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PENNY MAGAZINE.

N. 54.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

JUNE 15, 1833

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Inside of the Flat Cupola of the Church of the Holy Se

pulchre, and Outside of the Sepulchre.

PILGRIMAGES TO THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. A HISTORY of the Holy Sepulchre could not be given to our readers withvut much that is marvellous and legendary, and a portraiture of the horrors of the memorable Crusades. As we gave an account of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in No. 22 of the Chris. tian's Penny Magazine, we shall limit our remarks principally to the ceremonies which are observed at this celebrated place.

In galleries round about the church, and also in small buildings on the outside, are many apartments for the reception of friars and pilgriins; in which formerly almost every nation in Christendom maintained a society of monks, each society having its proper division assigned to it by the Turkish government. But the extortions of the Turks in rents and fees have caused all to relinquish their establishments except the Roman Catholics, the Greeks, the Armenians, and the Copts of Egypt. Besides their several apartments, each fraternity have their altars and sanctuaries allotted to their separate use, at which they have a peculiar right to perform their religious services, to ihe exclusion of other nations.

VOL. II.

Interior of the Sepulchre, and the Grave of our Saviour,

illuminated by forty-four Silver Lamps. The privilege of keeping the Holy Sepulchre has been the occasion of many contests and of much bloodshed in former times ; but the king of France prevailed with the Grand Vizier in 1685 to grant that honour to the Roman Catholics; and since that period they alone have had the liberty of saying mass in it, and of performing any other solemnities of religion. They have generally about ten or twelve priests, with a president over then, usually residing at this holy place; and every day they make a solemn procession, with tapers and cruciftxes, and other emblems of their religious system, to the several sanctuaries, singing at every one of thein a Latin hymn, relating to the subject for which the place is celebrated. But their grand ceremonies commence on Good Friday night, which they call " Var tenebrosa- the black night. A description of these will doubtless be interesting to our readers.

As soon as it grows dusky, all the friars and pilgrims are convened in the Chapel of the Apparition (whici is a small oratory on the north side of the Holy Grave), so called as being the supposed place where Christ appeared to Mary Magdalene after his resurrection, adjoining 10 the apartments of the Latins, in order to go in a procession round the church. But before they set

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out, ore of the Latin fathers preaches a sermon, during ceived into a fair large winding sheet, and carried down which all the candles are put out, to heighten the from Calvary, the whole company attending it to the -clewnity of the occasion. Sermon being ended, which stone of unction. This is taken for the very place generally lasts about half an hour, every person present where the precious body of our Lord was anointed and has a large lighted taper put into his hand, and all prepared for the burial. Here they lay down the imanecessary preparations are made for heginning the pro- ginary corpse, and casting over it several sweet powders cession. Among the crucifixes, there is one of a great and spices, wrap it up in a winding sheet, singing a size, bearing upon it the image of our Lord, as large hymn, after which, one of the fathers preaches a sermon as life. The image is fastened to it with great nails, suitable to the occasion. These obsequies being finished, crowned with thorns besmeared with blood; and so they carry off their fancied corpse, and lay it in the exquisitely formed, that it represents in a very lively sepulchre, shutting up the door till Easter inorning: manner the lamentable spectacle of our Lord's body And now, after so many sermons and so long and as it hung upon the cross. This figure is carried all tedious a ceremony, the weariness of the coinpany, and along at the head of the procession, after which the the time of night, make it needful to go to rest. company follow to all the sanctuaries in the church, The next morning nothing extraordinary passes. In singing iheir appointed hymns at every one.

the afternoon of Saturday, the congregation are assemThe first place they visit is the Pillar of Flagellation, bled in the area before the holy grave, where the friars a large piece of which is kept in a little cell, just at the spend some time in singing over the Lamentations door of the Chapel of the Apparition. There they sing of Jeremiah, which function, with the usual procession their proper hymns, and another sermon is preached to the holy places, is all the ceremony of this day. On in Spanish, touching the scourging of our Lord. From Easter morning, the sepulchre is again set open very hence they proceed in solemn order to the Prison of early. The clouds of the former morning are dispersed, Christ, where they pretend he was secured whilst the and the fathers put on a face of joy, as if it had been soldiers made things ready for his crucifixion. Here the very time of our Lord's resurrection. Mass is cele. likewise they sing their hymn, and a friar entertains brated in the morning just before the holy sepulchre, them with a sermon in Italian.

