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sometimes show a marked remembrance of those who suspensions, which no land animal could endure. They have been kind to them. Even the hog we despise is have the same senses, but in feebler action, with the not destitute of thein, and is peculiarly sensitive of exception of sight. Their brain is proportionably weather. Most auiinals too evince pleasure at being smaller, they require less food, and can remain a long caressed.
time without any. Their manners are gentler: they From the sensibilities of quadrupeds, let us pass to exhibit no ferocity, and appear to enjoy a inuch longer the consideration of their indication of a perceiring and and more tranquil life. They usually inhabit the sea thinking mind. To collect provisions for their future shores, rivers and their banks, marshes, pools, and use, to hoard them in safe places, and to use them other wet and moist places; they herd together, are gradually for their daily sustenance, are actions in the generally inoffensive, and can be tamed; the young human race which display and require great prudence never know their mothers, nor receive any nourishment and foresight: a very large portion of mankind will not from them. exert either this forethought, or the self-government The Creator has made nothing that is unuseful, that alone makes it effectual.
nothing which is not serviceable or instrumental to The Scottish nation is eminently and honourably other purposes besides its own existence. This prin. distinguished for this intellectual quality. The lower ciple has been pursued throughout the animated classes Irish are too often conspicuous for the want of it. Yet of nature. No one species of living beings has been it is strikingly exhibited in the Alpine hares, who formed only for itself, or can subsist in absolute useliterally make hay for their winter food; in the active lessness to others. This is one grand purpose for and provident squirrel; and in the ingenious beaver. causing so many races of animal being to subsist on The quadruped animals, of their own will and nature, each other. By this system each enjoys the gift of and from inborn instincts, do actions which require life; and is made to contribute, by the termination of knowledge, reasoning, and judgment, in mankind. Rein- that gift, to the well-being of others. Fishes are thus deers follow and obey leaders of their own species. useful to each other, to many birds, and animals, and Elephants also make their journeys on the same plau, to man. Quadrupeds have the same double use in when necessary. Baboons have been found to make their existence - their own enjoyment, and the benefit defensive arrangements, like military tactics. Mules at their death to those who have been appointed to and cats make signals to have a door opened. The derive nutrition from their substance. The amphibious black bear's inode of fishing is as dexterous as any order of nature is no exception to these general results. schoolboy's could be, but much more patient. De- Its various genera contribute their proportion to the liberation and judgment, with real building skill, appear common stock of mutual utilities. as much in the beaver's construction of his cabin, as in
(To be continued) any human fabrication of a cottage. If it be foresight and caution in a military officer, to place sentinels to watch and give alarm ou danger, is it any other quality ON A PROPER COURSE OF STUDY. in animals who use the same precaution ? Marmots do this, the wild asses likewise, and many other classes. Letter to a Friend, in answer to his request to point If the assembling in societies among inankind, arises out a List of Books, which may serve to enable an from a sense of inutual wants, safety, and benefit, and English reader to acquire habits of correct reasoning, from sympathies that we term moral, must there not as well as to comprehend the elements of Moral be some feelings analogous to these in those species of Science. quadrupeds who voluntarily associate together? The social mouse pairs, and the families they form live toge
DEAR SIR, ther as neighbours ; the beavers unite from a distance
I have received your Letter, and shall into societies, for the express purpose of building their endeavour to comply with the request contained in it. habitations in vicinity to each other, and co-operate in I shall point out to your attention some elementary their labour, like emigrants in the wilds of America, to works in the order in which they are to be read, inaking build their log.houses and forest towns. Individual such observations upon them as I proceed, as may tend instances, of what in human beings we should call to exhibit the reasons for my recommendation. The contriving inind, have been also remarked in animals. books themselves are so connected one with another, as The squirrel's mode of passing a river, the jerboa's that the one immediately preceding introduces the next. provision for his escape if attacked in his retreat, the Altogether, I hope they constitute an introduction to opossum's inode of obtaining crabs which his paws the various topics of mental philosophy and moral cannot reach, the monkey's use of his tail as a hand or science. I have also endeavoured to contine my recomfinger, the bear himself finding out the plant which will mendation to as few books as are essential; yet I hope heal his wound and making and applying a plaister I have not carried my wish not to overbürthen your atfrom it, the wolf's caution too in taking the babe from tention, so far as to omit any that are really useful. the mother's bed so gently as not to disturb her, and You complain of "an inability to pursue a chain of their resolute co-operation in their fatal attacks, -are reasoning steadily to its conclusion; that you find your instances of a thinking power that desigus and com- mind invariably wandering away from the subject proprehends.
