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sure that the case of fallen man was far worse than

Letters to a Mother, upon Education. ever our most vivid conceptions suppose it to he, and that the hopelessness of his condition approached

LETTER XXX. nearly to desperation, or the mighty efforis would never have been made which have been made, to restore

On Pronunciation und Reading, continued. him to the favour and friendship of his Maker. It must 3dly. Habituate him to read in a moderately loud therefore be quite apparent to every reasonable mind, tone.' This will conduce to his health, as constituting that no path can lead to the kingdom of heaven except an exercise to his lungs : it will compel him to attend that which was pointed out by the Redeemer himself. to distinctness and propriety of pronunciation; indisAnd what was that path? Sinners are first of all told

tinctness and impropriety being far less discernible in a that they must believe in the efficacy of their Saviour's low and muttering inode of reading. It will also conatonement; but the Deity, knowing how many and tribute to that manly and frank address, which are the various are the dispositions of men, has decided, that charm of innocence and youth. the criterion of faith shall not rest upou internal feel- 4thly. I utterly dissuade you from the use of all ings, but upon external actions; and every one who Speakers, as they are called, or those books containing claiins to be a believer in Christ must try himself by specimens of the different styles of composition, such the only standard by which he can judge rightly: “ If as didactic, vehement, mournful, animated, &c. The ye love me, keep my commandments.” — It seems, human feelings cannot thus change into so many varied therefore, that those who are willing to love God and even opposite states in the course of a few pages. supremely, or, which is the same thivg, to renounce Your pupil cannot feel those different passages from every course of conduct opposed to his will, are here

different authors, he therefore cannot read them well. after to be welcomed to mansions of blessedness, as the Finding this to be the case, were you to compel beloved children of the Most High God.

him to try, he would imitate feeling, and this would And if this be true, bow sad will their state be, who be to teach him a lesson in deception. He would suppose it possible to unite the profession of the gospel succeed wretchedly after all ; nothing being so with the lusts and vanities of this wicked world !" God frigid as forced feeling. Rather let him read to you can be merciful only to those to whom Christ asks Him some story or history continuously one day after an. to be merciful; and Christ will intercede for none but other; then he will become interested in its details, and those who love Him and keep. His commandments. his voice and manner will, insensibly to himself, vary Down, therefore, with the barriers between God and sufficiently to constitute good reading. The more he his creatures - make one bold effort to escape the feels what he is reading with a genuine, unsophisticated delusions of Satan - cast down vain imaginations, and emotion, the better he will read. every thought that exalteth itself against the glory of 5thly. Let the utmost care be taken with him, that God!- for I rejoice to declare

his manner be entirely his own; by which I mean, that 2. That nonc need despair of obtaiving mercy. There it is not borrowed by imitation of any one else : this dwells not in the outspread regions of earth one being, may very possibly be the case. Nothing is more likely whom the Deity is ‘not desirous to save.


to present itself to the inexperienced mind of your honour and worldly renown may never have brought child, that as every one wishes him to be a good reader, before the gaze of the populace many millions of im- and every body agrees that this gentleman, or that mortal beings ; but it is not poverty-it is not wretched- clergyman, or that senator, is a good speaker or reader, ness — it is not sinfuluess, — which can conceal them an effectual inethod of making this attaininent, is to from the merciful eye of the Deity. He looks through imitate the persons in question. the whole family of earth, contemplates the condition Here, however, your own superior experience and of each particular human being, and waits with intense knowledge must interfere. It inay indeed be useful to anxiety to hear the first breathings of prayer, that He him to hear good reading and speaking. If taught to may bestow the first tokens of His merciful loving- consider the qualities of this good reading and speaking kindness. It is a libel on the Divine character, and a abstractedly from the manner of the person who perperversion of the word of God, to suppose it possible forms them, he may certainly learn much from it. He that there can be a sinner for whom provision is not may see what faults to avoid, and what excelencies to made by the death of Christ. Far might I make this cultivate. But the instant he has caught the tone, the subject extend, until I had brought you in imagination manner of the man himself, that instant be sure it is to that rest which remains for the children of God, and the time for you to be most active, and most decided. had made you fancy that you heard the harpings of the Your own eye and your own ear will recognize the heavenly choir : but let it suffice to know, that the re- artificial style. Even if you cannot tell who it is that ward of the righteous does not consist in lofty imagina. he imitates, yet the strangeness of the tone and manner tions and brilliant conceptions ; but that it is something will assuredly convince you that he is imitating some sure, certain, and real, which will in very deed be con- one. Now be faithful to him and to yourself. Be ferred upon us. Reminding you, therefore, of the assured that the capability on the part of your child immense importance of using all diligence to secure thus to trunsform himself, is nearly allied to the capafor yourselves a portion of the happiness of heaven, I bility of general deceit. It is a departure from a add only my fervent prayer, that “God may be merciful healthy honesty of mind and heart. Seriously, but unto us and bless us, and show us the light of His mildly state to hin the various reasons which render it countenauce, and be inerciful unto us."