where the father guardian has a throne erected; and The next visit is paid to the Chapel of the Division of being clothed with episcopal robes, with a mitre on his Christ's Garments, where they only sing a hymn, with- head, he gives the host to all Christians who are disout adding any sermon. Having done here, they ad- posed to receive it, several Turks standing by as spec. vance to the Chapel of the Derision, at which after their tators. This being over, they retire out of the church, hymn, they have a fourth sermon in French.

and most of the pilgrims are entertained by the father From this place they go up to Calvary, leaving their guardian at the convent. shoes at the bottom of the stairs. Here are two altars to be visited; one where our Lord's cross was erected, and another where he is supposed to have been laid on THE SACRED FIRE, IN THE CHURCH OF THE the cross. At the former of them they lay down the great crucifix upon the floor, and act a kind of resem

HOLY SEPULCHRE. blance of Christ's being nailed to the cross; and after Pious frauds had a very eariy origin among the prothe hymn a friar preaches a sermon upon the cruci- fessors of Christianity. They arose with the corruption fixion, in Spanish.

of religion, and were designed to induce the ignorant From hence they remove to the adjoining altar, to embrace the profession of the gospel. Falsehood where the cross is supposed to have been erected. At and blasphemy are their essence, and words are insufthis altar is a hole in the natural rock, said to be the ficient to express the dishonour they have done to God, very saine individual one, in which the foot of our or the injury which they have occasioned to the souls Lord's cross stood. Here they set up their cross, with of men. The impious delusion of the Holy Fire," the bloody crucified image upon it; and leaving it in was first devised, according to Gibbon, in the ninth that posture, they first sing their hymn, and then the century; and, lamentable to acknowledge, from want father guardian, sitting in a chair before it, preaches of the saving knowledge of the Scriptures, it still exists a passion sermon in Italian.

in the nineteenth. At about one yard and a half distant from the hole Many travellers have described this gross imposition in which the foot of the cross was placed, is a remark- upon an ignorant people; but the following is from a able cleft in the rock, which in all probability was very instructive "Memoir of the Rev. Levi Parsons, first made, as it is said to have been, by the earthquake that Missionary to Palestine froin the United States," who happened when the Son of God suffered (Matt. xxvii, was ordained to his noble office in 1817, landed at 51-54). That this is a natural and genuine breach, Smyrna in Jan. 1820, and fell under his labours at and not counterfeited by art, the sense and reason of Alexandria, Feb. 10, 1822. He says, Every apartevery one who sees it (say travellers) must convince ment of the church was crowded with Turks, Jews, him; for the sides of it answer exactly to each other, Christians, and with people from every nation under even where they are inaccessible to the tools of the heaven, These assembled to witness the supposed workinan.

miraculous descent of the Holy Spirit, under the simi. The ceremony of the passion being over, and the litude of fire. It is estimated that at least 5000 people guardian's sermon ended, two friars, personating, the were present. The governor of the city and Turks of one Joseph of Arimathea, the other Nicodemus, ap- rank were there. A very convenient place was allotted proach the cross, and with a most solemn air both of me to observe distinctly every ceremony. About twelve aspect and behaviour, draw out the great nails, and o'clock we witnessed 'scenes of a very extraordinary take the feigned body from the cross.

It is an effigy

nature, and highly derogatory to the Christian pre30 contrived, that its limbs are soft and flexible, as if fession. A body of Arab Christians, patives of Palesit bad been real flesh; and nothing can be more sur- tine, were adınitted to perform their part in the duties prising than to see the two pretended mnourners bend of the holy week. They began by running round the down the arms which were before extended, and dis- holy sepulchre with all the frantic airs of madmen, pose them upon the trunk in such a manner as is usual clapping their hands, throwing their caps into the in corpses.

air, cuffing each other's ears, leaping half-naked upon The body being taken down from the cross, is re- the shoulders of their companions, ballooing, or rather shrieking to the utinost extent of their voices. braced the gospel ; but a persecution arose, and the This was the exhibition to five thousand people, who members of the scriptural society which had been were in expectation of soon witnessing the descent of formed at Meaux, were scattered through the nation, the holy fire.

