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ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS AT LUXOR.
founder of the kingdom of Egypt. Its name signified LUXOR, THE “POPULOUS NO” OF EGYPT.
“ The mansion, or palace of Ammon.” Herodotus Our readers will refer to what is mentioned by the in- says the “Egyptians called Jupiter by the name of spired prophets concerning the ruin of Egypt, and to Ammon;" and this city, the same as the celebrated No. 36 of the “Christian's Penny Magazine, the Thebes, the Greeks called Diopolis, “The city of better to understand this article. See Jer. xlvi, 25; Jupiter,” and “ Jupiter Ammon,” the “Mansion of and Ezek. Xxx, 15; “The multitude of No.” Nahum Jupiter,' as a famous temple was erected at Thebes in ii, 8, “Populous No."
honour of that imaginary diviuity. 'No,” was called “No Ammon, or Hammon," from Thebes was built, according to the mythology of Ham, the son of Noah, whose son Mizraim was the some, by Osiris, a great deity of the Egyptians, son of Vol. II.
Jupiter and Niobe : but according to others it was half a league in extent, contains & constant succession erected by Busiris, a king of Egypt, a son of Neptune, of sphinxes and other chinerical figures to the right who, with great cruelty, sacrificed all foreigners to and left, together with fragments of stone walls, of Jupiter.
small columns, and of statues.” Thebes, or "Populous No," was eighty furlongs or Luxor is also built on the site of the ruins of a ten miles in length, at the commencement of the Chris. temple, not so large as that of Karnac, but in a better tian era : but this was little in coin parison of its ancient state of preservation, the inasses not having as yet magnitude, before it was ruined by Cambyses, when it fallen through time, and by the pressure of their own was said to have been no less than four hundred and weight. The most colossal parts consist of fourteen twenty furlongs, or fifty-two miles and a half in length. columns of nearly eleven feet in diameter, and of two In its glory, Thebes is said to have been able to send statues in granite at the outer gate, buried up to the out at once two hundred chariots, and ten thousand middle of the arms, and having in front of them the fighting men from each of its hundred gates! Accord. two largest and best-preserved obelisks known. The ing to the epitaph of Rhampses, 700,000 soldiers dwelt French, when in Egypt, deemed their means insufficient, in Thebes, so prodigious was the number of inhabitants not to hew out, but merely to transport these two moin this “Populous No."
numents, which are not more than a fragment of one Homer has celebrated the greatness of this magnifi. of the numerous edifices of the astonishing city of cent city :
Denon, in speaking of the gate of the temple, which “Not all proud Thebes' unrivall’d walls contain The world's great empress on th' Egyptian plain,
is now become the entrance to the village of Luxor, That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states,
remarks, “ Nothing can be more grand, and at the And pours her heroes through an hundred gates;
same time more simple, than the small number of Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars,
objects of which this entrance is composed. No city From each wide portal issuing to the wars.
whatever makes so proud a display at its approach as Pope's HOMER.
this wretched village, the population of which consists Diodorus says, "we have heard that several succes- of two or three thousand souls, who have taken up sive kings were ambitious to improve the city with pre- their abode on the roofs and beneath the galleries of sents of gold and silver, with ivory and a multitude of this temple, which has, nevertheless, the air of being colossal statues; and that there was not any city under uninhabited." the sun so embellished with columns of one entire On visiting the palace of Luxor, the first objects stone. The buildings have remained to modern times ; which attract attention, are two obelisks of a single but the gold and silver, and all the costly ivory and block; they are placed in the front of a mole at the precious stones, were pillaged by the Persians, when distance of about fourteen paccs. Between them and Cambyses set fire to the temples of Egypt. So im- the mole are two colossal statues of black granite, meuse, they report, were the riches of Egypt at this about three paces from the mole, and eight from the period, that from the rubbish, after plundering and obelisks; so that, in the space of eleven paces, these burning, were taken more than three hundred talents of
enormous objects are brought together, each of which, gold, and of silver two thousand three hundred.”