in itself ineligible that he should imitate the manner of B. Z.

any persun, however excellent: that each person has a manner of his own, which, though different from that

of another, is equally excellent: that if he admires the Preparation for Death. -"The late Dr. Grosvenor manner of another, others may admire his manner : being at the funeral of Dr. Watts, a friend said to him, that no assumed manner in any degree can be Well, Dr. Grosvenor, you have seen the end of pleasing. Dr. Watts, and you will soon follow; what think you If you know the speaker whom he imitates, point of death?' *Think of it !' replied the Doctor, why, out to him the qualities of his reading which it is allow. when death comes, I shall smile upon death, if God able to imitate : such as his distinctness, his slowness, smiles upon me.'

his seeming to enter into the writer's meaning, the


close resemblance (being only somewhat more serious)

CLERICAL LIBERALITY. which his manner of speaking in public bears to his mode of speaking in private.

The following letter of the late excellent Mr. Gunn, Should these means fail, take him to hear different was written in reply to one from a lady, who had been speakers who have attained excellence. If you can receiving the Lord's Supper at the church of that consistently with every other duty, let him hear them clergyman She was a dissenter, and usually attended in sufficient numbers, and with sufficient frequency, to the ininistry of the late Rev. Rowland Hill, but someiinpair his association3 with the one whom he so much times that of the Rev. Mr. Gunn, whose preaching is admires.

known to have been peculiarly edifying. We are glad Be resolute upon this point: it is connected with the to insert the letter in the Christian's Penny Magazine, honesty, and therefore with the self-respect, and con- on account of its admirable reproofs of the trifling and sequently with the happiness and the success of your unprofitable conversation of some Christians. child. Never cease till you have eradicated the evil; and if it cannot be done without, adopt what I will

No. 1, King Street, Compton Street, venture to call the actual cautery in any system of edu

Clerkenwell. cation

Dear Madam, do not spare to satirize him, kindly but thoroughly.

Your letter which I yesterday received,

demands an answer from me; though I have so many Lastly: Be careful lest you do too much to secure the accomplishment of good reading or speaking.

engagements of various kinds upon my hands, that I If the essential rules now propounded be sufficiently

have no time to reply to half the papers continually attended to, the adoption of greater pains will be gene

sent me. With respect to the conversation you had on rally found to retard the result. Especially, never let

leaving Surrey Chapel, I do most sincerely wish that him take lessons in reading. Many a young person has

the professors of our most holy faith had something had a good manner till it was utterly spoiled by such

better to talk of when they come from a gospel sermon,

I One may generally tell when a person has

than merely gossiping about different” ministers. learnt to read, by their mechanical, or pompous, or

certainly could not have refused the sacrament to a artificial airs and arts, which offend and disgust more

person that I am totally unacquainted with; and this is than the worst natural manner could have done.

the case with yourself. But had I known you, I should In a word, if your child, after due attention has been never have thought of asking you, had you come to the paid to these topics, does not read well, then be assured

sacred table, a single question respecting the place of all further attempts to make him do so are useless.

