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mation on the subject; and therefore on this point phi- for us, if He had not expressly revealed to us his conlosophy has peither guide nor restriction in its theories descending regard, and his invitation and command or researches,

that we should attach ourselves to Him. But this The fourth rotation of our globe was accompanied awful greatness nakes that revelation the more inestiby the formation and arrangement of our planetary mable to us; for without such a charter, and such persystem. At this period of our creation, Moses places sonal authority for our affectionate adoration and gratethe formation of the sun and moon, and expresses the ful duty, what could our reason suggest to us, while it Divine order that they should regulate the illumination contemplated a Majesty so tremendous, but a tremulous of our world, and divide our day into the two natural dread and silent despair? The idea is overwhelming, distinctions of visible light and succeeding darkness, that a human being has the power, and can exercise it, and become the cause of our seasons, and govern our of looking through millions of millions of miles of computations of time.

extended "space ! and that so amazing an expanse is Our system of animated and vegetable nature could pervious to the eye!- but niraculousness is the true not subsist without the suu: we conld not have our character of created nature. seasons, our daylight, or our years without him: he has therefore been made expressly for us, as also for

(To be continued) our sister stars, to whom he is apparently as indispensable. The stars with which we are connected are the six planets, known as Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter,

SONNET TO THE STARS. Saturn, and Uranus, and those four smaller ones discovered within the present century, and called the tele

Ye stars of midnight! orbs of unknown mould ! scopic planets, because they are not discernible without Centres of systems ! mansions of the blest! the aid of a very powerful astronomical instrument. That gild our darkness with your rays of gold, Of the creation of the rest, with which at present we And shine uninov'd in your eternal rest : have no relations, no account is transmitted to us.

Or are ye worlds where woe and want abound, They are indeed the most splendid mysteries of nature. Where vice and folly stalk in wild career? They are known to us only as radiant points, for no Where war spreads carnage o'er the fruitful ground, telescope can enlarge them; and yet their number

And blights the harvest of the bounteous year? seems to exceed all our powers of fully exploring. It Oli, mysteries of heav'n! your glittering beams is remarkable that they are undergoing changes for which we cannot account, but which display mighty

Deride philosophy ;-man strives in vain,

Through the most happy of his waking dreams, causes in active operation. Sometimes their alterations T' unlock the secrets of your vast domain. are gradual, and observable by human care, though not To Him alone your mysteries stand confest, explainable by the acutest minds of science. Some- Who spread you forth with His supreme behest! ljines they indicate an actual destruction. It is one of the wonders of creation, that any bodies at such an immense distance from us should be perceptible by human sight; but it has clearly been part of our THE SINFULNESS OF COLONIAL SLAVERY. Maker's plan, that they should so far be objects of our consciousness as to expand our ideas of the vastness of The Rev. Robert Halley, one of the Tutors of Highthe universe, and of the extent and operations of his bury college, has just published a "Lecture delivered omnipotence. The immeasurable expansion of the at the Monthly Meeting of Congregational Ministers heavenly regions, illustrated by the spleudid spheres and Churches, in the Meeting-house of Dr. Pye Smith, which mark the amazing extent, is, in the strictest Hackney, on Feb. 7, 1833." For this admirable pammeaning of the term, manifest infinity; for there is phlet the public are much indebted to Mr. Halley and nothing which denotes that what reaches our sight in to the associated ininisters, and we wish it were read them is at the last limits of existing nature. These by every individual in the kingdom, as the means of lofty mansions of being also indicate to us that they strengthening the determination to seek the annihilation have the same Creator as ourselves, and are but so of that accursed system. The reverend Lecturer says: many magnificent scenes of his sovereiguty and care. “To confine ourselves to the West Indies,- it has been Their very appearance exhibits such an analogy of shown in the Anti-Slavery Reporter, and never, as far nature with the radiant bodies of our system, that rea- as I know, contradicted, that on the ordinary law of son cannot but refer all the stellar orbs to one common increase, compared with the actual decrease, there has Author. The identity of light, which emanates alike been, since the abolition of the Slave Trade, a waste of froin all, precludes all rational doubt on this interesting life to the amount of 740,000 human beings. I have question.' That our light was His creation, we learn sometimes endeavoured to obtain data from which to from His scriptures: this fact will therefore justify us compute the number of Africans originally transported in referring it in other orbs to the same origins and to these western islands. It must have been much more nothing in the universe shows any marks of any other than 7,000,000. I wish I could find reason to believe creative power. One of the grandest circumstances to that estimate approached near the truth. There are which the contemplation of the heavenly bodies attaches now some 700,000, the scanty and iniserable relics. the attention, is the surprising distances at which they Neither war when raging in Europe,-nor the plague are placed, and the stupendous amount of space which in Constantinople, - nor the mournful cholera in India, they occupy by their circuits. Our Earth is above its birth-place, - nor any other crime of man, or curse 90,000,000 of miles from the Sun : Saturu is above of God, has effected so general a destruction as British 800,000,000 of iniles further off. The fact is subliine, avarice has wrought in the West Indies. Are the chaand vast beyond the power of our words to express, or rities of Englishinen frozen? Are their hearts, if they of our ideas to conceive: thought lapses into nothing - have any, encased in steel and adamant? Delay a little ness whenever it attempts to do so.