in an insulated position, would astonish the beholder We are not able accurately to trace the progressive by its grandeur. The taste of the Egyptians led them steps of the destruction of the idolatrous and wicked to form masses of those objects, which we employ our Thebes, as predicted by the inspired prophets, Jeremiah utmost attention to keep in detached situations. Their xlvi, and Ezekiel xxx. But it was pillaged by the architects may also be reproached for the want of Assyrians and Babylonians, then by the Persians, and
symmetry which appears in the disposition of these afterwards by the all-conquering Romans. Ptolemy monuments. Neither the obelisks, nor the colossal Lathyrus, an Egyptian king, besieged Thebes for three figures, are in a line with each other, or with the gate. years, after having defeated the rebellious troops in These defects in the whole, are, however, forgotten the field; and having taken the city, in the year 81 on observing the execution of the parts : there is no before the Christian era, according to Prideaux, de- work of art existing, which can bear a comparison with stroyed its greatness. Dr. Prideaux says, “ Lathyrns, these obelisks. The Barbarians who destroyed the on his taking the place, handled it so severely for this monuments of Upper Egypt, appear in some measure rebellion, that, from being the greatest and wealthiest to have respected these; and though they endeavoured city in Egypt, he reduced it to so low a condition, that to cut one of them at the base in order to overturn it, it never after any more made a figure."
they seem, even in this act of violation, to have aroided The ruins of ancient Thebes are of 80 immense an
doing any injury to the figures which eurich it. These extent as to convince the spectator that fame has not figures are disposed in three coluinns; those in the magnified its size: for its monuments rest on two middle are cut to the depth of two inches; the larger chains of contiguous mountains, while its tombs occupy figures in the right and left columns, are about an inch the valleys towards the west, far on into the desert. deep, and the sinall ones about nine lines : the ground A large temple on the eastern side is more than two of these is in its rude state, which gives them a difleagues and a half distant from Medinet-Abu, where ferent colour froin the middle column, where it is the most western temple is situated. The Arab village polished with as much care as a precious stone. The of Karuac is built on a small part of the site of a single obelisks terminate in a small pyramid, whose supports temple.
describe a curve. Their size is unequal, and they rest Denon describes the remains of this temple thus: “Of upon a base which is about fifteen feet beneath the surthe hundred columns of the portico alone, the smallest face. The two colossal figures placed behind them, which are seven feet and a half in diameter, and the largest are of black granite, are thirty-eight 'feet in height, lwelve. The space occupied by the circumvallution of and in a sitting posture, with their hands resting on the temple contains lakes and tountains. In short, to their thighs: the extremities of these statues are of in. be enabled to form a competent idea of so much mag- different workmanship, but some of the parts are adnificence, the reader ought to fancy wliat is before him mirable examples of sculpture. to be a dream, as he who views the objects themselves To the left, on leaving the mole, is a colonnade, now rubs his 'eyes to know whether he is awake. The blended with Turkish habitations. The two wings of avenue leading from Karnac to Luxor, a space nearly the building, which were behind the mole, are entirely dilapitated. They led to a second colonnade, which birds, confined in their wiry prisons, are very liable still subsists, and is formed of two rows of the lotus to disease, more especially iniammation of the bowels, columns : its total height is fifty-six feet, its diameter
asthma, epilepsy, and soreness of the bill. No animal nine, the space between the capitals thirteen, and the
deviates so far from the simplicity of nature in its intercolumniation fifteen feet.
