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quails must have been fed as well as brought by a (Continued from p. 94.)
miracle, if they had continued with the Israelites; and Appui-Forum, a place about fifty miles distance
might they not, without the like miracle, have died of
thirst in the wilderness? We cannot therefore suffici. from Rome, where St. Paul was met by some devout Christians in his journey to that city. This place is
ently admire the great care and wisdom of God, in supposed to have received its name from the same Ap
providing the camel for the traffic and commerce of
these and such-like desolate countries. For, if these pius, who gave name to the Appian Way. Acts xviii, 14.
serviceable creatures were not able to subsist several APOLLONIA (perdition, or destruction), a city of Mace
days without water, or if they required & quantity of donia, through which, and Amphipolis, St. Paul passed nonrishment in proportion to their hulk, the travelling in his way to Thessalonica. Acts xvii, i.
in those countries would be either cumbersome and ARABIA (evening, or a desert place, or mixtures), a expensive, or altogether impracticable. large country of Asia, extending from the river
ARAM (highness, or magnificence), the fifth son of Euphrates to Egypt, and so lying to the east and south of the Holy Land. This country took its name from
Shem, was the father of the Syrians, who from himn
were called Arameans or Aramites. There are many its inhabitants, being a mingled people, composed of Ishmaelites, Midianites, and Amalekites, the word Arat
countries distinguished by this name in Scripture.
Aram Naharim, or Syria of the two rivers ; i.e. Mesodenoting in the Hebrew language, to mix or mingle, and the derivation Oreb or Arabim, a mixed multi
potamia; Aram of Damascus, Aram of Soba, Aram of
Bethrohob, Aram of Maachah, because the cities of tude. This country has been froin early times dis
Damascus, Soba, Bethrohob, and Maachah, were in tinguished into three parts. Arabia Felix, or the
Syria, or at least because Syria contained the cantons happy, to the south, so styled from its rich products,
of Damascus, Soba, &c. Homer calls those Arameans, and famous for the queen of Sheba, who came to hear which the Greeks and more modern times call Syrians ; the wisdom of Solomon, and whose kingdom was situated in this fertile country: Arabia Petræa, either
(see Iliad II, ver. 783, &c). The prophet Amos (ix, 7), 80 called from its capital Pétra, built on a rock, or
seems to say, that the first Arameans (Assyrians), from the rockiness of the whole division, being full of
dwelt in the country of Ker, in Iberia; and that God
brought them froni thence, as he did the Hebrews mountains, ainong which is Mount Sinai (or Horeb), so famous in sacred scripture. Not far from which,
from Egypt; but when this transmigration happened
no one knows. It must be very ancient, since Moses south or south-west, within the bounds of Arabia Petræa, was situated the land of Midian, whither
always calls the Syrians, and people of Mesopotamia, Moses fled out of Egypt, and which was doubtless so
Aramites. The name Syri, or Syria, is derived from
Tyre, or Tor, a place which Homer never mentions, it called from Midian, a son of Abraham by Keturah. As Arabia Petræa lies to the north of Arabia Felix,
being perhaps not then grown famous, cven if it was
built. so still more north, or rather north-east, lies the third division, Arabia Deserta, so called from its barren ARARAT (the curse of trembling), a famous mountain deserts, and large uncultivated plains. We cannot in.