by the vigilant Papists. In 1521, John le Clerc, “About one o'clock the Turks entered the small founder of the reformed community at Metz, after apartment of the holy tomb, extinguished the lamps, enduring grievous torments for the gospel, was burnt closed the doors, and set a watch." I was determined alive! And numerous were the sacrifices of the same to enter myself the holy sepulchre, with the Russian kind, which were made by the superstitious bigotry, or Consul, to see from what direction the fire proceeded. the popish policy of Francis; who personally assisted, But they replied, “The Turks will not give permission barebeaded, in a grand procession at Paris, in 1535, to strangers to enter! Shortly after, the principal while he was an eye-witness of the burning of six Greek priest entered the holy sepulchre, attended by the Protestants on account of their faith! Armenian patriarch, and also by the Syrian patriarch. Several celebrated preachers under the patronage of The Greek priest, however, entered the sacred apartment Queen Margaret, were eminent instruments in diffitsing unattended. Every eye was fixed as the time ap- the gospel. Among the great lights of France, proproached. As we stood waiting, suddenly there darted inoters of the Reformation, was John Calvin. He was from the sepulchre a flaminy torch, which was carried a man of extraordinary genius, immense learning, and almost instantaneously to a distant part of the assembly. flowing eloquence; which were sanctified by the most I stood among the first to receive the fire, aud to prove elevated piety, and improved by indefatigable industry. that, as to its power of burning, it contained no ex- All his talents were consecrated to the cause of Christ, traordinary qualities. The zeal of the pilgrims to get from 1534, when he embraced the doctrines of the Re. a part of the fire before the superior qualities departed forination. Calvin endured various persecutions from (as they say it burns like other fire in a few minutes), Francis I, to whom he dedicated his famous work, endangered the lives of many. Several were well nigh entitled, “Institutes of the Christian Religion.” In crushed to death. Some lighted candles, others tow, 1536, Calvin settled at Geneva, which becaine a city of with a view to preserve a part of its influence. Some the greatest note, through his learned and orthodox held their faces in the blaze, saying, 'It does not burn.' writings and commentaries on the Scriptures; so that Others said, 'Now, Loril, I believe; forgive iny former by his wisdom and industry, he became the principal unbelief.' After this the pilgrims retired, abundantly counsellor to the reformers in every nation throughout satisfied with what they had seen and heard.”

Europe, after the death of Luther. How truly distressing to reflect upon the mysteries Prance appears to have contained almost as many of our most holy faith being thus burlesqued, and the Protestants as even Germany, toward the close of the minds of men thus blinded and abused, upon the very sixteenth century: for in 1570, it was found that there spot where the Apostles preached so faithfully and were 2, 150 congregations, some of them including 2,000 effectually the doctrines of salvation by Jesus Christ ! members. Probably in no country have their persccuMay every Christian pray, that the people may be de- tions been more dreadful, and volumes might be filled livered from such absurdities, and their ininds blessed with most affecting examples of French martyrs. with the edifying light of the Scriptures !

Francis I was the rival of Charles V; and the wars occasioned by their ambition were most calamitous ; and to secure the influence of the Pope, they were both

led to sacrifice the Protestants in their several statez. REVOCATION OF THE “ IRREVOCABLE EDICT The French king manifested his zeal for the church in OF NANTZ."

a dreadful persecution of the Waldenses, and others

who were believed to have embraced the reforined AGREEABLY to our intimation, when noticing the death doctrines, to gratify his Holiness. Francis is reported of the late lamented Adiniral Lord Gambier, whose to have been heard declaring, “that if he thought the great grandfather was a persecuted French Protestant, blood of his arm was tainted with the Lutheran heresy, we here give soine notice of the “Revocation” of the he would cut it off; and that he would not spare his “ Irrevocable Edict of Nantz.” That transaction can- own children, if they entertained sentiments contrary not fail to be interesting to our readers; not only on to those of the Catholic Church.” How shocking to account of the calamities which befel the professors of live under the power of such a wretched bigot! the gospel, but the benefits which resulted to the Francis I died in 1547, and was succeeded by Henry II, manufactures of Great Britain. Previously, however, in whose reign a multitude of martyrs fell a sacrifice to a short sketch of the history of the Protestant faith in papal vindictiveness. In 1557, a congregation of Pro. France may be desirable, to render the circumstances testants was discovered in Paris; their place of meeting of that dreadful event more clearly understood.

