and he would consider what was necessary to procure has been supplied by the apostles Paul and Peter. The the vast materials, and construct the capacious vessel, Holy Spirit by Peter, styles Noah "the eighth preacher to collect the various animals and govern them, to preof righteousness.” 2 Pet. ii, 5. The righteousness pare their suitable provisions, and to endure confinewhich Noah preached, was certainly that which he had ment with such company for a loog period. But Noah obtained by faith for his own justification before God, was also a devout believer; and the Divine command and that which he practised in his holy life. He contained an assurance of all needful assistance; therebelieved “with the heart unto righteousness," with fore, he staggered not at the promise of God through "faith which worketh by love."

unbelief, but was strong, in faith, giving glory to Noah received a divine commission to preach "re- God.” "By faith,” says the apostle, “Noah, being pentance and remission of sins :” and influenced by warned by God of things not scen as yet, moved with the purest benevolence towards his fellow.sinners, he fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house.” was not content to enjoy, alone, salvation from the just Heb. xi, 7.

Vigorous by their iniquities, and declaring the judgments of God ready faith must have been put to a severe test, in the to fall upon them, if they reinained impenitent. He prospect of taunts and snecrs from a world of atheiscalled them to break off from sin, and fly to the re- tical unbelievers. The report of his proceedings soon vealed mercy of the LORD by faith in the promised spread far and wide, affording an admirable occasion Messiah.

to the profane to make him the butt of their reproach A considerable part of Noah's life was thus con- and ridicule. Cousidering the number of years in secrated to God, in seeking the salvation of sinners; in which it was building, the story of the marvellous work which we are called to admire the Divine long-suffering would be carried into all lands. That all the tribes of and mercy to the guilty : but the ministry of Noah was the earth were acquainted with the fact, seems to be disregarded, few or none embracing the doctrine of intimated by the apostle, when he speaks of the work, pardon and life eternal, and the world of transgressors " by which he condemned the world, and became heir ** filled up the measure of their iniquities,” to their of the righteousness which is by faith.” Heb. xi, 7. destruction. The awful purpose of God was not im- The testimony which this procedure of Noah gave to mediately carried into execution; and Noah and Me- the world, was public and notorious, demanding their thuselah continued their ministry of mercy in favour of serious attention: no plea of ignorance can, therefore, guilty men; for the LORD said, “Yet his days shall be be made at the last day, when it shall arise in judginent a hundred and twenty years." Gen. vi, 3.

against their infidel criminality: It was not only by threatening admonitions and Crowds of the daring and trifling free-thinkers would merciful invitations, that Noah exercised bis ministry flock around to see how the work advanced. Absurd towards those around him : he preached in a manner and provoking questions would be proposed by them, altogether extraordinary by means of his works-a to the diligent prophet; who, while they were laughing constant sermon, visible to all the inhabitants of the at his conduct, pursued his holy purpuse, still inviting earth. The Lord gave a new commission to Noah. them to seek the LORD while they might obtain bis Having made known his purpose to destroy the whole offered mercy. Some would call himn simpleton and race of transgressurs, except the family of his servant, fool. Others, pretending to superior wisdom and dishe commanded the patriarch to prepare the wondrous cernient, would affect to pity him as a well-meaning means of their salvation. “And God said unto Noah, enthusiast, deluded by the dreams of a contemptible The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is superstition, and declare that “too much holiness had filled with violence through them; and behold, I will made him inad.” Others again would jeer him, exdestroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of pressing their anxiety to see how he would manage the gophcr-wood: rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and Jions and tigers, while he sailed on the dry land over shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this hills and mountains! His friends, and perhaps even is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length some of his own family, would pity bis extravagance, of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of and recomiend him to renounce his laborious enter. it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A prize, as preposterous, irrational, and ruinous. window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt

" Alas! how fatally opposed, thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set

The heart of guilty man is closed in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories

Against that warning, and he deems shalt thou inake it. And behold, I, eveu I, do bring a

The Prophet's coursels idle dreams, food of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein

And laughs to hear the Preacher rave

Of bursting cloud and whelming grave." is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die. But with thee will Finding their remonstrances utterly ineffectual, and I establish iny covenant; and thou shalt come into the their ridicule lost and in vain, they would turn away ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' from him as a weak old dotard, leaving him to what they wives with thee. And of every living thing of all flesh, would denominate “Noah's folly," and plunge into all two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep the criminal excesses of their licentious associates. But them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. fixed in his resolution, and guarded by the power of Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, God, Noah persevered with his novel architecture, and of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two completed the ainazing vessel, agreeably to the Divine

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