in Armenia, on which Noah's ark is said to have rested deed in either of these divisions (as Dr. Shaw observes)
after the deluge, Gen. viii, 4. It is affirmed, but withbe entertained with pastures clothed with flocks, or
out any good proof, that some remains of Noah's ark with valleys standing thick with corn, or with brooks
are still to be seen upon the top of this mountain. of waters, or fountains, or depths that spring out of
John Struis, in his voyages, assures us, that he went the valleys or hills. Here is no place of seed, or of
up to the highest part of it; and that a hermit who figs, or of vines and pomegranates. But the whole is
abode there, declared to him, that some broken pieces an evil place, a lonesome, desolate wilderness; no
of the ark were still to be seeu there, and at the saine otherwise diversified than by plains covered with sand,
time presented hiin with a cross inade out of the wood, and by mountains made up of naked rocks and pre
belonging to this famous vessel. But M. de Tournefort, cipices. _Neither is this country ever, unless sometimes
who was upon the spot, assures us, that there was at the Equinoxes, refreshed with rain; but the few
nothing of the kind to be seen there; that the top of hardy vegetables which it proluces, are stunted by a
Mount Ararat is inaccessible, both by reason of its perpetual drought; and the nourishment which the great height, and of the snow which perpetually covers dews contribute to them in the night, is sufficiently
it. This mountain is situated twelve leagues east of impaired by the power of the sun in the day. The
Erivan, in a vast plain, having no other mountain near intenseness of the cold and heat at these respective
it on either side. Josephus says (Aut. lib. x, c, 2), seasons, very emphatically accounts for the provision
that the remains of Noah's ark were still to be seen in of Providence in spreading out for the Israelites "a his time, in the canton of Adiabene, called Caron, a cloud to be a covering by day, and fire (like a harmless
country remarkable for producing great plenty of sun) to give forth light
and heat in the night season. That part of the inountain of Ararat, whereon the Psalm cvis of weather throughout the whole year, the sky being
ark rested, is called by many of the Eastern nations, usually clear, and winds blowing briskly in the day,
Ardag, or Parınah-dagh, the ringer mountaiu, because and ceasing in the night. Of these the south winds are
it stands upright by itself like a finger, when held up: the gentlest, though those in other directions are the
It is so high, as to be seen at the distance of ten days' most frequent, which by blowing over a vast tract of
journey, according to the stages of the caravan. The these deserts, and skimming away the sandy, surface
city of Tauris is near this mount. Tavernier says, along with them, leave exposed several putrid trunks
that there are many monasteries upon mount Ararat; and branches of trees; make continual encroachments
that the Armenians call it the resoussar, because the upon the sea, and occasion no less alterations on the ark stopped there. It is, as it were, taken off from the surface of the continent. For to these violent winds
other mountains of Armenia, which make a long chain, may be attributed the many billows or mountains of
and from the middle to the top of it, is often covered sand, which are everywhere to be met with. No places
with snow for three or four months in the year.- Calin the whole world perhaps abound less with living
met's Dictionary. creatures than these deserts, and indeed where has AROAD, ARPHAD, or ARPAD (the light of redemption), nature made less provission for their sustenance? The and the Aradus of the Greeks and Romans, is a rocky
islaud, not above a mile in compass, and about words, surprising to an European ear. Their descriptwenty furlongs from the continent. It is not im- tions are highly poetical, their extempore songs are probably thought to be so named from one of the sons also full of fire, and possess many beautiful and happy of Canaan, since we find him reckoned among the similes. Arabic songs go to the heart, and greatly descendants of Canaan, the Aroadite. It seemed to the excite the passions. Certain of their tribes are highly eye (says Mr. Maundrel) to be not above three or four celebrated for this gift of extempore speaking and furlongs long, and was wholly filled up with tall build- singing, and it is often possessed to an astonishing ings like castles. The ancient inhabitants of this island degree, by men unable either to read or write. Many were famous for navigation, and had a command upon of these children of the desert possess intelligence the continent as far as Gabala ; and it was anciently and feeling which belong not to the savage, accomsurrounded with a strong wall, consisting of stones of panied by an heroic courage, and a thorough contempt an immense site ; which so exactly tallied and cor- of every mode of gaining a livelihood, except by the responded with each other, as in many other instances sword and gun. They value themselves chiefly on of the ancient building, that the architect might very their expertness in arins, horsemanship, and hospijustly estimate the weight and syinmetry alone of its tality : irritable and fiery, their common conversation materials, without cramps and mortar, to have been appears to be one continued strife; they are bowever sufficient to withstand the violence of the sea, and the brave, eloquent, and deeply sensible of shame.- Denengines of an enemy. During the time of its prosperity ham and Clapperton's Africa. both art and nature seem to have conspired in making it a place of such strength and cousequence, as suffi
PROGRESS OF THE SCIENCES. ciently to justify the boast, “Where is the king of Arphad” which 'Sennacherib made in the conquest of it,
The first savages collected in the forests a few nourish2 Kings xix, 13. The Turks at present call this island ing fruits, a few salutary roots, and thus supplied their Rom wadde.