habits, as man: none is placed under the influence of At fifteen paces to the right and left of the grand 80 inauy circumstances calculated to act injuriously colonnade, begin two other rows of columns, whose
upon the frame. His morbid affections are hence capitals imitate the sprout of the truncated lotus. the
abundant and diversified, as may be seen by referring diameter of the columns is five feet, their height thirty,
to the different nosological arrangements : those long and the intercolumuiation eight. This colonnade inter
catalogues of diseases afford strong evidence, that man sects, at right angles, that of the lotus columns : in the has not carefully followed that way of life which has middle is an interval which served as an avenue to the been marked out for him by nature. The crowded palace, whose gate appears in front. It has been walled
state of the inhabitants of large cities, the injurious up by the Christians, who formed a viche in it, which
effect of an atmosphere loaded with impurities, secontains their altar. They have clothed it with plaster, dentary occupations, various unwholesome avocations, and adorned it with the pictures of their saints in intemperance in food, stimulating drinks, high-seasoned fresco. The portico served as their church, and the
and indigestible viands, and these taken hastily in the avenue as the grand nave. This gate led to an apart
short intervals allowed by the hurry and turmoil of meut forty feet square, whose ceiling is supported by
business, the constant inordinate activity of the great four columns. At the extremity of the palace, without
cerebral circulation, kept up by the double impulse of mentioning the other apartments which compose it,
luxurious habits, and high mental exertions, the violent there is a sanctuary, surrounded by an interval of six passions by which we are agitated and enervated, the feet, which may be supposed to have been the chapel of
various disappointments and vexations to which all are the palace. The pictures that einbellish it are very
liable, reacting upon and disturbing the whole frame, highly finished.
the delicacy and sensibility to external influences caused The general plan of this edifice affords every reason
by heated rooms, too warm clothing, and other into conjecture that it was composed of about sixty
dulgences,--are all contrary to the voice of nature, and buildings.
they produce those morbid conditions of the system To give a minute description of the colossal ruins of which a more simple and uniform mode of living would ancient Thebes, as they exist at Luxor and Karnac, prevent. Our associates of the animal kingdom do not would require a volume; and we know no ineans of
escape the influence of such causes; the mountain tarry-at-home travellers receiving adequate gratification,
shepherd and his dog are equally hardy, and form an but by surveying some of the smaller antiquities of
instructive contrast between a delicate lady and her Egypt exhibited in the British Museum. Prodigious ap-dog -- the extreme point of degeneracy and imas some of those antiquities are, they will yet convey
becility of which each race is susceptible. In the early but an imperfect idea of the enormous masses which
ages of society, man enjoyed long life, his manner of the Egyptian3 erected, forming palaces where the living was simple, his food, habitation, and pursuits, grossest impurities were practised, and temples wliose were all calculated to fortify the body, and no anxious
cares disturbed his mind. — Curtis's Essay on the Deuf pavements were dyed with the blood of human sacri.
and Dumb. fices; on account of which, the prophets denounced the Divine vengeance; and, as a lesson to wicked nations, Almighty God executed his righteous indignation
WATCH AND PRAY. upon the nation and their glory!
O watch and pray; thou canst not tell
How near thine hour may be ;
Thou canst uot know, how soon the bell
May toll its notes for thee.
Death's thousand snares beset thy way, DAILY observation demonstrates that the human struc
Frail child of dust, О watch and pray. ture, even in its most perfect formation, is liable to Fond youth, as yet untouch'd by care, lesions of organization, and derangement of function,
Does thy strong pulse beat high? producing that state of the systein, in which its usual
Do hopes gay visions bright and fair actions or perceptions are either interrupted or at
Dilate before thine eye ? tended with pain: this state is called disease. Every Know, these must change, inust pass away, animal carries within itself the germ of its own destruc. Fond joyous youth, watch and pray. tion, or, in other words, it is formed for a limited ex
Thou aged man, life's wintry storm, istence. Many diseases, therefore, arise spontaneously,
Hath shorn thy vernal bloom : or without any assignable external cause ; but many
With trembling step, and bending form, more are produced by causes, over which we have
Thou’rt tott'ring to the tomb. some control; and perhaps the chief source of the
And cau vain hope lead thee astray ? physical ills to which we are liable, is the deviation we
Watch, weary pilgrim, watch and pray. make from the simplicity of nature. The injurious influence that domestication has upon the health of the
Ambition, stop thy panting breath; lower animals, is very strikingly apparent; and in pro
Pride, sink thy lifted eye; portion as their subjugation is inore complete, and
Behold the yawning gates of death their manner of life differs more widely from that
Before thee open lie. which is natural to them, so are their diseases more
() hear this counsel, and obey, numerous and severe. The diseases of our more
Price and ambition ; watch and pray. valuable domestic animals, are sufficiently numerous O watch and pray; the paths we tread and important to employ a particular class of men, and
Lead onward to the grave. the horse alone has professional assistance appropriated Go to the tombs, and ask the dead, to him. Men of education and talent have devoted
Ye on life's stormy wave : themselves to the investigation of the diseases of this They shall exhort ye: even they, noble and useful creature. The poor little canary
From their dark chambers :- watch and pray.
