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JAPAN. Japan, of one of whose sacred temples the above is a representation, is a large and powerful empire near to China. It consists of three principal islande, with a number of smaller ones, lying between the east coast of Asia and the west coast of America. Japan has been said to resemble the British isles for situation and magnitude; and were South Britain divided from the North by a channel, Japan might be fitly compared to England, Scotland, and Ireland, with their islands, peninsulas, bays, and channels. The population is estimated at more than 40,000,000, being about double that of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; but the people are sunk in the most degrading ignorance and superstition.

Japan is the European name of this eur:pire; but the inhabitants call it Niphon, from the largest island belonging to it: the Chinese call it Chiphion, from its eastern situation, a naine signifying the Foundation of the Sun. Niphon is about 850 miles long, and averaging rather more than 100 in breath. Jeddo, the capi. tal, is said to be 60 miles in circuit; and Miaco, the second city, is said to contain 1,000,000 of inhabitants. Suine of their mountains are enriched with mines of gold, silver, and excellent copper, besides tin, lead, iron, and various other minerals and fossils; whilst others abound with several sorts of inarble and precious stones. Of these mountains, some may justly be

ranked among the natural rarities of this country; one in particular, in the great island of Niphon, is of such prodigious heiglit as to be easily seen 120 miles off at sea, though its distance from the shore is about 14 iniles. Some authors think it exceeds the Peak of Teneriffe, whicli is more than 12,000 feet above the level of the sea.

The vast quantities of sulphur with which most of the Japan islands abound, makes them subject to frequent and dreadful earthquakes. The inhabitants are so accustomed to them, that they are scarcely alarmed, unless they lay whole towns in ruins, which often proves the case. On these occasions they have recourse to extraordinary sacrifices and acts of worship to their deities or demons, according to the different notions of each sect, and sometimes they even proceed to offer human victims: but in this case they take only the vilest and inost abandoned, because they are sacrificed to the malevolent deities.

The Japanese are very ingenious in most handicraft trades, and excel the Chinese in several manufactures, particularly in the beauty, goodness, and variety of their silks, cottons, and other stuffs, and in their Japan and porcelain wares.

The women are subjected to a most wretched state of degradation. A husband may put his wives to a more or less severe death, if they give the least cause of jealousy, by being seen barely to converse with another span, or suffering one to come into their apartment.

The religion of the Japanese throughout the empire Christianity, however, or rather popery, had once a is paganism, including several sects, who live together considerable number of converts in Japan : but the in harınony, each having its own temples and priests. mission was productive of little good. Many reckon The spiritual emperor, Dairi, is the chief of their reli- it to have been pernicious, as it terminated in the inost gion: though they acknowledge one Supreme Being. dreadful massacre of all who professed the Christian Dr. Humbey saw two temples of "the god of gods? name, through the pride and the rapacity of the Jesuits, of a majestic height. The idol that represented this and their conspiracies against the goverument. divinity was of gilded wood, and of so prodigious a size, that upon his hands six persons might sit in the Japanese fashion. In the other temple, the infinite

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF BISHOP WARpower of this god was represented by little gods to the

BURTON. number of 33,333, all standing round the great idol, Bishop WARBURTON was, as Mr. Grainger, in his which represented the Supreme Being. The priests, Biographical History” observes, “ an English prewho are numerous in every temple, have nothing to do late of gigantic abilities.” We introduce this great but to clean the pavement, light the lamps, and dress man to the contemplation of our young readers, as a the idols with flowers. The temples are open to every worthy example of persevering and successful diligence one, even to the Dutch; and if they are in want of a in the paths of learning. We especially propose him lodging, when they go to the court of Jeddo, they are as an inducement to study and application, because, as a entertained with hospitality in these temples.