most immediate wants. The first shepherds observed that the stars moved in a regular course, and made use
of them to guide their journeys across the plains of CHARACTER OF THE ARABS,
the desert. Such was the origin of the mathematical
and physical sciences. Once convinced that it could ILLUSTRATING GEN, Xvi, 12.
combat nature by the means which she herself afforded, The Arabians have always been commended by the genius reposed no more, it watched her without relaxaancients for their fidelity, and they are still scrupu- tion, it incessantly made new conquests over her, all lously exact to their word. They have however their of thein distinguished by some improvement in the vices and defects : they are naturally addicted to war,
situation of our race. From that time a succession of bloodshed, and cruelty, and so malicious, as scarcely conducting minds, faithful depositories of the attainever to forget an injury. Their frequent robberies ments already made, constantly occupied in connecting committed on traders and travellers, have rendered the them, in vivifying thein by means of each other, have name of an Arah almost infamous in Europe: so conducted us, in less than forty ages, from the first faithful has been the prophecy, “their hands shall be essays of rude observers, to the profound calculations against every man, and every man's against them.” of Newton and La Place, to the learned classifications Amongst themselves, however, they are most honest of Linnæus and Jussieu. This precious inheritance, and true to the rites of hospitality: towards those whom perpetually increasing, brought from Chaldea into they receive into their camp every thing is open : enter Egypt, from Egypt into Greece, concealed during ages but once into the tent of an Arab, and by the pressure of disaster and of darkness, recovered in more fortunate of his hand he ensures you protection, at the hazard times, unequally spread among the nations of Europe, even of his life: he is ever true to his bread and his has everywhere been followed by wealth and power ; salt; once eat with him, and a knot of friendship is tied the nations which have reaped it are become the which cannot easily loe loosched. Hospitality was ever mistresses of the world; such as have neglected it, are habitual to them : 'at this day, the greatest reproach to fallen into weakness and obscurity.- Curtis's Lectures an Arab tribe is, “that none of their men have the on the Physiology of the Ear. heart to give." Nor does this feeling of liberality extend to those only of high birth, the poor and wander
ON THE DEATH OF A CHRISTIAN MINISTER. ing Bedouin is often known to practise a degree of charity far beyond his means, from a sense of duty Whilst o'er his lov'd remains his kindred weep, alone. The love of country discoverable in the wildest And sorrowing friends Death’s solemn vigils kee;', tenant of the most barren rock, is not felt by the To chase the gloom let memory wake, and cast wandering Arab; he roves from district to district, A beam to cheer the present from the past. from pasture to pasture, without any local attachment, In life's pursuits 'twas his blest path to shine, and his sole delight is his irregular, predatory life. A chosen servant of his Lord divine : Many of the elder chiefs plan new expeditions with as A messenger of peace, to him 'twas given much glee, as if they were but just beginning life, To prove the care, and point the way to heaven. instead of tottering on the brink of death. But not- Throughout his course with glowing zeal to trace withstanding all his savageness, there are sometimes And publish wide a Saviour's wond’rous grace. noble thoughts seen to cross over his powerful mind, His journey thus amidst life's chequer'd way, and then again to leave him choked up with weeds of
Honoured and blest has gently past away, too strong a growth to be rooted out.
And long shall those who best his worth could tell, Their fondness for the traditional history of their Feel the sad silence of death's long farewell. ancestors is proverbial. Professed story-tellers are the Be this his meed, and this liis record high, appendages to a man of rank : his friends will assemble To live was to be lov'd, and great his gain to die. before his tent, to listen night after night to a con- Calm sleep his dust, to earth's cold breast resign'd, tinued history, for sometimes sixty nights together ; Death's dark dominion cannot chain the mind; it is a great exercise of genius, and a peculiar gift held Ah! thought sublime, his soul has burst its clod, in high estimation among them. They have a quickness And stands exultant near the throne of God. and clearness of delivery, with a perfect command of