worship you attended, provided the gospel was preached Rest contented that reading is not his forte : let it be

in it. I most certainly am a friend to the Church of sought in something else. Natural taste and aptitude

England, and I love gospel order. Other people have are indispensable to success. No rules that have ever

a right to think for themselves. I have several times been devised can communicate these if they are absent;

seen Dissenters and Baptists at the table where I have and the only valuable effect of good rules is, to direct

been present: they received the symbols of the Lord's and regulate these where they do exist.

body and blood from my hands with pleasure, and I I am, dear Madam, yours, &c.

gave it them with equal pleasure. However, I do most CLERICUS.

certainly prefer our established church. This, I imagine, is a sufficient answer to your Letter.

With respect to the latter part of it, I rejoice with ON THE FOLLY AND DANGER OF USING you if the Lord has in any degree blessed my poor IMPRECATIONS.

ministry to your soul; the praise is His, and not mine.

May He encourage you to persevere in his good way, If men who are so prodigal in scattering imprecations

and at last receive you to his glory. Let me advise you and curses upon all they are displeased at, would take

to have as little to do as possible, either with disputes time to consider what they are about, they would cer

or disputers : “The kingdoin of heaven is not meat tainly be ashamed of the folly of such a practice, be

and drink, but righteousness and peace and juy in the cause nobody is hurt by it but themselves; for curses,

Holy Ghost.” like arrows shot against heaven, fall upon the heads of those that aim them, but can never injure the

With Christian respects to your husband, I remain, persons

Your friend in the blessed Jesus, or things at which they are levelled. Again, for men in common discourse to make iinprecations on them.

WM, ALPHONSUS GUNN. selves in order to confirm the truth of their assertions,

Monday, March llih, 1799. only affords their auditors grounds of suspicion ; for good men will be credited without them, and scorn to use them; but profane men only disparage themselves

CHRIST'S BURDEN LIGHT. hy so frequently venting them, because by such bitter asseverations they seen to suspect their own reputa

Christ's, burden doth unburden all other burdens. tions. It is also for want of consideration, and for too This may seem strauge to you, that the taking of a new facile a coinpliance with such a vicious custom, that

burden should ease one of the former: if a man be men of sense on other matters, upon very slight, and carrying wood or coals, the taking of a new burden sometimes no occasion, expose themselves to the wrath would not ease him of the former, but the burden of of Heaven, by calling upon God to curse then if what Christ is of another nature. Austin distinguishes them; they say be false, when at the same time they know it there is a burden burdening, and a burden supporting : to be 80. Alas ! how deplorable would be their con- he expresses it thus ; the feathers that a bird is clothed dition, if Heaven should say “Amen” to what they with, they have a weight in them; yet notwithstanding wish for.

they bear up the burden of the body. So now it is here; the burden of Jesus Christ, it makes all other burdens

to go away lighter. Faith, true saving faith, is the ON DEGREES OF SIN.

grace that takes up the burden of Christ in the soul, Cursos proportion to the sin's degree;

and so thereby all other burdens are made the lighter, Adam had one, Eve two, the serpent three. and difficulties and discouragements are overcome. QUARLES.




deep in idolatry, and much divided in their opinions

concerning the true religion and the supreme happi. (Continued from p. 175.)

The Apostle therefore having taken an opportu. ASKELON, a city in the land of the Philistines, si- nity to preach Jesus Christ, was carried before the toated between Azóth and Gaza, upon the coast of the Areopagus, the supreme court of the commonwealth, Mediterranean sea, about 520 furlongs from Jerusalem. and there converted Dionysius, one of its inembers, It is said to have been of great note among the Gentiles who was afterwards ordained the first bishop of Athens, for a temple dedicated to Derceto, the mother of Semi- and who, it is believed, ended his life there by an ramis, here worshipped in the form of a merinaidand honourable martyrdom. for another of Apollo, where Herod, the father of ATTALIA (that increases or sendx), a seaport of Antipater, and grandfather of Herod the Great, served