It is indeed a longer — amuse yourselves with preparatory measures marvellous mystery: it coinpels us to call creation an and gradual emancipation and a less tardy liberator infinite immensity it aggrandizes the Creator into a will have laid their bodies in the last rest of the weary, sublimity that would render it the most presumptuous and transferred their souls to thc avenging inillions folly for us to imagine that He could think of or care beneath the altar!”

BRITISH ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. troduced into Britain, and accounts the most extravaNo. VI.-Christianity from the arrival of the Saxons in

gant are told concerning the “Monastery of Bangor.”

Two thousand one hundred monks are said to have conEngland in A. D. 449, to the mission of St. Austin, A. D. 556.

stituted this fraternity, divided into seven courses, each

consisting of three hundred. Doubtless Christianity was in a measure promoted in Much exaggeration doubtless marks these traditions ; Britain, by means of the schools established under the but still there is abundant reason to believe that there influence of the French bishop Germanus. But existed at Bangor a flourishing community of Christian whether religion were advanced by the alteration of professors. Sloth and luxury, to a proverb, distin. the forms of public worship, in conformity with the guished the monks of the middle ages, ignorant and rites and ceremonies of Gaul, we have no evidence. superstitious, when nobles and kings, by mistaken On the coutrary, Bede testifies that corruption in life charity, loaded them with wealth. But this could not and manners increased among the Britons.

have been the case with the Welsh monks of the fifth The Saxons, with martial fierceness, maintained century: they seem to have supported themselves themselves in Britain, where they had been invited only in a frugal manner by the labour of their own hands, as auxiliaries. And not satisfied with seizing the lands, while a certain number of them, in a regular rotation, these merciless idolaters trainpled upon the forms of were performing the appointed offices of religion. Christianity, and persecuted its professors : Gildas and Dubricius, already mentioned, held a synod at Brevi, Bede also bear this testimony concerning them. The in Cardiganshire, and condemned the Pelagian errors. latter was a Saxon ; yet he says, “By the hands of the Several other Christian pastors of this period, are comSaxons a fire was kindled in Britain, that served to ineuded as devoted to their work. execute the vengeance of God upon the wicked Britons, David, the successor of Dubricius, was son of a British as he had formerly burnt Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. prince, and famed for his pious austerity. He held a The island was so ravaged by the conquerors, or rather synod at Vittoria ; in which the orthodox decisions of by the hand of God making use of them as instru- Brevi were ratified. David is honoured with the title ments, that there seemed to be a continued flame from of Saint, and from him Menevia is now called St. David's. sea to sea, which burnt up the cities, and covered the Various miracles are attributed to St. David, who died surface of the whole. Public buildings fell in one in 529, aged 146 years. common ruin. The priests were murdered on the Cardoc died in 570, leaving a great fame as the abbot altars ; the bishop with his flock perished by fire and of Lancarvan, and as having expended his whole income sword without distinction; no one daring to give an in the support of 300 priests. honourable burial to their scattered bodies."