was surrounded ; many of them were seized, and nine Learning had begun to revive in France, in common of them perished in the flames. Philippa de Luns, the with other countries of Europe, at the era of the Refor- widow of a nobleman of Gascony, was one of them. mation. The art of printing had been the means of This lady was only twenty-three years of age; in her circulating the writinga of Luther in France; and the execution she was inost barbarously tortured, with a Waldenses, in the southern provinces of that country, view to intimidate others. But the divine principles estimating their own numbers at eight hundred thousand for which she suffered, continued to spread; and many persons, contributed to diffuse the light of divine truth, persons of rank were known to be favourable to them, while they were encouraged in their profession of particularly Antony Bourbon, king of Navarre, and his Christ by the increase of scriptural knowledge ainong brother Louis, prince of Condé. their neighbours. Margaret, queen of Navarre, sister Henry II, we are informed, entered into the Parliato Francis I, embraced the doctrines of the Reformation, ment of Paris at the time it was being debated respectand afforded protection to the preachers of the gospel ing the punishment of heretics; and he gave orders, to the extent of her power.

that two of the counsellors, Faber and Du Bourg, Brissonet, bishop of Meaux, countenanced the re- should be apprehended, because they had expressed formed doctrines; and encouraged James le Fevre themselves favourable towards the reformers. Henry d'Etaples, William Farel, and Gerard le Roux, in bad declared, that he would “see the execution of preaching the truth as it is in Jesus, and many em- Du Bourg :” but while proceedings against these upriglit men were going forward, the king was killed by mangled corpse was cast from the window, 80 be a wound which he received in his eye at a lvurnument? dragged through the streets and burnt: it is said that Many regarded it as a mark of the Divine judg- his head was sent to Rome by the queen-mother! ment, recollecting his violent declaration.

Du Bourg

In the Louvre, many of the gentlemen belonging to suffered with a joyful hope in God his Saviour; pray- the king of Navarre and the prince of Condé, were ing, “O Lord, my God, forsake me not, lest I forsake killed under the king's eye. He himself is said to have thec."

fired with his long gun at the groups that he saw atFrancis II succeeded Henry; and having married tempting to escape by the river. Among the slain Mary Stuart, by her right he became king of Scotland : were Count Rochefoucault, Feligni, the admiral's sonbut he reigned only to the close of the year following, in-law, the Marquess Ravely, and Peter Ramus, a man when his brother Charles IX, only nine years of age, of great fame for his learning; and of all ranks, it is was placed on the throne. Catherine de Medicis, calculated, that, in the space of three days, there were inother of these two princes, had the chief authority in thus murdered no less than ten thousand in Paris. The the kingdom, and disputes were carried on between the young king of Navarre and the prince of Coudé were two political parties of the Guises and the Bourbons.

compelled to be present at some of the executions, The Guise party, with the cardinal of Lorraine and his and also to assist at a jubilee of solemn thanksgiving to brother Francis, were implacable in their hatred of the God for the success of this scheme declared so favourareformers; while the Bourbon princes, with Louis ble to religion! The massacre extended to all places prince of Condé at their head, patronized them. In in which these professors of scriptural religion were 1561, Catherine, affecting moderation, obtained a con- known. Private orders were sent to the governors of ference between the Papists and Protestants; but in the provinces to fall upon them; and similar scenes of vain, as nothing would be yielded by the Pope and blood were exhibited at Meaux, Orleans, Troyes, Anthe Council of Trent, and a civil war was the conec- gers, Toulouse, Rouen, and Lyons; so that in the quence, in which about 50,000 Protestants were sa

space of two months, it is computed that not less than crificed. As the Guise party prevailed, the inost 100,000 Protestants were tbus iurdered ! shocking barbarities were exercised upon the unoffend.

This horrible tragedy was well known to have been ing Hugouots, as they called the Protestants. By the contrived by the fathers of the Roman Catholic church. peace, however, in 1563 they obtained liberty of con

Medals to comemorate it were struck at Paris; and science: but the conflict was renewed in 1567, and the annunciation of it was received by the clergy in again in 1568; when in 1569, a new peace was made on Spain, and at Rome, with expressions of unbounded advantageous terms for the reformers,

exultation. The person who carried the news to Rome The Protestants thought themselves secure; as the was rewarded with 1000 crowns; and when the letters heads of their party were received at the French court of the papal legate, residing at the French court, were with expressions of liberality and kindness : but at that read in the assembly of cardinals, it was decreed, that period å most dreadful tragedy was being prepared.

the
pope .

should march with his cardinals to the church The pages of history do not record such' another of St. Mark, to offer solemn thanks to God for so instance of monstrous perfidy and malignant barbarity, signal a blessing conferred on the See of Rome! as was perpetrated in 1572 in France, under the cloak