posed; that you do not see clearly the relation of one There is another class of animals called oviparous qua- idea to another, nor exclude needless steps in your ar. drupeds, the tortoise, crocodile, and lizard tribes : these gument." Although all this may very likely be true, spring from eggs, without parental brooding, like fish yet be assured it is owing rather to a fault in your eduand insects: and as they have left for our present
catiou than to a defect in your understanding. In a knowledge of their ancient nature, amid the destruc- word, you have not been taught to reason ; and reason. tions they underwent, some important fossil remains ing is as much an art as fencing: The most powerful of their bones and figure, they ought not to be omitted and acute understanding, unless it has learned to use in our general review of the economy of the primitive its own faculties, is really nothing more than what creation. The oviparous quadrupeds are very distinct a sharp and heavy sword would be in the hand of a from the figures and functions of the other quadrupeds. strong man, who was however ignorant of the rules of Their blood is not the red, warm fluid, but a cold and defence. It is possible he might do execution with it pale one. They breathe, but with frequent and long occasionally, but it would be owing to accident rather than to skill; and certainly would be enabled to do far where it can be procured; when this does not exist, les with it, even under the most favourable circum- the nature of the action is inferred from its tendency stances, than if he had been initiated in the best inethod to produce the greatest measure of happiness to manof using it. I shall therefore recommend you the study, kind. If this can be made out, it is inferred that the in the first place, of De Crouzaz's Art of Thinking. In action in question is agreeable to the will of God, whose this hook you will find an explanation given of all those perpetual will, is the happiness of mankind. This is rules in use among reasoners, which indeed they do not the true Paleian doctrine of expediency, of which you forinally allude tu whenever they reason, but under the will see no reason to be alarmed. I never yet found regulation of which their minds proceed by habit. that the man who condemned it understood it. In this,
In lieu of this book you might make yourself master as in many other cases, a word capable by itself of an of Dr. Watts's Logic, or even Duncan's Logic, which is ill sense, was used by the author; and persons who still less, and in a more compendious form.
never troubled themselves to ascertain the sense in From Logic you should proceed to Mental Philosophy. which the author used it, raised an objection upon it. For this purpose you will find inestimable assistance in There are many persons in the world, whose whole Mr. Locke's Essay upon the Human Understanding. power of argument is bottled up in a word, in an appel. You should spare no pains, and think no time too long, lation, in an epithet. If they can but use this, they to make yourself thoroughly acquainted with the con- discard all further discussion as useless. You will not tents of this book. His reasoning will appear much be desirous of being numbered in their society. plainer upon reading it over the second time. Un- The book to which you may next proceed is Butler's conquerable difficulties you should carry to some friend Analogy of Natural and Revealed Religion. Your precompetent to explain them. From this book you will vious acquaintance with the former will prepare you to acquire the habit of precision in the use of your words, understand it, and to share the benefit of perusing it. you will learn to attach the same ideas to them, to per- There you výill find a new field of evidence to the truth ceive when the ideas you have usually attached to them of revelation, derived from the obvious, universal, inare changed. You will also become acquainted with the variable tendency of human conduct upon human haptrue limits of the faculties of the human inind.
piness. You will then understand that there is a moral From Locke's works you should pass to those of Reid law in the order of providence - a law delivered, not upon the same topics, which you will find easy of pe- audibly indeed, but with quite as much effect by action, rusal after the former, and which comprise the next by a certain effect always being associated with virtuous, step of advancement in the science. You may then pass and a certain effect being always associated with vicious onward to the works of Professor Dugald Stewart, in conduct. which you will become acquainted with the present I advise you also to commence reading Doddridge's advanced state of mental philosophy. Along with Family Expositor more systematically and attentively these books, as a kindred study, you would do well after the perusal of those books : in the latter you will to read Euclid's geometry, at the rate of a few proposi- find precision and accuracy in the use of language, tions each day. Some intelligent friend will also he and habits of close reasoning, contributing their conable to put you in the way of reading this author, from centrated effects to simplify and explain the Scriptures whose works you will derive a knowledge of the method of inspired truth. of accurate reasoning. These books will communicate By a diligent, persevering, and exclusive study of to your mind the habit of requiring proof for every these books, for the next two years, so as to become thing, of discerning between argument and sophism, thoroughly accustomed to their contents, you will, I and of discriminating when a topic is established by doubt not, acquire those habits of mind, and that inforproof and when it is not; a habit of mind which is of mation upon the first principles of religion and morals, The greatest value, and which, when once acquired, can which you so earnestly covet. readily be directed with the utmost advantage to any subject of study.