highly respectable clergyman remarks, "Bishop WarIn Miaco there are multitudes of temples ; and one burton, the greatest master of human learning that in in particular, has no less than three thousund idols in it. modern times has adorned the English episcopacy, In the middle of the temple there is a gigantic figure of went to no university. The author of the Divine Lean idol, whose head is bald, and his ears bored through, gation of Moses' began life as an attorney's clerk, and but without a beard. On each side of his throne there continued in the legal profession till he was twentyare statues of armed men, moors dancing, witches, ma- five years of age." gicians, and devils. There are likewise several repre- The subject of this biographical sketch was born at sentations of thunder, winds, and rain, with all sorts of Newark, December the 24th, 1698. He was first put stones. Each idol has thirty hands, with seven heads to school there under a Mr. Twells, but had the chief on his breast, all made of solid gold, and all the deco- part of his education at Oakham in Rutlandshire, rations of the temple are made of the same precious where he continued till the beginning of 1714, when materials. Near this idol is another of a most gigantic his cousin being made head-master of the school at size, with forty-six arms and hands, attended by the Newark, he returned to his native place, and was for figures of sixteen black devils. A row of idols is a very short time under the care of that learned and placerl at a considerable distance, each of which has respectable relation. In April that year, he was put several arms, all of which are intended to signify the out clerk to Mr. Kirke, an eminent attorney of Great power they have over the affairs of this lower world. Markham, in Nottinghamshire; and continued with Their heads are adorned with rays of glory, and some that gentleman till 1719. He then returned to his of them have shepherds' crooks in their hands, to inti. family at Newark; devoting a considerable portion of mate their being guardians of mankind against all the his time to study, and became usher in a school. machinations of evil spirits.

Having expressed a strong inclination for the church, The Temple of Apes, represented in our engraving he was ordained deacon, December the 220, 1723, and (see Carpenter's Scripture Nat. Hist.) is magnificent; priest, March the 1st, 1727. His first work appeared richly adorned with many figures of that grotesque ani- in 1724, under the title of “ Miscellaneous Translations mal. Apes and monkeys, with a variety of other crea- in Prose and Verse, from Roman Poets, Orators, and tures, are reverently worshipped in their pagods; and Historians," 12mo. The volume was dedicatell to Sir each of these sapient brutes is considered as embleina- Robert Sutton, and seems to have laid the foundation tical of some of the operations of nature or providence. of his first ecclesiastical preferment. In 1727 his seAll the attitudes in which these creatures are placed, cond work, entitled “A Critical and Philosophical Inafford subjects for the priests to enlarge on in their quiry into the Causes of Prodigies and Miracles, as sermons to the people : should we with a smile say, related by Historians,” &c., was published in 12mo., “ for their instruction or amusement ?"

and was also dedicated to Sir R. Sutton. On his The doctrine of metem psychosis, or the transmigra- Majesty's visit to Cambridge, Mr. Warburton had the tion of souls, is firmly held by the Japanese, as it is by honour of being in the King's list of Masters of Arts, many of the Hindoos and Chinese ; and which, while created in consequence of the royal visit to that uniit strips death of much of its terror, destroys the ten- versity. In June, the same year, he was presented by derest feelings of humanity, causing them to set scarcely Sir Robert Sutton to the reciory of Brand Broughton, any value on human life, even of their own parents. in the diocese of Lincoln, which he retained till his

The Japanese are so fully persuaded of the passing death, and where he spent a considerable part of his of human souls from their purgatorial prison in hell, middle life in a sludious retirement, devoted entirely into the bodies of vile creatures on earth, such as ser- to letters. In 1736 he published a painphlet, which pents, toads, insects, birds, fishes, and quadrupeds, and rendered him famous, entitled “The Alliance between from them again into human bodies after a season of Church and State; or the Necessity and Equity of an suffering, that they have hospitals for beasts, which are Established Religion and a Test Law; demonstrated fed and supported as if they were human beings. And from the Essence and Evd of Civil Society, upon the what is more remarkable, there is a convent near Jeddo, fundamental Principles of the Law of Nature and Nain which a vast number of priests reside, whose time is tions.” But the work, which especially has immortaemployed in feeding these irrational brute creatures ! lized the name of Warburton, is, “ The Divine Lega

British Christians cannot but mourn over such a tion of Moses demonstrated on the Principles of a miserable, superstitious, and degraded population. religious Deist, from the Vinission of the Doctrine of Sympathetic piety will lead the man of God to pray, Rewards and Punishments in the Jewish Dispensa.