Kentigern, son of a Scottish princess, was abbot of Exposed to the murderous sword of the Saxons, Glasgow. His abstinence from aniinal food, and other those who escaped, fled to the more remote parts of the austerities, are highly commended. He is said to have country. We have not had even the names of the travelled into Wales on a mission to found a religious British pastors preserved, except those of Theon and society; which having done, he returned to his monasThadiuck, dignified with the title of archbishops of London tery and died in 560. and York; and these were obliged to flee for refuge Asaph was a favourite of Kentigern, hy whom he was into Wales. Our records of British Christianity in this appointed to preside over the monastery in Wales. period, therefore, relate only to a few pastors in Wales, He wrote the life of his patron, and died in 590, leaving Scotland, and the sister isle.

his name to the Welsh city of St. Asaph. Dubricius is mentioned as a devoted pastor at Llan- Gildas of Badon, or Bath, surnamed the Wise, was a daff, and afterwards of Caerleon, of which in following inonk of Bangor. He wrote a work concerning “ The ages he was honoured with the title of archbishop, as that Destruction of Britain ;” and from him chiefly we city was the metropolis of Wales. Two schools are learn the condition of the Britons in his time, as he is the said to have been established by this zealous minister, only British author of the sixth century. He was born one at Hensland, and the other at Mockrost; in which in Wales, iv 511; it is thought he was educated in himself laboured as the schoolmaster.

Ireland, and became a zealaus preacher of Jesus Christ Bangor also, near to Chester, had a noted school, in Britaiu. He is believed to have died about the year which at length became famous for its inonastery, and 570. for the great number of its monks.

Sumpson is the name of two ecclesiastics of note. Monachisın is no part of Christianity : but this Sampson the Elder is said to have come from Armorica ecclesiastical system originated in Egypt, in the third in France, to be made archbishop of York. Sampson century, from “ Paul the Hermit."

This man was

the Younger, of royal extraction, is said to have been driven into the desert by the baseness of his covetous made an archbishop, and sent from Armorica into sister, who, with her husband, threatened to inform England in search of an archiepiscopal see: but unable against him as a Christian, and thus obtained possession to establish himself among the Saxons, he returned of his estates in the time of the Decian persecution. home, and became archbishop of Dol. Several meHe remained in his solitude for ninety years, and died moirs, carried by him from England, but now lost, are at the age of one hundred and thirteen, having acquired said to have contained some valuable records of the the greatest reputation for piety, and engaging many to British churches. follow his example.

Patern, the son of a nobleman in Armorica, after Anthony, at the close of the fourth century, is re- twenty years study in Ireland, came as a minister of garded as the father of Monachism: as he formed the

peace among the Welsh princes. He settled at Carsolitaries into a regular society, and prescribed rules cigan, but died in his native country, venerated for his for the direction of their conduct. His disciples exemplary holiness of life. St. Pachomius and Hilarion promoted similar fraterni- Petroc of Cornwall was famed for his piety; and from ties in Palestine and Syria ; and Aones or Eugenius, him the town of Padstow, or Petroc-stow, is named. aided by Gaddanas and Azyzas in the same age, esta- He is said to have died at Bodmin. blished them in the east of Europe, through many St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, deserves to be parts of which they spread, generally superseding inentioned here, as he was born in 373, at kirk-Patrick scriptural religion by various forms of superstition. in Scotland, and became the inost famous of all the Monachism being fainous in all the east, was soon in- ecclesiastics of the British Isles in his day. His British name, given at his baptism, was Suceath, meaning God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy Valiant in war. By some pirates he was taken prisoner, son, nor thy daughter, thy inan servant, nor thy maid and carried into Ireland, where he was purchased by a servant, nor thy cattle, nor the stranger that is within person named Milicho, in whose service he continued thy gates : for in six days the Lord made heaven and six years, and acquired the Irish language. At length earth, the sea, and all that in tliein is, and rested the he escaped, and after about two years, he formed a seventh day; wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath design of converting the Irish. Having spent thirty- day and hallowed it.” five years in preparatory studies on the continent, he Should any object, as some have done, that this is a was consecrated bishop of Ireland by Pope Celestine,

command to the Hebrews, and not obligatory on us : who gave him the name of Patricius, expressive of his they should be reminded, that that error arises from a illustrious descent. He arrived in Ireland in 441, and forgelfulness of the sanctification of the Sabbath at the his first convert was Sinell, the eighth in descent from