I am, with best wishes, Having finished these books, I recommend you to
Dear Sir, yours, &c. make yourself thoroughly acquainted with Dr. Paley's
CLERICUS. Natural Theology, in which you will see the argument for the being of a God stated and illustrated in the ablest manner. You will also gain conviction from the
REFORM OF THE FRENCH CHURCH. perusal of it: I do not mean that you will become persuaded of the existence of a God; this you are already; “Who bath despised the day of small things?” said but you will find that your belief of it, which you bad the inspired prophet. Who can tell to what the follor. received upon prescription, or nearly so, now rests upon ing facts may lead ? The Patriot newspaper of last week its own appropriate reasons in your own mind. You remarks, A sect sprang up some time since in will also look with a new vision upon created objects, Paris, having for its object the shaking off all connecas specimens of the skill and power of the Creator. tion with the Pope. These sectarians call themselves Thenceforward, in the language of this invaluable au. The French Catholic Church. They disown the thor, “ the world will become one temple to you, and authority of Rome, or any foreign authority. They life a continued act of adoration."
performi the whole of their ceremonies in their own I recommend you then to proceed to his Evidences of language, that the people may understand that which Christianity, which consist of a condensation of the they are called on to profess. They moderate several numerous and ponderous volumes of Lardner's Credibi. of the ancient tenets, reduce the number of sacraments, lity and other standard works; but every thing needful and abolish the celibacy of the priesthood. In short, to the argument is brought together in Paley's Evi. they seem to take their stand not very far from the dences, which has been pronounced upon very high position of Henry the Eighth, after his first attack on authority to be the best book upon the subject extant Romanism. They are rapidly increasing their number in any language.
and infuence. A few months since they met in a You may then proceed to his Moral Philosophy, in small building, fitted up as a church, un'ope of the which you will find the nature of virtue, and the reasons Boulevards, in Paris. They have recently acquired for selecting virtuous conduct, most clearly stated. a much larger one, in the Rue St. Honore, and conThese reasons are, the express command of Scripture, template the necessity of obtaining others.”
course; or the sweet and simple notes of those gay and ON THE DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.
sprightly beings with whom the Deity has peopled the No. IV.-THE WISDOM OF GOD.
air; to lift our thoughts from earth to heaven, and look
through the wondrous productions of nature up to Him Pride is an evil of so great magnitude, that no means at whose command they all burst into existence. And which are employed can be sufficiently powerful to what is the lesson which every created thing teaches ? eradicate it from the human heart. Man being consti- When we look at the little insect, and discover in its tuted lord of the lower creation, and possessing 80 forn, not only perfect uniformity and beauty, but a much power over animate and inanimate creatures, seems to forget that there are multitudes of beings assigned it, shall we question his wisdom thus strikingly Euperior to himself, and that he is only one link in the declared ? Examination has always found, and the great chain of creation. It is nevertheless of infinite deeper we search the clearer I doubt not will the fact importance that he should be taught to feel his own appear, that there is some end to be answered by every insignificance, that he should be made to know how created thing, and that every created thing is wonder. small a portion of wisdom he has yet attained, and that fully fitted to effect this purpose. It is not only in it is therefore his duty to be clothed in humility. And the great and stupendous productions of nature that surely nothing can be better calculated to effect such this wisdom is to be seen, it is clearly pourtrayed in an object, than considerations like those which now the smallest as well as in the greatest, and pervades occupy our attention. Nothing more conduces to en- every portion of the Creator's works. The best producgender pride than ignorance. A man who knows no tions of men, are those which are framed according to more of the world than what he sees of it within the the model laid down by the All-wise Maker of the precincts of his own parish, --who thinks the heavenly universe. Every discovery and exertion of human host mere spangles in some real canopy of blue,--and intellect, tends only the more forcibly to illustrate the is unconscious of the mechanisin displayed in every wisdom of Him, of whom it may indeed he said, that insect that futters in the sunbeam ;-might be well dis- he has always chosen the best ends, and