Have respect unto the covenant, for the dark places tion." of the carth are full of the habitations of cruelty." This work raised up a host of opponents ; because, Psal. Ixxiv, 20.

while it vindicated the claims of Moses as a Messenger from God, it surrendered to the enemies soine of his

Beyond the narrow vale of time, capital doctrines : but its display of prodigious learn

Where bright celestial ages roll, ing secured him many friends. We cannot follow him

To scenes eternal, scenes sublime, through his several stages of honour and dignity, as

She points the way, and leads the soul. chaplain to the king --prebend of Durham,-D.D.,

At her approach the Grave appears dean of Bristol, -and bishop of Gloucester. Toward

The Gate of Paradise restor'd; the close of his life, Bishop Warburton transferred

Her voice the watchiug Cherub hears, five hundred pounds to Lord Mansfield, Sir Eardley

And drops his double flaming sword. Wilmot, and Mr. Charles Yorke, upon trust, to found a lecture, in the form of a course of sermons, to prove

Baptiz'd with her renewing fire the truth of revealed religion in general, and of the

May we the crown of glory gain; Christian in particular, from the completion of the

Rise when the host of heaven expire, prophecies of the Old and New Testament which re

And reign with God — for ever reign! late to the Christian church, especially to the apostacy of Papal Rome. To this foundation we owe the admirable Introductory Lectures of Hurd, and the well. A RICH INFIDEL REFLECTING ON HUMAN adapted Continuation of Halifax and Bagot. Bishop

LIFE. Warburton died in June 1779, in the eighty-first year of his age, leaving the character for learning which we

MELANCHOLY gloom or licentious gaiety pervades the have quoted.

mind of even the post favoured infidel. Voltaire was rich, and honoured by the great; yet, amid his boast

ing, and the worship of his admirers, he was the victim THE REV. GEORGE BURDER.

of the bitterest vexation, even when in his glory; and full of days, and beloved by all denominations of

deliberately he could record, “I wish I HAD NEVER Christians, this venerable man finished his mortal

BEEN BORN!” course, at the house of his son, Dr. Burder, in Bruns

“Who," says this prince of infidelity, “can, without wick Square, May the 29th, 1832. He had attained

horror, consider the whole world as the empire of dethe eightieth year of his age; and for more than half

struction? It abounds with wonders; it also abounds that period, we believe, he had been minister of Fetter

with victims. It is a vast field of carnage and contaLane Chapel. His literary labours were considerable

gion. Every species is without pity pursued and torn and useful; and “The Village Sermons,” which have

to pieces through the earth, and air, and water. In been translated into many languages, will immortalize

man there is more wretchedness than in all the other the name of George Burder. His services to the public,

animals put together. He loves life, and yet he knows in promoting the cause of the Redeemer, canuot on

he must die. If he enjoys a transient good, he suffers earth be estimated ; az he was for many years the able

various evils, and is at last devoured by worms. This Secretary to the London Missionary Society, and the knowledge is his fatal prerogative; other animals have intelligent, candid Editor of the Evangelical Magazine.

it not. He spends the transient moments of his exThis excellent man has left a treasure to the world, in

istence in diffusing the miseries which he suffers; in his eminent and honoured sons; and we rejoice that

cutting the throats of his fellow-creatures for pay; in his sorrowing church is blessed with the oversight of

cheating and being cheated; in robbing and being a minister so qualified as the Rev. Caleb Morris, who

robbed; in serving that he might command, and in for several years had been co-pastor with our departed

repenting of all he does. The bulk of mankind are friend. May the spirit of Elijah rest upon Elisha !

nothing more than a crowd of wretches, equally cri. minal and unfortunate ; and the globe contains rather

carcasses than men. I tremble at the review of this RELIGION.