creation, and its ordination for the benefit of all mankind. Cormac, the renowned king of Leinster. He proceeded We are persuaded that Sunday gardening is as inno. to Dublin, and into Ulster, where a remarkable barn cent as any other mode of violating the commands of was fitted up for a church, which afterwards became God: but if we only admit the certainty of our being the famous Abbey of Saul. After seven years he re- judged at the righteous tribunal of God, and rewarded turned to Britain, which he is said to have delivered or punished according to our works, dangerous and from the heresy of Pelagius; and, with several persons

dreadful will this custom appear! We are unwilling engaged as his assistants, in thirteen years he completed

to throw obstacles in the way of our industrious methe work of converting all the people of Ireland.

chanics enjoying themselves, or breathing the fresh Having visited Rome, to give an account of his success, air : but we are confident, that the health, the haphe returned and spent the remainder of his days be. piness, and the advantages of our poorer neighbours, tween the monasteries of Armagh and Saul, enforcing

would be proinoted in a far greater degree by early the doctrines he had preached. After having esta- rising, cleanliness, and attendance at the house of God. blished several schools, Patrick died, March 17, 493,

Observation for many years has convinced us, that aged one hundred and twenty yeurs.

those who are accustomed to spend their time on a Numerous miracles are attributed to St. Patrick, and Sunday morning in gardening, are among those who differeut accounts are given of bis life and ministry. are most disposed to injure their health, and their It is to be noted, that besides St. Patrick called the families, by, pervicious habits in the afternoon and “Great,” the “ Apostle of Ireland,” there were two

evening. We have known many, who, after labouring others of this name mentioned, Patrick the elder, who all the Sunday inorning in gardening, have passed the died in 449, and Patrick the younger, nephew of the

remainder of the sacred day at home in their ordinary Saint, and who survived his uncle several years.

week day attire, drinking, and indulging in conversation What was the degree of scriptural knowledge pos

unworthy of a rational being" ; and having thus spent sessed by these distinguished ecclesiastics-how far the day of God, in a manner that will not bear reflecthey preached the pure doctrines of the gospel-and in tion, they have retired to bed in a state of worse than what degree the people who enjoyed their ministry beastly intoxication, their health impuired, their chilwere truly evangelized-we have but scanty means of

dren encouraged in ungodliness by the example of their ascertaining. While truth requires us to remark, that parents, and the most effectual preparation made for a all the accounts which we possess, relating to these numerous train of miseries in this life, and for the times, abound with the most ridiculous fables,-notices

inconceivable torments of eternity! of the most superstitious and puerile rites and ceremo- How will the Negro slaves in Jamaica rise up in the nies, and extravagant stories of miracles, with but day of judgment against British profaners of the very little reference to the blessed word of God.

Sabbath! They are obliged to cultivate their proviArchbishop Usher states, that about the time of

sion-grounds on that holy day, as the principal ineans St. Patrick, Ireland had three hundred and sixty-five of their subsistence; or, having gathered the fruits churches, with as many bishops, some of whose reve- of their garden, to carry them many miles to market nues were so small, that they had no more than the on the Sabbath, to procure by this means some of the pasture of two milk beasts. With bishops to the se. necessaries of life! Should any of those who are acveral churches, we may hope that there was much customed to the unhallowed work of Sunday gardening pastoral piety, and many of the people blessed with read this paper, we besecch them to consider

how they much of the simplicity and purity of the gospel of

will justify theinselves at the judgment seat of Christ'; Christ. Besides, the influence of Christianity, imper

and henceforth seek the cultivation of their minds in fectly as it was then generally understood aud pro

the fear of God, reading his holy word, and seeking fessed, and mingled with many silly rites, was infinitely his salvation by the only Redeeiner of sinners. We more benevolent and the means of happiness among

are confident that our industrious mechanics will find the people than the barbarism of pagan idolatry: yet the advantage of the counsel we are giving, not only in the historic records of those times evince the aspiring their peace of conscience, but in their present health ambition of the ecclesiastics, indicative of the advanc- and comfort. Instead of being accessory to the daming progress of Antichristian Popery.