tion ? “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord
Jesus Christ, who according to his abundant mercy April 7. The w rd Easter occurs once in the Scrip- hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurtures, Acts xii, 4, where it means Pussover, referring rection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance not to the fact or the time of the resurrection of Christ, incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth net away, but to the national Hebrew festival of that name. Eas- reserved in heaven for you, who are kept by the power ter is a term applied in English to the season in which of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed the resurrection of our blessed Saviour is commemo- in the last time.” | Pet. i, 3–5. rated: but this word has been adopted from the Saxon goddess EOSTRE, whose idolatrous and impure festival was held in April.
MEDITATION ON THE FULNESS OF SALVATION. The Greeks call this festival Pasga, and the Latins Pascha, from the Hebrew word which signifies a passage The following reflections were written in cousequence or passoler.
of hearing a long dry sermon on the merit of good There is no precept or example in the Scriptures for works, and Christ being willing at last to make up the religious observance of this season; yet from a very any short-coming on the sinner's part. early period the day of the Redeemer's giorious resur
SERVA Caristi. rection has been religiously observed by Christians. But one of the most unhappy controversies which ever
There is no such thing in the Bible as part of salvation, existed among the professed followers of Christ, arose
separable from an interest in all the blessings of the in the second century concerning the proper time of
covenant of grace. He that breaks one command is keeping this festival. The Asiatic churches kept their
guilty of all! How then can poor singers, dead in feast upon the very same day on which the Jews observed trespasses and sins, work out a righteousness of their their Passover, and others on the first Sunday after the
“There is none that doeth good, no, not one." first full moon in the new year.
(Psalm xiv, 3). In the sight of Jehovah all are dead in Mr. Milner, in his valuable “Church History,” re.
Adam; believers are justified only in Jesus, and they marks : “The controversy respecting the proper time
shall inherit everlasting life, as is most clearly exof the observation of Easter, which had been
pressed in the fifth chapter to the Romans. It is a amicably adjusted between Polycarp of Smyrna and
free, full, and perfect salvation that Jesus purchased for Anicetus of Rome, who had agreed to differ, was un
his people on Calvary. Christ, the beloved of the happily revived towards the close of this the second)
Father, said, “If the Sun shall make you free, ye shall
be free indeed ” (John viii, 36). “There is no putting century. Synods were held concerning it; and a uni. formity was attempted in vain throughout the church.
forth of the finger” (Isaiah lviii, 9): there is no doing Victor of Rome, with much arrogance and temerity, as
all we can to get to heaven by onr works and merits, if he had felt the very soul of the future papacy formed
and so, if we come short in the measure of purity and in himself, inveighed against the Asiatic churches, and
holiness requisite for the celestial regions, Christ steppronounced them excommunicated persons. Irenæus,
ping forward and making up the deficiency! No: He bishop of Lyons, rebuked the uncharitable spirit of
came on no such inean errand from His glory to dwell Victor, reininded him of the union between Polycarp
among condemned transgressors. He came to accomand his predecessor Anicetus, notwithstanding their
plish the honours of the perfect law of God, “He difference of sentiment and practice in this point, and
came to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke xix, pressed the strong obligation of Christians to love and
10). A beautiful illustration of this is Zaccheus meetunity, though they might differ in small matters."