dreadful picture to fiud that it contains a complaint BY J. MONTGOMERY.

against Providence; and I wish I HAD NEVER BEEN

BORN !" Through shades and solitudes profound

The fainting traveller winds his way;
Bewildering meteors glare around,

BOOKS OF STERLING MERIT.
Aud tempt his wandering feet astray.
Welcome, thrice welcome, to his eye,

In our Prospectus of the “ Christian's Penny Maga-
The sudden moon's inspiring light,

zine,” we declared our intention of noticing, among When forth she sallies through the sky,

other things, “ New Books of Sterling Merit.” Our

limits will not allow us to give an extended review of The guardian angel of the night!

any: but we intend to point out some of those works, Thus mortals, blind and weak, below

which are best suited to form an economical, but valuPursue the phantom Bliss, in vain ;

able library for that class of readers, whose time and The world's a wilderness of woe,

money render such direction indispensable; and think And life a pilgrimage of pain!

we cannot do better than commence with the Till mild Religion, from above,

COMPANION TO THE BIBLE,
Descends, a sweet engaging forin,

Intended for Bible Classes, Families, and Young Persons
The messenger of heavenly love,

in General. The bow of promise in a storm!

This little Work, price only three shillings, illustrated Then guilty passions wing their flight,

with three coloured Maps of Biblical Geography, has Sorrow, remorse, amiction cease;

been pronounced one of the most instructive and valuReligion's yoke is soft and light,

able, on the best and greatest of subjects, that have And all her paths are paths of peace.

ever issued from the British press. It contains a conAmbition, pride, revenge depart,

densed mass of information, connected with almost And folly Aies her chastening rod;

every subject relating to the history, inspiration, and She makes the humble contrite heart

design of the Bible. Every young person ought to A temple of the living God.

possess this work, to fortify his faith against the daring and insinuating attacks of the various classes of Infidels. cupied by these horrid tenants, hissing and shaking A specimen of the style and manner of the work, we their ratiles, fled from the house by beating off the have given in the chapter on the “ Antiquity of the

covering of the roof, and escaping in that direction. Bible."

COW TREE. VISIT OF THE DUKE OF YORK TO MILTON.

On the barren lank of a rock, says Humboldt, grows DR. Symonds, in his Life of Milton, produces “many a tree with dry and leather-like leaves ; its large woody effusions of malevolence of which Milton was the ob

roots can scarcely penetrate into the stovy soil. For ject during his life-time; and which fully justify his several months of ihe year not a single shower moistens complaints, and our exccration of the malignity of its foliage. Its branches appear dead and dried; yet party.

when the trunk is pierced there flows from it a sweet A story I have seen in print (but by whom told, and nourishing milk. It is at sun-rise that this vegeor on what authority, I know not), shall be inserted table fountain is most abundant. The blacks and the for the ainusement of my readers. It bears some in- natives are then to be seen hastening from all quarters, ternal marks of authenticity, and exhibits very justly furnished with large bowls to receive the milk, which the gay and the gloomy malignity of the two royal bro. grows yellow and thickens at its surface. Some emthers, Charles and James.

ploy their bowls under the tree, while others carry “The Duke of York, as it is reported, expressed one home the juice for their children. This fine tree rises day to the King his brother, a great desire to see oli like the broad-leaved star-apple. Its oblong and Milton, of whom he had heard so much. The King re- pointed leaves, tough and alternate, are marked by laplied, that he felt no oljection to the Duke's satisfying ieral ribs : some of them are ten inches long. We did his curiosity: and accordingly, soon afterwards James

not see the flower. The fruit is somewhat fleshy, anul went privately to Milton's house, where, after an in- contains a nut, sometimes two. The milk obtained by troduction, which explained to the old republican the incisions made in the trunk is glutinous, tolerably rank of his guest, a free conversation ensued between thick, free from all acrimony, and of an agreeable and these very dissiinilar and discordant characters. In the