accomplished posed to look on himself as really important and great, those ends by the best means. Nothing is wanting for just because his situation, as connected with those human ingenuity to supply: no deficiencies of the around him, might be more lofty and elevated : but Creator to be made up by the creature, but all perfect when told that millions of beings swarm this earth, and sufficient. True it is, that as yet we know but a all endowed with rational faculties like himself; that very little of the wondrous things which surround us myriads upon myriads of irrational creatures derive on all sides; the wisest of our philosophers pronounce their support from its productions, and yet that this themselves but children, and confess that what they earth, with all its teeming population, is a mere nothing have discovered, tends forcibly to point out to them when compared with the numberless worlds which he how much remains unknown: hut yet let this form no sees above him; and when told moreover that all these, barrier to our admiration; rather let it exalt our ima. great and splendid as they may appear, are but a ginations of that unknown and incomprehensible Being, little part, a very little part of the works of ONE ALL- whose knowledge is too wonderful and excellent to be POWERFUL BEING; will he not be found to bow down scanned by human ingenuity. in the deepest humiliation, and confess that all his Nature, in all its endless forms and wondrous phefancied superiority is insignificance itself?
nomena, serves to illustrate this attribute of the Deity. Such are the feelings with which I am desirous of By what process a seed is eventually enabled to burst entering upon the snbject before us. And it opens through the ground which contains it, spring up and one of so immense magnitude and importance, that it become a tree wherein the birds of the air can build is difficult to select the most fitting subjects for medi- their nests, we cannot tell; these are operations over tation. All that we see displays infinite wisdom; and which a veil is drawn, and our best conjectures on the as the limit of the present essay prevents any thing subject cannot arrive at certainty. The animal kingdom like a minute discussion even on a few of the Creator's is no less strikingly proof that the wisdom which works, I must content myself with referring in general planned the universe, and peopled its boundless domains, terms to the following topics:
is of a greatness too immense, and of an accuracy too 1. THE CREATION is a lasting testimony to the in- minute, to be scanned by the reason of frail mortality. scrutable wisdom of Him who was its Author. Had it Nevertheless, we are enabled to discover the wondrous been permitted to any one of us to view the earth when fitness of each particular being to discharge the duties without form and void, and when gloomy darkness committed to its care. The eagle, whose province it brooded over it in death-like silence, and had we then is to soar beyond the limits of human perception, is been told to convert it into a beauteous and blooming endowed by its Creator with the faculty of sight in so structure, with wbat tools should we have accomplished great a degree, that it fails not to perceive its victim the object, or rather, on what plan should we have at an immense distance; and though when we cast our proceeded! Surely we must own that human ingenuity eyes upwards, or look around us, we may be unable would have been baffled: nay, more, that all the to discover any marks of the approach of birds of prey, faculties of the creature would have been locked up in yet let a carcass be exposed, and very soon it will be amazement, as he contemplated the shapeless mass found that vultures are hastening to make their repast before him. Let us suppose it possible that a human
B. 2. car could have heard the magnificent command, “Let
(To be continued.) there be light!” and seen its speedy accomplishment; and then let us strive to work our own feelings into a train similar to that which under such circumstances A Solemn Calculation. The aggregate population on would have rushed across the mind of him, who saw the surface of the known habitable globe, is estimated the wondrous achievement. Oh! it is most pleasing, at 895,300,000 souls. If we reckon, with the ancients, when the sun is shedding a genial lustre over all created that a generation lasts thirty years, then in that space things, to walk on the green carpet wherewith the 895,300,000 human beings will be born and die; conAlmighty has covered the earth; and when the sweet sequently 81,760 must be dropping into eternity every and soleinn silence is broken only by the murmuring day, 3,407 every hour, or about 56 every minute ! of a distant brook, pursuing its useful and almost silent How awful is the reflection !
Anniversaries of Religious and Benevolent
tion even yet in England, and the progress of this truly
national system and its exteusiou in foreign countries. Societies.