Pamphylia, formerly the chief residence of the prefect. as priest, and from his being born in this city, was It is said to take its name from King Attalus, its called Herod the Askelonite. It had, in the first times

founder, which it still retains with a small variation, of Christianity, an episcopal see, and in the course of

being now called Settalia. It stands on a very fine bay, the holy wars it was beautified with a new wall, and and is commodiously seated for trade, having a good many fair buildings, by our Richard the First. It is,

haven; which probably has been the occasion of its however, at this day, a very inconsiderable place.

being preserved from ruin by the Turk3, who even at There is much mention of the wine of Askelon, and the this day are said to be very careful to keep its fortificacypress tree, a shrub that was very much esteemed, tions and castle in repair. The city is supposed to and was very common in this place. - See Calmet's stand at present nearer to the sea than it did formerly. Dictionary

Avims, people descended from Hevæus, the son of ASPHALTUS LAKE, so called on account of the great Capaan. This people dwelt at first in the country quantity of asphaltus or bitumen found in it. It is

which was afterwards possessed by the Caphtorims, or enclosed on the east and west with exceeding high Philistines. The Scripture says expressly, that the mountains; on the north it is bounded by the plain of Caphtoriins drove out the Avims, who dwelt in Jericho, on which side also it receives the waters of

Hazerim, even unto Azzah, Deut. ii, 23. There were Jordan; on the south it lies open, and extends beyond also Avims, or Hivites, at Shechem or Gibeon, and con

It is said to be twenty-four sequently in the centre of the promised land (Josh. xi, leagues long, and six or seven broad. It is supposed 19), for the inhabitants of Shechem and the Gibeonites to be called the DEAD SEA, because no animal can live

were Hivites. Lastly, there were some of them bein it, though Mr. Maundrel seems to suspect the truth yond Jordan, at the foot of Mount Hermon. Bochart of this ; having observed among the pebbles of the thinks that Cadmus, who conducted a colony of Phæni. shore, two or three shells of fish, resembling oyster cians into Greece, was a Hivite. His name Cadınus shells. The water of the lake is very limpid, and salt comes from the Hebrew Kedein, the east, because he to the highest degree; and not only salt, but also ex- came from the eastern part3 of the land of Canaan. tremely bitter and nauseous. Mr. Maundrel being The name of his wife Hermione was taken from Mount willing to make an experiment of its strength, went Hermon, at the foot whereof the Hivites dwelt. The into it, and found it bore up his body in swimining with metamorphosis of Cadmus's companions into serpents, au uncommon force; but as for that relation of some is founded upon the signification of the name Hivites, authors, that men wandering ivlo it were buoyed up to which in the Phænician language signifies serpents. the top, as soon as they go as deep as the navel, he

Azotus, see ASHDOD. found upon experiment not true. This lake receives all the waters of the river Jordan, of the brooks Arnon

B. and Jabbuk, and other waters which descend from all BABEL, a term which in the original import of the the neighbouring mountains; and notwithstanding it word signifies confusion, and therefore was used for the has no visible outlet, it does not overflow, for what it name of the city and province, wherein the famous gains in water, it loses in vapour, and by that ineans tower of that name was building, when God confounded the equilibrium betwixt the


and the the language of those men who were employed about supply from the rivers is constantly kept up,

this edifice, so that they could no longer understand one Assos (approaching to), a seaport town, situated on

another. Gen xi, 9. the south-west part of the province of Troas, and over against the island of Lesbos. St. Luke, and others of MORTIFICATION OF SIN BY THE CROSS. St. Paul's companions, in his voyage (Acts xx, 13), went by sea from Troas to Assos; but St. Paul went

Work your hearts to an hatred of sín by the consideby land thither, and meeting them at Assos, they all

ration of its being the cause of Christ's death. If a went together to Mitylene.

man had killed your friend, or father, or mother, how Arad's THRESHING-Floor, the place where the sons

would you hate him! you would not endure the sight of

him, but would follow the law upon him; as in the old of Jacob, and the Egyptians who accompanied them, law they did, if they fed not to the city of refuge. mourned for this patriarch, and which was afterwards called Abel-mizraim. St. Jerome fixes this place be

Send out the avenger of blood with a hue and


after tween Jericho and Jordan, three miles from the city,

thy sin : bring it before God's judgment seat: arraign it, and two from the river.

accuse it, spit on it, condemn it, and thyself for it.