balmy smell. It was offered to us in the shell of the course, however, of the conversation, the Duke asked

tutuno or calabash tree. We drank a considerable Milton, whether he did not regard the loss of his eye

quantity of it in the evening before we went to bed, sight as a judgment inflicted on him for what he had

and very early in the morning, without experiencing written against the king. Milton's reply was to this the slightest injurious effect. The viscosity of this effect; If your Highness thinks that the calamities milk alone renders it somewhat disagreeable. The newhich befal us here are indications of the wrath of

groes and free labourers drink it, dipping into it their Heaven, in what manner are we to account for the fate

maize or cassava bread. The butter tree of Bambarra, of the King, your father? The displeasure of Heaven mentioned by Mungo Park, is suspected to be of the inust, upon this supposition, have been much greater same genus as the Palo de vaca.Modern Traveller, against him than against me-for I have lost only my Columbia, 263. eyes, but he lost his head.'

“Much discomposed with this answer, the Duke soon took his leave and went away. On his return to

“The infinitely wise Author of nature has so contrived court, the first words which he spoke to the King

things, that the most remarkable rules of preserving

life and health are moral duties commanded us; so true were, - Brother, you are greatly to blame that you don't have that old rogue Milton hanged. Why,

it is that 'godliness has the promises of this life as well what is the matter, James?' said the King, you secm

as that to come.'Dr. Cheyne. in a heat. What! have you seen Milton? • Yes,'

TO OUR READERS. answered the Duke, I have seen him.' •Well,' said the King, 'In what condition did you find him?'

Such is the First Number of “ The Christian's Penny • Condition ? why he is old and very poor.' 'Old and

Magazine,” which we have endeavoured to make not poor! Well, and he is blind too-is he not?'-'Yes, only“ entertaining” and “ useful,” but conducive to blind as a beetle.' Why then, observed the King, the spread of Christian knowledge, the cultivation of

you are a fool, James, to have him hanged as a pu- genuine piety, and to the practice of that pure morality wishment: to hang him will be doing him a service ;

which can only spring from a heart governed by the it will be taking him out of his miscries. Nomif he is principles of the Gospel. In what measure our efforts old, poor, and blind, he is miserable enough in all have been successful, we now leave to our Readers to conscience :- let him live!'"

pronounce. That our aim is approved by them we doubt not; and we therefore unhesitatingly claim their support, not merely as purchasers to keep the Work in

existence; but especially to aid us by their talents in A DEN OF RATTLESNAKES.

improving its character, and their influence in enlarging In Flint's Geography and History of the United States, its sphere of usefulness. A ready and respectful attenwe have an account of an emigrant fainily who inad. tion will be paid to any suggestions for its improvevertently fixed their cabin on the shelving declivity of ment, and insertion given to whatever inay be thought a ledge, that proved a den of Rattlesnakes. Warmed hy likely to promote its utility. And so we launch our the first fire on the hearth of the cabin, the terrible bark with copfidence, commending it to the blessreptiles issued in nuinbers, and of course in rage, by ing of Him who alone can give it a prosperous gale, night, into the room where the whole family slept. As and who we humbly trust will smile upon this attempt happens in those cases, some slept on the floor, and to promote his glory and the good of maukind. some in beds. The reptiles spread in every part of the room, and mounted on every bed. Children were

London: Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, stung in the arms of their parents, and in each other's

Poppin's Court, Fleet Street, and may be had of all Book arms. Imagination dares not dwell on the horrors of sellers and Newsmen. such a scene. Most of the family were bitten to death,

Communications (post paid) to be addressed to the Editor, at and those who escaped, finding the whole cabin oc

the Publisher's.

PENNY MAGAZINE.

NO 2.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

JUNE 16, 1832.

[graphic]

evangelization of our countrymen, assured that Scrip. tural kuowledge will promote the general cultivation of the mind, secure the best moral habits, and prepare the soul for a blissful immortality.