nation of their children, recommending ungodliness by their pernicious example, they will be the means of

training them for honour, happiness, and heaven. “ For SUNDAY GARDENING.

bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitaThis mode of violating the holy law of Almighty God,

bie to all things, having promise of the life that now is,

and of that which is to come.” I Tim. iv, 8. prevails to a lamentable extent in the vicinities of London and of the large towns in the country. Possi. bly some may prosecute their labours in the garden, on the Lord's day morning, unconscious of any parti

King George the First is said to have observed respecting cular criminality : but such persons cannot have con- a sermon which was excellent in doctrine 'but oversidered the terins of the Divine law, in relation to the charged with figurative language, that “the tropes and sacred day. “ Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it metaphors of the speaker were like the brilliant wild holy: six days shalt thou labour, and du all thy work : flowers in a field of corn, very pretty, but which did but the seventh day is the sabhath of the Lord thy very much hurt the corn.”

HEAVEN AND EARTH.
Behold yon bright array

Before the sapphire throne;
There young nor old, nor rich nor poor,

There bond nor free, are known.
At once they strike their lyres ;

At once break off ; ---- and all,
With trembling joy and silent love,

In adoration fall.
Whate'er their lot below,

As fellow-heirs of bliss,
In heav'n their services are one :

Let earth be heav'n in this !
As brethren, so may we

Worship with one accord :
In stillness wait, in prayer bow down,

Stand up and bless the Lord.
As pilgrims on our way,

God's earthly courts we fill ;
And travel on from strength to strength,

Abreast to Zion's hill.
There may our spirits ineet,

When faith is chang'd to sight,
Where the Lord God himself shall be

The temple, life, and light.
Where on the sea of glass

The ransoin'd nations sing,
And to the Lamb upon the throne
Eternal glory bring.

MONTGOMERY.

THE SAILORS' AND SOLDIERS' CHRISTIAN

FRIEND, AND POCKET COMPANION. Dedicated, with permission, to Admiral Lord Gambier

and to General Lord Viscount Lorton. By Thomas Timpson, author of “A Companion to the Bible," &c. &c. 32.no. cloth, pp. 288. London, Book So.

ciety, 19, Paternoster Row. We are glad to see this admirable little work brought out under such distinguished patronage; and cordially recommend it to those for whose use it is especially designed, as eminently calculated for the promotion of their everlasting welfare. Many of our brave defenders by sea and land have become seriously alive to the im. portance of religion, and their number, there is good reason to hope, is constantly and rapidly increasing. Such will here find a directory well suited to their wants and circumstances, from its brevity, its clearness, and the affectionate tone which pervades the whole treatise. The following analysis will exhibit the author's plan.

Chap I. Affectionate Address to Sailors and Soldiers. II. The Evidences of Christianity. III, Heads of Christian Doctrine. IV. A Directory to Prayer. V. A Directory to the Lord's Supper. 'VI. A Directory to the Bible. VII. Anecdotes of Sailors. VIII. Anecdotes of Soldiers. IX. Select Personal Hymns. X. Select Social Hymns.

Froin the Preface we learn that the work dertaken, after much inquiry and deliberation, partly at the request of several devoted friends of sailors and soldiers, by whom the author was assured that no such volume existed; partly from a conviction that such a Manual was much needed; and partly from his having witnessed the habits of sailors and soldiers in the ports of London, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, Gravesend, Chatham, Sheerness, Portsmouth, and Liverpool

, and several military barracks and stations."

Those who have friends in the Army or Navy will find this volume a present as suitable as it is cheap. It is written in a concise yet perspicuous style, and the anecdotes are well adapted to gain the attention and gratify the taste of the naval and military reader. But though written more expressly for these classes, the work may be perused with advantage by all who need elementary Christian instruction. We trust the worthy author will see the blessing of God resting upon his labours, by a very large circulation of this useful and much-needed little volume.

was un

Death of the Bev. Rowland Hill, M. A. With mingled feelings of grief and joy, we announce the decease of the venerable Rowland Hill. This event took place at his house, Surrey Chapel, London, on Thursday evening, April 11, 1833.