Have it to the eros3; nail it there; if it cry “I thirst," ATHENS, so called from Athene, or Athenaia, Minerva, give it vinegar. Stretch the body of sins upon his a celebrated city of Greece, formerly a most powerful cross; stretch every vein of it; make the heart-strings and flourishing commonwealth, which eminently dis- crack. And then, when it hangs there, triumph over tinguished itself in war, but was still more illustrious the dying of it. Shew it no pity: laugh at its destrucby the glory it acquired from the learning, eloquence, tion. Say, thou hast been a bloody husband to me; and politeness of its inhabitants. As it would be in- hang there and rot. And when thou art tempted to it, consistent with our purpose to enter upon an historical and art very thirsty after the pleasure of it, say of that detail of this once famous republie, we shall only opportunity to enjoy it, as David said of the water of observe in this place, that St. Paul coming thither in Bethlehem, It is the price of Christ's blood; and pour the year of Christ 52, found the inhabitants plunged it upon the ground. -- Goodwin.

expanse of

"I DIE DAILY.” -I COR. XV, 31. Great God! thy energy impart, And write this lesson on my heart: Rouse every solemn thought, that I May ponder what it is to die. To die! and quit this house of clay, And unembody'd pass away, From all things mortal, and have done With all concerns beneath the sun ! When all my days shall be fulfillid, My character and state be seald, My naked spirit borne to God, And sentenc'd to its long abode. My change is sure, and may be soon; Each hast'ning minute leads it on. The shafts of Death around me fly, And every day I live -- I die. This, this my state, to die, I'd learn, And make it every day's concern: Then let which will be last (this may), I'm not unpractis'd in the way. O may I daily live above This desh, this world, and wean my love, And every day abstract my cares From mortals, and their mean affairs ! Spend every day as if 'twere last, And time redeem e'er time is past, And all its precious portions o’er, Redeemable, alas ! no more. Examine oft the state I'm in, Whether a state of grace or sin. If Christ has mark'd me for his own, He'll ineet me at his Father's throne. Rejoice, my soul, in such a stay, Jesus, the life, the truth, the way; And trace the footsteps of thy Head, Up where thy heav'nly hopes are laid. He'll guide me to my dying day, And bless it with a cheerful ray; Then to my soul a mansion give, Where bright immortals ever live.

LIFE LIKE A RIVER. Life may not uuaptly be compared to a river. It re. sembles a river in its rise: as the river rises pure and freshi, animating with its luxuriating influence every thing within its reach, so it is with life: it opens in innocency, and is at once the delight and the cheerer of all around it.

Life reseinbles a river in its course. As the river rushes on with irresistible force, unretarded by any obstacle, so it is with life. Man is precipitately carried down its vale, and every effort to impede its course is vain and useless. And as the river now runs smooth and gentle, and now again, by reason of wind and storm, becomes rough, agitated, and impetuous; so is life. Things run smoothly for a time; then comes the day of adversity, then come vexations and crosses; the passions are roused, and the bosom of man becomes as The surface of a troubled water. Again : as every prudent mariner provides hinself with a pilot, lest he strike on the sands and make shipwreck of his vessel; so must it be in life. Man must look to Jesus to be his pilot, he must take him for his guide, or he will inost assuredly strike, to his utter destruction.

Lastly, life resein bles a river in its termination. As the river flows onward, expanding more and more until it enters the vast and boundless ocean; so does life glide on, with daily widening view, till at length it issues in the ocean of immortality!


INTEGRITY OF SIR MATTHEW HALE. So sacred a virtue is justice, and of such vast importance to the Public, that it is the great concern of governments to trust the administration thereof to no persons but such as fear God and abhor covetousness.