The central school is in a flourishing state. During the CHRISTIAN INSTRUCTION SOCIETY. past year, sixty-three candidates had been adınitted to
learn the system ; fifty-one had been appointed to the This truly “inestimable Institution” held its Eighth charge of (new) schools; eight schools had been supAnnual Meeting on Tuesday evening, April 30, at plied with teachers; fifteen missionaries had been inFinsbury Chapel. Lord Henley presided, and the structed in the system, to carry it, and establish it attendance was very numerous and respectable.
among the heathen. France is stated to be alive to the The services having been commenced by singing and importance of this system, having had opened 1,581 prayer, the Noble Chairman made an interesting schools. There are now in that country 2,900,000 speech, declaring, among other reasons for his attach- receiving the benefits of the system of mutual instruction. ment to this Society, that he had the authority of one Scriptural truth is decidedly advancing in France; large of the most learned and pious men in this country, supplies of Bibles and Testaments have been granted for stating, not more than one-fifth of the manufacturing by the British and Foreign Bible Society; and 40,000 population of England had any means whatever of copies of the Scriptures have been ordered to be printed, hearing or attending to the gospel of Jesus Christ.” by the Council of Instruction. Various other parts of
The Rev. J. Blackburn read the Report of the As- the world are noticed in the Report, particularly Greece, sociation. There were in the
and Western and Southern Africa, as baving been Associations. Visitors. Families. Prayer Meetings.
greatly benefited by this Society. The incoine of the Central Division, 14 277 ... 7,552 19
Society, during the past year, amounted to 2,9781. 108.6d. Northern .... 13 300 ... 6,767
and its expenditure to 3,2121. 118.7d. 11 181 5,175 7
The Rev. J.W.Cunningham, vicar of Harrow, mored, Eastern 12 213 ... 5,271
and H. Pownall, Esq. seconded the adoption of the Western
3 67 ... 1,208 1 Report. The latter gentleman remarked: “It has been Suburban 10 259 ... 6,479 28
proved, that out of 260 malefactors in the agricultural
districts, not one could read : that in the town of Bed. Total ......... 63 1,297 32,452 89 ford alone, out of 50 criminals, only 4 could read : that
in Hertfordshire, out of a population of 41,700, only In the 63 Associations there were 1,297 voluntary 24,220 were able to read.” agents, who statedly visited 32,452 families, and who The Rev. G. Clayton, of Walworth, moved a Resolumaintained, amidst the poorest neighbourhoods, 89 tion, acknowledging with gratitude the munificent doweekly prayer meetings. Those operations had secured nation of 1001. from liis Majesty : this was seconded by the constant circulation of more than 100,000 Loan the Rev. J. Philippo, late missionary at Spanish Town, Tracts every month, the issue of 586 copies of the Holy Jamaica. The references of this gentleman, to the Scriptures, the admission of 1,603 poor children into assistance afforded by this Society, in promoting educaSunday or Day Schools, and the temporal relief of tion in Jamaica, and its beneficial influence upon the 2,335 cases of distress during the past year. The local wretched blacks, were received with many expressions Prayer Meetings and Preaching Stations had increased of approbation. from 84 to 89, which were differently attended from The Rev. J. Burnet, the Rev. G. Marsden, Mr. France 50 to 150. The series of Lectures on the Evidences of of Plymouth, and the Rev. G. Clayton, further addressed Christianity had been continued during the past year, the Meeting, which was dismissed, after the Right Hon. and the preaching in Five Tents during the sunmer, Chairman had made soine observations on the word in the neighbourhood of London.
TOLERATION, which the Rev. Mr. Burnet had reproThe total receipts during the past year were bated, as having his cordial hatred. His Lordship ex1,1331. ls. 10d., and the expenses 1,3021. 8s. 9d., leav- pressed his concurrence in that expression of sentiment, ing the Institution in debt 1691. 68. Ild.