ing Emmanuel (Luke xix), with his roll of good works This controversy was determined in the council of
and diadem of merits. Zaccheus was little of stature ; Nice, called by order of Constantine the (reat, A.D. 325,
and being impelled by curiosity, and by the imparted when it was ordained, that the commeinoration of this
grace of the good Spirit, he ascended the sycamore blessed event should be kept on one and the same day,
tree : Jesus then called him by name, and said, he which should always be Sunday, in all Christian churches
would abide that day at his house, which displeased in the world. It ought however to be ubserved, that
some of his self-righteous followers so much, that they neither the council of Nice, nor any other council, has
murmured that he should be the guest of a sinner. But the least authority to make decrees or ecclesiastical
Jesus declared that he was a son of Abraham according laws for all Christians. The Holy Scriptures alone are
to the promise, “For Abraham believed in the Lord, the only authority in directing the faith, the practice,
and he counted it to him for righteousness.” (Gen. xv, 6.) and the religious ordinances of believers on the Lord
In this righteousness Zaccheus was a son of Abraham; Jesus Christ.
not for “ giving half of his goods to the poor, or restorBut though the Christian churches, in the early ages
ing four-fold if he had taken any thing from any man after the apostles, differed as to the time, yet they all
by wrong accusation :” no, these were no pleas with agreed in showing particular respect to this festival.
the great Law-fulfiller and blessed Redeemer. His On this day prisoners and slaves were liberated, and a
glory He will not give to another (Isa. xlii, 8; xlviii, 1!). generous provision was made for the poor. The eve,
He is Lord of all, his work is perfect," and "of his or vigil, of this festival was celebrated in some places
fulness have all believers received, and grace for grace" with more than ordinary pomp, which continued till
(John i, 16): one grace to help another, so as to live midnight; as it was a tradition of the church that our
"to the promise of the glory of his grace, wherein He Saviour rose a little after midnight, but in the East, the
hath mude us accepted (Eph. i, 6), and presents us vigil lasted till cock-crowing.
blameless before the throne of His Father and our The manner in which Easter is celebrated in Roman
Father, the Eternal God. Catholic countries is truly shocking, and one of the principal causes of hardening the Jews in their infidelity and hatred of the name of Jesus of Nazareth. But it Virtue required in Nobility.- Nobility is a splendid is also worth while to consider how this ever-memorable gem, and adds an ornament to hiin who wears it; but event is cuinmeinorated in enlightened Protestant Bri- if it be not set in the purest gold of moral goodness, tain. Let each one of our readers inquire, whether it only serves to make more apparent the vices of its he is prepared in the truc spirit of grateful devo. possessor.
Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
hend. On the part of the instructor, all means should
be adopted for this desirable purpose. Your language LETTER XXIII.
ought ever to be as simple and as precise as a demon
stration in Euclid. All the pains you can adopt to be General Principles of Intellectual Education.
perspicuous, simple, intelligible, and unequivocal, will Dear Madam,
be amply repaid. Such pains will reward even yourMay I offer you this Letter as incidental to self, by the increased clearness of your own percepthe general conrse, as being very strongly though colla- tions. Your own perceptions of the topic in question, terally only connected with it. I shall endeavour to and those of your child, ought to be like the rivulet state what appear to me to be the principal rules which which flows from a spring, in which you can most ought to be kept in view in the intellectual education of clearly see every grain of sand, every pebble, that lies your child, not merely from the period at which he at the bottom. learns to read, but from the very first dawn of his in- In this consists the great utility of grammar, logic, tellect, and in reference to every subject in which he &c. to train the inind to the habit of taking clear permay be instructed.