S. F. W.
SCRIPTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN CEYLON. This large and populous island, (nearly as large as Ireland) has long been a scene of the labours of Methodist Missionaries. Their operations have been crowned with considerable success, and the Spirit of grace appears to have been poured forth richly both upon the Missionaries and their hearers. The Rev. Benjamin Clough, on his recent returning to Ceylon, says, in a letter to the Committee of the Bible Society,
“I am very glad to find the Committee are so well disposed to encourage the completion of the version of The Old Testament in Ceylon, or Indo-Portugese ; and that being a task which I have proposed to myself, should it please God to spare my life, I will see it done free of all expense to the Committee. I have been much gratified, ever since my arrival in England, at receiving, from various sources in Ceylon, the most unequivocal testimonies in favour of the New Testament which I had completed before I left, and of the great anxiety of the people, for whom it was designed, to possess it. They are, in fact, a people whose situation is very affecting : they form what is called the Bergher Population, and, in all its grades, are very numerous all over the country: there must bc, I think, from 15,000 and upwards in Colombo alone. Great numbers of them are renouncing the errors of popery; and the change has been effected solely by reading the New Testament.
“I was greatly pleased to hear of your munificent liberality, in the grant of a fresh supply of printing paper; and I do hope God will continue most abundantly to replenish your stores. The Bible in Ceylon is, I am satistied, working a great change in the views and feelings of the heathen. Formerly, the priests and others felt but little at its circulation : this must have arisen, I suppose, from an ignorance of its character: but since the people got a more extensive of language, and the effects of their reading it became apparent to the priests-and since, also, the priests have themselves ascertained its uncompromising character, namely, that it allows of no religion but what is revealed in itself-they have taken the alarm, and have endeavoured in various ways to thwart its circulation, and oppose us in our labours in giving the people the word of God. But the matter has gone too far, and this they now see ; for in our schools alone, in the southern districts of Ceylon, we have, by the blessing of God, raised up in the midst of the population, not less than 30,000 Native Christian Readers, who do read, and will read, in spite of all the opposition of the heathen !”
SINGULAR DELIVERANCE FROM
HIGHWAYMEN. A very singular providence occurred to Mr. Cecil on his going from London to Lewes, to serve his churches. Instead of his leaving town early in the morning, the farrier, who shod his horse, detained him till noon, in consequence of which he did not arrive at East Griustead' Common till after it was dark. On this common he met a inan who appeared to be intoxicated, and ready to fall from his horse at every step. Mr. Cecil called to him, and warned him of his danger; which the man disregarding, with his asual benevo. lence he rode up to him, in order to prevent his falling, when the man imunediately seized the reing of Mr. Cecil's horse, who perceiving he was in bad hands, endeavoured to break away, on which the man threatened to knock him down if he repeated the attempt. Three other inen on horseback immediately rode up, placing Mr. Cecil in the midst of them. On perceiving his danger, it struck him—“Here is an occasion of faith !" and that gracious declaration also occurred to him—“Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee.”' He secretly lifted up his heart to God, entreating that deliverance which He alone could effect. One of the men, who seemed to be captain of the gang, asked him who he was, and whither he was going. Mr. Cecil here recurred to a principle to which his mind was habituated, that
Nothing needs a lie.” He therefore told them very frankly his name, and whither he was going. The leader said, Sir, I know you, and have heard you preach at Lewes. Let the gentleman's horse go: we wish you good night.”—Cecil's Remuins.
TAME FISHES. A farmer of Aberdeen brought home a young seal, and fed it for three days with bread and milk." His wife disliking its presence, it was taken out of the town, by the man and some friends, and thrown into the sea; but it returned to them notwithstanding, every effort to repel it. The tallest of them then walked into the sea as far as he safely could, and threw it into the waves wbile they hid theinselves behind a rock; but the animal again advanced to land, and found them out in their hiding place, and reinained with them, till the farmer took it back once more to his house.—Bingley, p. 100.
In Otaheite eels are great favourites, and are tamed and fed until they attain an enormous size. These pets are kept in large holes two or three feet deep, partially filled with water. On the sides of these pits they generally reinained, except when called by the person who fed them. I have been several times with the young chief, when he has sat down by the side of the hole; and by giving a shrill sort of whistle has brought out an enormous eel, which has moved about the surface of the water, and eaten with confidence out of his master's hands.-Ellis's Polynesian Researches.