HOME MISSIONARY LABOURS OF THE CLERGY. “Those truly sound Discourses on Repentance," pub• lished in the third folio volume of the famous Mr. Per. kins (of whom Bishop Hall speaks in terms of such high commendation), were preached out of doors, to several thousands of hearers at Stourbridge Fair. The title of them is, “ A faithful and plain Exposition upon the two first verses of the second chapter of Zephaniah, by that late Reverend Preacher of God's Word, Mr. William Perkins, containing a powerful Exhortation to Repentance, &c. Preached at Stourbridge Fair, in the Field; taken froin his mouth, and now published for the common good. London, 1631.”

BISHOP LATIMER A HOME MISSIONARY.

It is recorded of the good old Martyr Latimer, who was for a tirne Bishop of Worcester, that he frequently preached out of doors in different parts of his own diocese. He carried his spectacles on one side of his girdle, and on the other his New Testament. Fox, the Martyrologist, says of him," that all King Edward's days, he travelled up and down, preaching for the most part twice every Sunday; and that he took little ease and care of sparing himself, to do the people good.”

THE HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY. This truly apostolical Society, consisting of churchmen and dissenters, was founded in 1819. Its design is the

evangelization of the unenlightened inhabitants of the towns and villages of Great Britain, by preaching the Gospel, the distribution of Religious Tracts, and the establishment of Prayer-Meetings and Sunday Schools, with every other Scriptural method for the accomplishment of this important object.” The Report of the “ Home Missionary Society,” for the year ending March 1931, states, “the Society employs thirty-five missionaries; in addition to whom there are about twenty pastors and stated ministers, who devote a portion of their time to the objects of this Society. There are, in all, sirty agents, who employ every practicable mode of communicating religious instruction, by schools, by the distribution of tracts, and by regular preaching. They have 200 villages, and not fewer than 4,000 children under their care, in a population of nearly 200,000 souls. The treasurer has received luring the past year 4,9091. 48., and paid 4,9001.; but the Society is still indebted not less than 7001.

That such a Society is founded on Scriptural principles, we need only refer to the New Testament, to read of the Home Missionary itinerant labours of our blessed Saviour and his Apostles. It corresponds with the operations of the servants of Christ in all ages of the church. We are rejoiced to know that the same system has been extensively acted upon in Ireland by the several denominations of protestants. We have heard that one of the prelates has declared his determination, not to ordain any candidate for holy orders, unless he can preach in the native Irish language. “ The Irish Society,” supported almost exclusively by the members of the Established Church, is formed upon the same principles of Home Missionary itinerating, and preaching the Gospel to the neglected villagers,

After much careful inquiry, we have not heard of a single instance of any individual connected with any of the Home Missionary stations, being found among the offenders against the law in the disturbed districts of our country, in the last several years. Such societies

We sincerely rejoice in every effort to promote the

THE FRUITS OF CHRISTIANITY. Every labourer, servant, or mechanic, cannot be supposed capable of examining all the variety of proofs by which the Christian religion is supported. But it is impossible that even the weakest should le incapable of estimating its value and its character, by con. sidering the rich fruit which it naturally produces in every part of the world.

Such, however, are the magnitude and diversity of its heavenly benefits to mankind, that it is difficult to make a representation of them by any means corresponding to their worth and importance.

The impure and brutalizing systems of idolatry have been abolished by the merely formal and national reception of Christianity. Christianity has clearly revealed the existence, the universal providence, and the infinite perfections of the only true and living God. Christianity has both published and illustrated the holy law of the divine Majesty, as the eternal rule of morai duty for all the intelligent creation. It proclaims a future judg.cent, and declares that all men shall be righteously rewarded in that day according to the deeds done in the body. It contemplates man as he evidently is in his present circumstances, a creature, fallen from his integrity-a transgressor, guilty in the sight of his Maker. It exhibits to his awakened inind, and brings to his terrified conscience the Divine provision for full forgiveness of sins and perfect justification by the substitution of an almightyä urety. It regards the under

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deserve universal support.

Vol. I.

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