ceptions, and of communicating them to others. For The first rule is, that the degree of maturity which the want of this habit, what an obscurity there is athis faculties have attained ought perpetually to be kept tendant on the professed instruction and the professed in view, in regard to the information which is admi. knowledge of multitudes ! It originates in the habit, pistered to him. That maturity is to be estimated, not on the part of the instructor, of not forming precise so much by the strength of the faculty in question, but and accurate perceptions himself. Whatever we can by the degree of information which he has acquired by perceive clearly and comprehensively, we can express that faculty. The accessiou of knowledge to the mind in like manper. Take care of the perceptions, and of an infant must resemble the addition of links to a then leave the language in which you convey them to chain; of whatever length it may be, the succeeding take care of itself. The expression of ideas is to the link must be fustened on to and make part of the pre- perception, what the hands of a clock are to the proceceding. So must any new idea communicated to a dure of the inward works. Indeed, the more we keep our pupil of any age, if he is to be expected to retain it. mental view on the perception, the more correct and even That is, there must be some of the new ideas of the elegant will be our expressions. The instant we become same nature with those of which he is already possessed, conscious that we are speaking or writing, our style and the accession must consist of the gradual extension ceases to be fluent and happy. of them into others which are different.
Whenever then you find that you are not most clearly Secondly, Every new subject which is taught him perceiving the object which you are describing, or teachiought to be exhibited to his mind from its very first ing, scrupulously pause till you can recover your perprinciples, and these should be represented in the sim- ceptions. If you cannot do so, tell your child so at plest and most intelligible form, and comprehensively.
The first opportunity, get complete informaThe teacher should also be careful, that out of the ple- tion, tell him when you have done so, and then comnitude of his own information, he may not convey de- municate it. fective apprehensions. Every teacher is in danger of The want of these principles and this procedure, from taking for granted that the pupil is acquainted with instructors of every order, has done infinite mischief in some things, in consequence of their being obvious to every department of knowledge. Would that it had himself. This ought to be dreaded the more as the always been followed, even in the pulpit! Who can teacher is himself expert and experienced. To this tell how much the inefficiency of the ministry is to be cause may perhaps be ascribed the frequent obscurity attributed to this cause? He who does not clearly of books on the elements of any science, and which understand, can never clearly teach. Be he an inrender the assistance of a tutor indispensable. In ar- structor of whatever rank, he inay fill his time up, and ranging the principles of a new science, the instructor, communicate the accustomed dose of weariness to his whether orally or by writing, ought to take for granted auditors, but no more. the absolute ignorance of the pupil. This may some- Let your entire intellectual procedure to your infant times be thrown away; but neither the pupil nor the resemble that beautiful comparison of real knowledge instructor will have much cause to regret : it is an in the Scriptures, namely, light. Let your own mind error on the right side. In the case of oral instruction, be full of light, and the addition to your infant's ideas the popil ought to be instructed to demur the instant be ever that of light to light. he does not understand. He should be cautiously It should also be kept in mind, that the instant dark warned never to seem to comprehend when he does not, and dubious ideas are attempted to be communicated, through a shame of owning his want of comprehension, his mind will become uncertain, will be discouraged, or out of a baneful affectation of seeming to have a very and gain a settled idea of the difficulty of obtaining rapid comprehension. On the other hand, the in- knowledge, an impression fatal to acquisition. He will structor should never feel or affect notions of impa- be reduced to the liability of seeking satisfaction in the tience with those who comprehend slowly. The instant pleasures of the senses, which he will soon experience he has lost his patience, he throws away the capability are certain in their sensations. He then totters on the of being useful. It should also be considered, that a verge of degradation. In every new department there comparatively slow perception is usually found united will always be ideas which will require contemplation with tenacious retention.
till the mind perceives them; till, if I may so speak, Thirdly, A yet more important rule should be, that the eye of the mind accommodates itself to the percepnothing should be taught a child, except in such terms tion of them. But if they be really presented in a perand in such inodes as he can understand. The instant ceptible form, the mind will infallibly, and without he ceases to comprehend, he ceases to learn. From much difficulty, apprehend them. The greatest diffi. that moment the time of both parties is thrown away. culty attending upon the learning of most sciences is They may, go on indeed, but the fabric must be taken derived, not so much from the nature of those sciences down and rebuilt at no distant period. The utmost theinselves, as from the improper modes in which pains should be taken to meet the apprehension of a they are taught. child. His eye, the tone of his voice, should be perpe
I am, dear Madam, yours, &c. tually regarded, to see whether he really does compre