the word proper for such occasions was LIBERTY. The Meeting was addressed by the Rev. Dr. Morison; In referring to the speech of Mr. Philippo, his Lordship J. Labouchere, Esq. Treasurer of the District Visiting remarked, that he had a long employed himself indusSociety, belonging to the Established Church; the triously and usefully in the island of Jamaica. It was Rev. Dr. Styles ; W. A. Hankey, Esq.; the Rev. C. Sto- 10 exertions such as his thut we must look for the true vell; and Josiah Conder, Esq. Lord Henley vacating the welfare and prosperity of the colonies : for he trusted Chair on account of indisposition, Thomas Challis, Esq. that the time was now past when the safety of the colonies succeeded him : the Rev. Dr. Cox, and the Rev. Mr. was to be lovked for in the perpetuation of a state of Blackburn having addressed the Meeting, the business slavery and ignorance." We trust that such sentiments was concluded by singing “Praise God from whom all are cordially embraced by all his Majesty's ministers, blessings flow,” &c.
and that Colonial Slavery will soon cease for ever in all We know not in what terms sufficiently to commend the dominions of Great Britain. this apostolical and beneficial Society. But we trust its plan of operations will be adopted in every populous
RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY. neighbourhood, and in every, town throughout the kingdom, as admirably adapted by its peculiar system On Tuesday morning, May 7, the Thirty-fourth Annual of means, - Visits--- Loan Tracts — Prayer Meetings,- Breakfast and Public Meeting of this great Institution and Scripture expositions,--to evangelize and bless our was held at the City of London Tavern: it was most neglected population.
numerously and respectably attended.
Joseph John Gurney, Esq. of Norwich presided, after BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY.
the Rev. J. Dyer had implored the blessing of God on
their proceedings. As a inember of the Society of On Monday, May 6, the Twenty-eighth General Meet- Friends, Mr. Gurney had long hesitated to unite with ing of this noble Institution was held in Exeter Hall, the Religious Tract Society ; but, be observed, “the when the chair was filled by the Right Hon. Lord John longer he lived, the more he was persuaded that the Russell. Henry Dunn, Esq. read the Report, which welfare of mankind, civilly, morally, and eternally, was most interesting, showing both the need of educa- depended on the diffusion of the Gospel. And if there
was one circumstance more than another that indicated the progress of the truth, it was the extraordinary fact, of Warehamn ; the Rev. C. B. Wordman; the Rev. G. that 180,000,000 tracts, containing the Gospel, had been Gibbs ; G. F. Augas, Esq. ; G. Miller, Esq. ; D. Wire, distributed by this Society.” Mr. Jones read an ab. Esq.; Dr. Oxley; J. Buckland, Esq. ; and Mr. Moore. stract of the Report, full of the most interesting details. The Lord Mayor; G. F. Augas, Esq.; and J. Perry, Esq. “The total number of publications circulated in the each put down his name for Ten Guineas. G. F. Augas, year was 12,995,241, beiug an increase of 880,271 Esq. made the followiug weighty remark: that beyond the preceding year. The total circulation of moral condition of sailors, to whoin 130,000,0001. worth Tracts, in more than seventy languages, amounts to
of merchandize was committed in the course of a year, nearly 180,000,000. The total of the free contributions should certainly be no indifferent subject to British for 1832, was 3,3741. 6s. 7d.; for 1833, they are merchants.” 4,0701. 48.; being an increase of 6951. 178. 5d. The sums received for the sales of the Society's publications in 1832 amounted to 26,9491. 118. 8d.; for 1833 they
EXPENSIVENESS IN BLOOD AND TREASURE are 34,4601. 128. 2d.; being an increase of 7,5 717. s. 6d.
OF COLONIAL SLAVERY. The total amount of the Society's receipts for 1832, James DOUGLAS, Esq. of Cavers, the learned and eloincluding sales, were 31,3761. 6s. 1d.; for 1833, they quent author of “The Advancement of Society in are 40,0001. 148. 10d.; being an increase of 6,6241.88.9d. Knowledge and Religion,” and several other valuable
The Meeting was addressed by the Rev. W. Morgan, works, has recently published a pamphlet, which we of Bradford; the Rev. N. M. Harry, of London; the sincerely recommend to our readers : it is entitled, Rev. J. Alexander, of Norwich ; R. Peek, Esq. Sheriff " Address on Slavery, Sabbath Protection, and Church of London ; the Rev. W. Wade, M. A.; the Rev. J. Reform.” pp. 66. Thornton, of Billericay; the Rev. J. Dyer, Secretary On the former of these subjects especially, Mr. Dougof the Baptist Missionary Society; and the Rev. J. W. las makes some affecting appeals. He says,Alexander, a converted Jew.