The Protestant king of Navarre, and the prince of of the religion of Jesus, the Prince of Peace. The Condé, were devoted to the same destruction : but their Pope and his agents influenced the French king to re

lives were spared on their professing theinselves reconsolve upon exterminating, by one decisive effort, all ciled to the Church of Roine- the French king, with a the dissenters from the Roman Catholic church. For

terrible oath, proposing to them, “The Mass, Death, this purpose, many of the principal Protestants were or the Bastile for life!" Divine justice, however, could invited to Paris, under a solemu oath of safety, to cele

not be liribed. The guilty king could never afterwards brate the marriage of the young king of Navarre with pacify his conscience : his countenance indicated his the sister of the French king. The queen dowager of mental anguish; he could never sleep soundly, and he Navarre, a zealous Protestant, was destroyed before awoke in dreadful agonies : and soon after died in ex. the festival, by means of poison concealed in a pair of treme horror of mind. yloves! She bore her sickness with patient resignation Henry III succeeded his brother; and the Guises worthy of a Christian. “As for life," said she, “I am formed a confederacy, which they called the “ Catholic in a good measure weaned from the love of it, by League,” compelling the king to declare himself its reason of the afflictions which have followed me from

head. The duke of Guise and Henry III both perished my youth hitherto; but especially because I cannot by violent deaths! and the king of Navarre, after much live without daily offending my good God, with whom contention and various battles, succeeded to the throne, I desire to be with all my heart," &c.

as Henry IV; and though he had embraced the Roman A few days after, August 22, Admiral Coligni was Catholic faith, he granted the famous Edict, dated shot at and wounded in the streets of Paris ; when the Nantz, April 13, 1598. This decree was called “ IRRE. hypocritical king paid him a visit, and told him, “ You

VOCABLE;" by which they were allowed liberty of have received the wound, but it is / who suffer." The conscience, the free exercise of their religion, and royal word allayed the suspicions of Coligni; but the

access to all places of trust and dignity. With this same night a council was held to deliberate on the secnrity, the Hugonots becaine prodigiously increased, inode of accomplishing a general massacre of the Pro- to the inost grievous mortification of the blood-thirsty testants. St. Bartholuinew's Eve, at midnight, was the partisans of Rome ! time fixed, and the appointed signal was the tolling of a bell near the Louvre. The wounded admiral was

(To be continued.) apprised of his danger, and said, “I perceive what is doing-1 bless God I shall die in the Lord, through whose grace I am elected to a hope of everlasting life. A MARTYR'S FIRMNESS.-Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna You, my friends, flee hence as fast as you can, the pre- (supposed to be a disciple of St. John), suffered martyrsence of God is abundantly sufficient for me.” The doin A. D. 167, when he came to the stake, desired to murder of this venerable inan was the commencement stand untied, saying, “Let me alone, for He who gave of the bloody work. The duke of Guise himself waited ine strength to come to the fire, will give me patience to below etairs, with the chevalier d'Augoulême, till his endure the flame, without your tying.”

Letters to a Mother, upon Education.

lumes, are happily seconded by the opportunity which is

afforded by public national exhibitions of most of the LETTER XXIX.

creatures. The British public may now, in the metroOn Natural History and Nutural Philosophy.

polis especially, and in several large towns of the king

dom, amid the recesses of a public garden, behold the Dear Madam,

inhabitants of foreign deserts and mountains and forests A KNOWLEDGE of these topics (of course and lakes, each exhibited in his natural habitudes, and I mean to the saine superficial extent as of the ding) undistressed by the gree of confinement which in will be very useful to your child.

former times counterbalanced much of the benefit of By the former, you of course understand me to mean beholding them in the mind of the spectator. There a description of the different tribes of the inferior crea- the elephant bathes, the ostrich paces as if in the desert, tures, consisting of birds, beasts, fishes, and insects. the goat of Cashmere looks down from the rucks, and

The objects of this knowledge then are none other the alligator basks upon the bank of the stagnant pool. than the animated works of the great Creator himself. To read the description of such creatures which furIf we gaze with interest and delight upon the statue, nished by the press of the present day, and to visit which was the production of some ancient sculptor, and these and other exibitions of them, certainly constitute feel a veneration for the intellect of the man which some of the principal advantages of the rising generation. could imagine a form so lovely, and for the skill The resources of information with respect to natural which enabled him to give reality to conceptions so philosophy, or the description of the objects of the inbeautiful and exact; if we justly think we perceive animale creation, are equally abundant and desirable. reflections of the mind of the architect in the building, In most large towns of the kingdom, and at a very and of the artist in the picture;— with what intense small expense, lectures sufficiently extensive and procuriosity and awe inight we not expect that mankind found may be heard, upon geology, mineralogy, galwould gaze upon the works of the almighty, invisible vanism, electricity, chemistry, mechanics, hydrostatics, Frainer and Ruler of all !