As we purpose taking further notice of the character and labours of this eminent servant of Christ, we can only remark here, that a few days before he entered into immediate “communion with the church of God” in heaven, he stated to the writer of this his intention to publish a new edition of “Dr. Mason's Catholic Communion of the Church of God” on earth. That work contains a fine illustration of his amiable spirit. This eminent example of Christian faith and benevolence, would have completed his eighty-ninth year had he lived till next August.

“ The nearer a man comes to the inirror of God's holiness, the more he sees of his own deforinity.”

IS NOT RELIGION THE PARENT OF

MELANCHOLY? “It is common,” says Dr. Cox, in his Female Scripture Biography, "to represent religion as incompatible with true enjoyment, and to describe those who are under its influence as gloomy fanatics, dragging out a miserable existence, the dupes of prejudice and the slaves of melancholy. If a per. petual sense of the Divine presence, a well-founded confidence of pardoned sin, free access to the throne of mercy, abundant cominunications of spiritual good, and lively auticipations of a felicity beyond the grave, commensurate with the capacities of an immortal spirit and with the everlasting ages of eternity; if these produce wretchedness, then, and in no other case, is religion a source of misery.”

The first volume of the Christian's Penny Magazine, from June to December 1832, may be had, neatly bound in canvass, price 38. 6d. Ibrough any Bookseller or Newsman; and also any of the preceding Parts or Numbers. A specimen of the Embellishments in the First Volume is printed on a large Sheet, price 2d., which will be found to contain some beautiful articles for Books of Prints.

The demand for the Sheet of Engravings having been inuch greater than was anticipated, it has been found necessary to reprint it. Subscribers and others can now be supplied through the usual channels.

London ; Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court,

Flect Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed; - and sold by all Booksellers and Newsnen in the

United Kingdoin. Hawkers and Dealers Supplied on Wholesale Terins, by Strill, Paternoster

Row; BERGER, Holywell Street, Strand; F. BAISLER, 124, Oxford Street; and W.N. BAKBR, 16, City Road, Finsbury.

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BABYLON. Babylon, the metropolis of Chaldea, is considered the inost ancient of all the great cities of antiquity. Every reader of the Bible inay learn from its inspired pages its origin and glory, and its idolatries and wickedness, on which account it was doomed of God to utter ruiu. But its present circuinstances of desolation are testified by modern travellers, whose writings form the most marvellous commentary upon the threatened and recorded judgments of God. Babylon was founded by the first descendants of

enlarged by Nimrod, his great grandson, about 2,000 years before the advent of Christ. Many additions were made to it by the famous queen Seiniramis, and it was greatly strengthened and beautified by several succeeding sovereigns; but it was the celebrated Nebuchadnezzar, and his daughter Nitocris, who perfected this wonderful city, by raising it to the highest possible pitch of magnificence, splendour, and glory: Not a little of its riches was derived from the wealth of the temple of Solomon at Jerusalem. 2 Kings xxiv, 10—16; Dan. ii, iii, iv.

Babylon was situated in the inidst of a vast plain, which was watered by the “great river Euphrates." The river flowing from nortli to south, divided the city into two parts, which were surrounded by a wall; and

Vol. II.

the whole, forming a complete square, was 480 furlongs, or 60 miles in circuit. This magnificent city had 50 grand streets 15 miles long, 25 streets from side to side, traversing the whole area from gate to gate, and intersecting each other; the whole was divided into 625 squares. Each side of the river had the convenience of a strong quay, and a high wall of the same dimensions with the wall around the city. The entrances to the city were by one hundred gates of prodigious size, made of solid brass; and the two parts of the city were connected by a prodigious stone bridge. To prevent inconvenience from the swelling of the river, two bundant waters were carried off into the Tigris. Besides which, prodigious embankments were formed, ef. fectually to confine the stream within its channel, and as a security against inundation. The materials for these stupendous works were taken principally from the western side of the city, and the excavations forined an iinmense lake, the depth of which was 35 feet, and its circumference 45 miles.

At the ends of the bridge were two magnificent palaces, which had a subteraneous communication with each other, by means of a vault or tunnel under the bed of the river. The old palace, on the east side, was about 30 furlongs in compass, surrounded by three separate walls, one within another. The new palace, on the opposite side, was about four times as large as the

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