A pike in a pond at Ely became so tame, as to follow the waving of a pocket handkerchief.
THE CHRISTIAN NOT ALONE. Although depress'd by sin and woe, A wandering exile here below, My Heavenly Father hears each groan, And tells me I am not alone. Though left by every earthly friend On whom I thought I could depend, And though to all the world unknown, I still can say I'm not alone. What though iny kindred round me die, And every earthly comfort fly, I'll take my seat near Mercy's throne, And say that I am not alone. When passing Jordau's stormy sea My Lord will hear me company; His worthless child He'll ne'er disown, Nor tell ine I am left alone.
A Mental Victory.-Human nature has not a sharper spur than the desire of revenge; therefore, to forget it, is one of the most generous actions of the mind.
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HINDOO TEMPLE AND PAGODA AT GYA, IN THE NORTH OF INDIA. THE TEMPLE OF VISHNOO, AT GYA.
brated by the Bramins, who derive their support from
its wicked delusions. Gya is visited annually by thou. India becomes every year more interesting to the sands of pilgriins, who resort thither in the superstitious people of Great Britain, on account of its immense ex- hope of procuring the salvation of their deceased rela: tent-its prodigious wealth — and its political import- tions, by their own ineritorious mortifications, and loy ance in relation to the other great empires of Asia. their devotions paid to the idols in the sacred temple. The renewal of the “ Company's Charter,” with im- This building is a modern edifice; but the adjoining provements in the British policy towards that country, pagoda is comparatively ancient. This gorgeous cdiand the opening of a more direct communication with fice, with its nuinerous spiral ornaments, is said to be that distant region, through Egypt, by the Red Sea, or covered withi solid gold. Priestcraft has celebrated its through Syria, by the river Euphrates, will render it sanctity, by declaring that, under the centre of the still more interesting. But the inillions of its wretched dome, is a print of the foot of the god Vishnoo. This population-their abject superstition—their abominable impression is at the bottom of a cavity, ahout tivelve or idolatries — and their conscquent moral degradation, fifteen inches below the surface, and it is pretended to chiefly affect the heart of the Christian Philanthropist have been nade by the stepping of this deity on the Every new arrangement in favour of India, it is hoped granite stone, when passing from hill to hill. Ignorant will be attended with increasing facilities for the effu. superstition has so honoured this particular part of the sion of the light of the knowledge of the glory of God floor, that it has been cased with silver, at an expense by Jesus Christ. We rejoice to be assured that such of about 30,000 rupees, or 3,2501. is the benevolent disposition of the British Govern- Officers of the Government, both Hindoos and No
hammedans, are statioued here, to collect the taxes The Temple of Vishnoo at Gya, in the province of paid by the pilgrims, and to serve as a police, in de. Bahar, in the north of India, is one of the most cele. fence of those who visit the teinple. Some of the Vol. II.
priests are supported by salaries paid out of these turns to his former course of living. Besides the benetaxes, while others live on the offerings, which their fits arising to his relations, the reward promised to avarice extorts from the devotees. The Rev. Thomas the pilgrim is, that he shall ascend to the heaven of that Morris, one of the Missionaries of the Church Mis- god who presides at the holy place which he has visited.” sionary Society, having passed three months at Gya, Having performed the prescribed ceremonies, and had an opportunity of witnessing the superstitions of pillaged of their money by the crafty and rapacious the wretched pilgrims. He says, “I saw many poor priests, the miserable dupes set out on their return creatures who had travelled a thousand miles at least; home, without the means perhaps of purchasing a and who, in their journey, endured privations of every morsel of rice : so that from ivant of food, the fatigue kind.”