&c. &c. illustrated by interesting experiments. Now The works of the Creator are also the most beautiful although the knowledge gained of natural philosophy of all objects. His conceptions, which are realized in from such lectures must be merely superficial, as indeed the works of his hands, are the standard of all taste and all natural philosophy without being pursued by mathe. propriety. In proportion as the work of any artist is matics must be, yet un attentive child inay derive from natural, that is, is conformed to the objects produced this source a considerable insight into the powers by the Divine Being, it is beautiful and perfect. How and properties of matter, the discoveries of inodern adinirable are the majesty and beauty of many species of science, and the application of the sciences to arts and the inferior creatures ! How indescribably interesting manufactures. And the knowledge of the existenge of are the tints of many flowers, the hues of the plumage such powers, qualities, and properties is valuable: it of many birds, and the colours of multitudes of shells will serve to add to his ability to conceive and illustrate and fishes! At the saine time the contemplation of the other subjects: it tends to expand his knowledge of the iininense variety of animated beings with which the Creator's works, and of His character from whom he reuniverse is replenished, from the whale to the animal- ceives every supply, and upon whom he must through. cula, from the condor to the insect of a day, from the out eternity be dependent. The knowledge of these clephant to the creature which can only be distinguished topics is also facilitated by the numerous small pam. through a microscope, tends to raise our conceptions of phlets and catechisms upon them which have been pubthe infinite resources of the power of God. Nor less lished within a few years, and which any public lecturer does the contemplation of the provision he has made upon them would readily point out to you. I refer to for their happiness, tend to enlarge our conceptions of such books as Pinnock's Catechisms, &c. his love. At the same time the countless tribes of At the same time it will rest with you to prevent the creatures inferior to man, may open our ininds to admit mischiefs which may arise from his familiarity with the existence of the intelligences superior to ourselves, these topics. Perhaps after having seen philosophical and which are not improbably as great in number and experiinents, or after having seen collections of shells, as varied in habits and capacities as those below us. vegetables, and minerals, or even coins and pictures,

I consider you fortunate, so to speak, that you live he may be seized with an insatiable desire to become a in a time when the facilities of contemplating these collector. Hence you will be put to expense, and he objects are greatly multiplied. The conductors of the will suffer loss of time and distraction of mind, for no Family Library, and the editors of several other similar earthly good whatever. In a few years he would assupublications, have presented to the world, but espe- redly despise and neglect the few shells, coins, plants, cially to the youthful part of society, an inestimable &c. which he might now collect, and even the electrical treasure of knowledge for the study of natural history. inachine, the possession of which he now thinks would The plates, representing the various animals in all their constitute the sum of earthly happiness. different habitudes, are most natural and striking; and Should he exhibit a craving for these objects, resothe description appended is concise, authenticated, and lutely yet skilfully and mildly deny it. Explain to free from objections.

him, that whenever he wants to see such objects, a A similar explication of the stores of natural history visit to a inusenm, or attendance at lectures, will has been made with regard to insects; and the public always employ him and gratify his wishes. That upon expectation has been encouraged to consider these as the saine principle that he wishes to set up in natural by no means the last effort of the same nature contem- philosophy, he ought to wish to be his own grocer, plated by the enlightened, liberal, and indefatigable apothecary, &c. l'hat in these, and indeed in every conductors of those publications.

other instance, except that of his own peculiar profes. These volumes generally contain easy and sensible sion or art, he must be indebted to others. Explain to allusions and inferences respecting the wisdom, power, him the doctrine of the subdivision of labour, and quiet and goodness of the Creator; and one of them has been his wish for an apparatus, &c. Should you fail, endeaconducted with an express view to the elucidation of these vour to get an introduction for bim to some one postopics : I refer to the book entitled Insecto-Theology. sessing such things. After he has been perunitted to

The strict adherence to truth and nature which cha- plague himself for • few days amid phials and maracterizes the plates and the descriptions in these vo- chines, he will bave become surfeited, and the expense

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