When Judge Hale was holding a certain assizes in England, a gentleman who was to have a cause tried before him that assize, sent him a buck. The cause being called on, and the judge taking notice of the name, asked if it was not the same person who had made him the present; and, finding that was the fact, said he would not suffer the trial to go on till he had paid him for his buck. To which the gentleman an. swered, that he never sold his venison, and that he had done no more to him than what he had always done to every judge that came that circuit. But all this would not prevail on Sir Matthew, nor would he suffer the trial to proceed till he had paid for the venison; whereupon the gentleman withdrew his action.

A communication for B. Z. lies at the Publishers'.


O Lord ! thy heav'nly grace impart,
And fix my frail, inconstant heart;
Henceforth my chief desire shall be,
To dedicate myself to Thee;

To Thee, my God, to Thee.
Whate'er pursuits my time employ,
One thought shall fill my soul with joy;
That silent, secret thought shall be,
That all my hopes are fix'd on Thee;

On Thee, my God, on Thee.
Thy glorious eye pervadeth space,
Thou’rt present, Lord, in every place;
And wheresoe'er my lot shall be,
Still shall my spirit cleave to Thee;

To Thee, my God, to Thee.
Renouncing every worldly thing,
Safe 'neath the covert of thy wing,
My sweetest thought henceforth shall be,
That all I want, I find in Thee;

In Thee, my God, in Thee.

The CHRISTIAN's Penny MAGAZINE may be delivered weekly in the Towns of the United Kingdom, by those Booksellers and Newsmen to whom Subscribers address their orders. Being unstamped, it cannot be transmitted by post as a Newspaper. But for the convenience of our country friends and others, who cannot obtain the publication weekly, it is published every four weeks in parts, each including four numbers; excepting in June and December, in each of which a part will be published containing six numbers. No extra charge is made for the wrapper: so that the whole annual expense of the Twelve parts will be 4s. 4d.

The First Volume, from June 9 to December 30, 1832, may be had, neatly bound in cloth, price 3s. 6d.

London: Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppiu's Court, Fleet Street; to whom all Conmunications for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed ; - and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the

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N. 57.


JULY 6, 1833.


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BRITISH ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. No. VII.—The mission of Augustin to the Anglo-Saxons. s The Slave Trade,” however exccrable, as the most atrocious of crimes whose guilt can stain the human conscience, is an enormity of ancient date. “ Britons never shall be Slaves,” is a well known Bacchanalian chorus: but the faithful records of history declare that Britons have been slaves ; and that the traffic in the “ souls of men” was carried on to a considerable ex. tent between Britain and Rome, the metropolis of the world.

Slaves are mentioned by Strahn, who flourished in the reign of Augustus and Tiberius, as articles of commerce between Britain and Romc; and this criminal branch of trade was carried on for six centurics at least, till three hundred years after Christianity was established in the imperial metropolis. Sluve-dealing, however, in the Roman market, occasioned one of the most eventful Christian missions whose details are recorded in the annals of our couutry, the particulars of which will illustrate our engraviny:

Vol. II.

Pope liregory is said, while archdeacon of Rome, aboui A. D. 587, to have projected a mission to Britain through the following circuinstance. Walking one day through the market place at Rome, his attention was caught by some beautiful youths, offered for sale as slaves. This horrid traffic in human beings was carried on to some extent in that metropolis of Christendom, and by individuals among the Saxons. Gregory learnt that they were pagans, and that their countrymen were called Angli, the Latin word for the Angles. “Alas !” he exclaimed, “that the prince of darkness should possess countenances so luminous, and that faces so fair should carry minds destitute of eternal grace.” On being told that they were natives of Deira, the province of Northumberland, “These people,” said he, “should be deļivered de Dei iri[from the wrath of God). On being informed that their king was named Ella, “ Alleluja to God,” said he, still playing upon the sounds, "should be sung in those regions.”.

Gregory felt, or affected to feel, a desire to declar: the gospel to so interesting a people, and offered him self to undertake a pission for that purpose. Per. mission having been obtained of Pope Pelagius, be

2 E

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