of a long journey, and exposure to bad weather, many The British government, with a view to diminish the thousands perish annually on the road, leaving the number of pilgrims resorting to this and other like guilt of their blood, in a great measure, upon the heads sacred places, laid a tax upon each : but instead of di- of their sacerdotal deceivers ! Nor are the members of ininishing, this policy has promoted an increase of their the British Government altogether guiltless in supportnumbers, the practice being thus publicly sanctioned. ing such a system of imposture, impurity, and blood ! An intelligent writer observes, “Āt Gya, the British We rejoice that Christians in England are making Government have an agent who levies this tax on each appeals to the Government to leave the accursed sya. pilgrim according to the magnitude of the ceremonies tem to its own resources; that the priests may receive he has to perform ; for visiting one place 2 rupees, no salary for their abominable impositions ; and that two places 39, thirty-eight places 448 forty-five places the people may be instructed in the doctrines of life 14 rupees. In this, as in all systems of superstition, everlasting, by the faithful servants of Christ. the duty to government and other necessary expenses form but a sinall part of what the poor devotee is compelled to pay; the priests always feece off all his
THE POPULATION OF INDIA. ready money, and not unfrequently extort promissory notes, which their agents compel him to honour when
The following estimate of the extent and population of he returns home. Formerly it was custoinary for the
the territories now included in British India, has just priest to keep the thumbs of the votary tied together,
been published by Parliament.
Square Miles. Population. till he promised to give such a sum as was considered
Presidency of Bengal ......... 220,312 69,710,071 proportionate to his circumstances; but this the British have abolished, and no one can be forced now to give
Districts, the population of
which is doubtful... .... 85,700 the priest more than he chooses. The pilgrims to this
141,9231. 13,508,535 sacred shrine have been gradually increasing ; in 180)
Bombay the number amounted to 22,732; in 1811 to 31,114; the
59,4381.. 6,251,546 amount of the collections in 1814-15, was 229,805 sicca
Districts, the population of
5,550 rupees, or 23,3791. !
Mr. Ward, in his “History of the Hindoos,' gives an account of the proceedings of those who visit Gya, and
512,923...... 89,470,152 other places of the same description :
The population of the doubtful districts, situated on “When a person resolves to visit any of these places,
the Nerbudda in Berar and Concan, is probably not he fixes on an auspicious day; and, two days preceding
large; so that the whole will not much exceed ninety the commencement of his journey, has his head shaved; millions. The territory of the allied or protected, that the next day he fasts; the following day he performs is the subject states, is estimated at 614,610 square miles; the shraddhu of the three preceding generations of his
their population, however, is not supposed nearly equal family on both sides, and then leaves his house. If a to that of the territories under the immediate govern. person acts according to the Shaster (sacred book), he ment of the Company. Mr. Hamilton, in the second observes the following rules : Till he returns to his
edition of his Gazetteer, estimates it as follows: own house, he eats rice which has not been wet in
Population, cleansing, and that only once a day-he abstains from
10,000,000 anointing his body with oil, and from eating fish-if he
The Nagpoor Rajah
3,000,000 rides in a palanquin, or in a boat, he loses half the The King of Oude.
3,000,000 benefits of his pilgrimage-if he walks on foot, he ob
2,000,000 tains the full advantage of it. The last day of his jour
The Satara Rajah
1,500,000 ney he fasts.”
The Mysore Rajah..
3,000,000 The ceremonies of the Temple are thus described by
Travancore and Cochin
1,000,000 Mr. Ward :
Kotah, Boondee, and Bopaul
1,500,000 “On his arrival at the sacred spot, the pilgrim has
Rajpoot and other petty States
15,000,000 his whole body shaved ; after which, he performs the shraddhu (offering). It is necessary that he stay seven
40,000,000 days, at least, at the holy place: he may continue as The same gentleman makes the fullowing conjecture much longer as he pleases. Every day during his stay as to the states that still remain independent. he bathes, pays his devotions to the images, sits before
Population. thein and repeats their names, and worships them, pre
4,000,000 senting such offerings as he can afford. In bathing, he Lahore, Rajah Runjeet Singh
3,000,000 makes kooshu-grass images for his relations, and bathes
1,000,000 them. When he is about to return, he obtains some of
2,000,000 the offerings which have been pres ed to the idol or
Cashmere, and other districts belonging idols, and brings thein home to give to his friends and to the King of Cabul
1,000,000 neighbours : these consist of swectmeats, flowers, toolusee leaves, the ashes of cow-dung, &c. After
11,000,000 celebrating the shraddbu, he entertains the Bramins, This would give for the whole of India a population and presents them with oil, fish, and all those things of upwards of one hundred and forty millions. from which he has abstained. Having done this, he re
British India, vol. ii.