“ The West Indies are an example, that the laws of
God are never neglected with inpunity, and that no THE PORT OF LONDON AND BETHEL UNION
lasting prosperity can be based upon injustice and
human inisery. Whether we look to the wretched SOCIETY.
slaves ; the bankrupt planters; or their creditors, the On Monday, May 6, the Annual Meeting of this useful merchants, who lend out their money upon usury, in Society was held at the City of London Tavern, the vain sought to be wrung out of the tears and blood of Right Hon. Lord Mountsandford in the chair. This wretched men; or to that portion of the British arıny, much-needed Society appears to have recently declined; which, to the disgrace of this country, forms the only still it is doing inuch good. The Rev. E. Múscutt read solid support of a systein as impolitic as it is unjust, the Report, which stated, that “Bethel-meetings at we everywhere behold the curse of an avenging God home had been constantly held, and well attended. The pressing heavily upon the abettors of this slavish ty. Floating Chapel was still supplied gratuitously by va- ranny, which is without its equal in atrocity, either in rious ministers : 4,067 sailors had attended public wor- ancient or modern times. If there is a spot in existence ship on board, and nearly an equal number of general (except the regions of eternal punishment) where all hearers: 987 books, and 34 Bibles and Testaments had things are contrary to the mind and laws of God, we been distributed by this Society among seamen. There must certainly find it in the West Indies, where property were 220 children receiving instruction in the Day. is robbery ; labour, tyrannous exuction ; law, merciless schools at Wapping : the patronage of the Merchant oppression; governors, murderers and men-stealers; and Seamen's Orphan Asylum had been considerably aug- where all things are conducted, not according to the mented': the institution had received 48 boys and 24 maxims of a wise and holy Being, but according to the girls during the five years of its existence. The Rev. derices of the enemy of human happiness.” J. Clayton; Capt. Smith, R. N.; the Rev. W. Hodson ; Mr. Douglas proceeds to answer the inquiry, - For the Rev. C. Hyatt; W. Manning, Esq.; Captain Orton; whose profit does this miniature of hell exist? Not, the Rev. Robert Ainslie; R. C. Hyatt, Jun.; R. H. Mar- according to their own showing, for that of the planters. ten, Esq:; George Jackson, Esq.; and the Rev. W. As far back as the twenty years from 1772 to 1792, the Drury, addressed the Meeting. Mr. Marten pronounced Committee of the Jamaica Assenbly reported, that a just eulogium on the character of the late President, there had been in the course of that time 177 estates Admiral Lord Gambier, who is succeeded in that honour sold for debt, and 55 thrown up; while, at the end of by the Right Honourable Lord Mountsandford.
that period, 92 cstates remained in the hands of credi
tors. Since that period things have become worse. THE SAILORS SOCIETY.
“ If then," continues Mr. Douglas, “neither the
planters nor the merchants are gainers by the colonial On Monday Evening, May 6, a public meeting, most system, is Britain a gainer? If squandering life and numerously and respectably attended, was held at the money be a gain to her, --if adding to her taxes, and London Tavern, for the purpose of forming a new So- providing graves for her soldiers,-if becoming a party ciety under the above denomination, having for its to wrongs which are crying to Heaven for vengeance be object the "Moral and Religious Improvement of Sea- gain to Britain, then has she found in the West Indies men.” The chair was taken by the Lord Mayor. an inexhaustible treasure. By an elaborate and mode
The Rev. E. Richards, of Wandsworth, having offered rate computation, the military and naval expenses of prayer for the Divine blessing, the Lord Mayor stated maintaining the West India islands in a state of slavery, the objects of the meeting. The Rev. F. A. Cox, LL.D. especially if the Mauritius and the Cape are added, proposed the first Resolution, declaring the expediency cannot fall short of 2,000,0001. sterling annually. The of the Society: the Rev. Doctor stated, as a reason for duties and drawbacks on sugar have been estimated, it, that there were 24,000 vessels, manned with more with equal care, at 1,200,0001. sterling; and if we add than 150,000 seamen, continually afloat, connected with the loss that we suffer from excluding the productions our country, and more than 10,000 continually within of the richest countries of the East, the total amount of reach of the metropolis. The Rev. Ř. Ousby, chaplain Britain's loss cannot possibly be much overstated at to the House of Correction, seconded the Resolution. 4,000,0001. a year.