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TRIUMPHAL ARCH OF TITUS, AT ROME.
people, attending that fearful overthrow, imagination
cannot conceive, even from the statement of Josepbus, CHRISTIANITY receives confirmation of its divinity that 1,100,000 persons perished by the sword, famine, from almost every class of ancient monuments. Among and pestilence, besides 97,000 sold for slaves, and an those relating to the antiquities of Jerusalem, and of inmuinerable multitude destroyed in different parts of its glory in the time of our Saviour's ministry, and of the country. its destruction by the Romans, agreeably to our Sa- Jerusalem being reducea to heaps of ruins, A. D. 71, viour's prediction, Matt. xxiv, Luke xxi, the Arch of and the wretched survivors scattered upon the face of Titus at Rume is peculiarly remarkable. For the par- the earth, the treasures of its magnificent temple were ticulars of that most dreadful siege, we refer our carried to Rome, and publicly exhibited to the people readers to the account given by Josephus, who wit- for the honour of the conquerors, Vespasian and his nessed its horrors, in his “ History of the Jewish War," son Titus. Vespasian built a new teinple, dedicated to or to Newton's “Dissertation on the Prophecies.' Peace, to celebrate his victories, and in this building What must have been the calamities of the wretched were deposited inost of the Jewish spoils : Titus had a VOL. I.
Triumphal Arch, of great beauty and magnificence, did not appear as carried along in pompous show only, erected to his honour; and on this were represented but, as a man may say, running along like a river. his exploits against the Jews. Within the Arch are Some parts were composed of the rarest purple hangstill seen the representation of part of the procession ings, and so carried along; and others accurately re. carrying "the golden table of the weight of many presented to the life what was embroidered by the arts talents, and the massy golden candlestick, with its of the Babylonians. There were also precious stones seven lamps." This splendid Arch has continued that were transparent, some set in crowns of gold, and through almost eighteen centuries, an instructive some in other ouches, as the workman pleased ; and of unonument against the impiety and wickedness of the these such a vast number were brought, that we could Jewish nation, who, on account of their rejection and not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of crucifixion of Messiah, were abandoned by God.
them to be rarities. The images of the gods were also
carried, being as well wonderful for their largeness, as TRIUMPH OF VESPASIAN AND Titus.
inade very artificially, and with great skill of the work
men; nor were any of these images of any other than Josephus describes the pompous triumph of Vespa- very costly materials ; and many species of animals sian and his son Titus, on the return of the latter from were brought, every one in their own natural ornaJerusalem, a part of whose account we shall here gire ments. The men also who brought every one of these to our readers :
shows were great multitudes, and adorned with purple “When notice had been given beforehand of the day garments, all over interwoven with gold; those that were appointed for this pompous solemnity to be made, on chosen for carrying these pompous shows, having also account of their victories, not one of the immense about them such inagnificent ornaments, as were both multitude was left in that city, but every body went extraordinary and surprising. Besides these, one inight out so far as to gain only a station where they might see that even the great number of the captives was not stand, and left only such a passage as was necessary unadorned, while the variety that were in their garfor those that were to be seen to go along it.
ments, and their fine texture, concealed from the sight “Now all the soldiery marched out beforehand by the deformity of their bodies. But what afforded the companies, and in their several ranks, under their
greatest surprise of all, was the structure of the paseveral commanders, in the night-time, and were about geants that were borne along; for indeed he that met the gates, not of the upper palaces, but those near the them could not but be afraid that the bearers would temple of Isis ; for there it was that the emperors had not be able firmly enough to support them, such was rested the foregoing night. And as soon as ever it was their magnitude ; for many of them were so inade, day, Vespasian and Titus came out crowned with laurel,
that they were on three or even four stories, one above and clothed in those ancient purple habits which were another. The magnificence also of their structure proper to their family, and then went as far as Octa- afforded one both pleasure and surprise ; for upon vian's Walks; for there it was that the senate, and the many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was principal rulers, and those that had been recorded as
also wrought gold and ivory fastened about them all ; of the equestrian order, waited for them. Now a tri- and many resemblances of the war, and those in several bunal had been erected before the cloisters, and ivory ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a mnost chairs had been set upon it, when they came and sat lively portraiture of itself; for there was to be seen a down upon them. Wherefore the soldiery made an happy country laid waste, and entire squadrons of acclamation of joy to them immediately, and all gave enemies slain; while some of them ran away, and some them attestations of their valour; while they were were carried into captivity; with walls of great altitude themselves without their arms, and only in their silken and magnitude overthrown, and ruined by machines ; garments, and crowned with laurel : then Vespasian with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of accepted of these shouts of theirs ; but while they most populous cities upou the tops of hills seized on, were still disposed to go on in such acclamations, he
and an army pouring itself within the walls; as also gave them a signal of silence. And when every body every place full of slaughter, and supplications of the entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon tem. the accustomed solemn prayers ; the like prayers did ples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and Titus put up also; after which prayers Vespasian made falling upon their owners : rivers also, after they come a short speech to all the people, and then sent away the out of a large and melancholy desert, ran dowu, not soldiers to a dinner prepared for them by the emperors. into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for Then did he retire to that gate which was called the cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; Gate of the Pomp, because pompous shows do always for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergo through that gate; there it was that they tasted gone during this war. Now the workmanship of these some food, and when they had put on their triumphal representations was so magnificent and lively in the garments, and had offered sacrifices to the gods that construction of the things, that it exhibited what had were placed at the gate, they sent the triumph forward, been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been and marched through the theatres, that they might be there really present. On the top of every one of these the more easily seen by the inultilude.
pageants was placed the commander of the city that “Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of Moreover, there followed those pageants a great num, thein all; such indeed as a man could not easily think ber of ships; and for the other spoils, they were carried of as performed either by the labour of workinen, or in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature; for temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure almost all such curiosities as the most happy men ever them all; that is the goldeu table, of the weight of get by piece-meal, were here heaped one upon another, many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of and those both admirable and costly in their nature; gold, though its construction were now changed from and all brought together on that day, demonstrated the that which we made use of: for its middle shaft was vastness of the dominions of the Romans; for there fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were pro. was bere to be seen a mighty quantity of silver, and duced out of it to a great length, having the likeness gold, and ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, and of a trident in their position, and had every one a
socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. that I should swear by the Eniperor's genius, as you These lamps were in number seven, and represented call it, as if you knew not who I am, hear my free the dignity of the number Seven among the Jews; and confession :- Í am a Christian. If you have an inclithe last of all the spoils, was carried the Law of the nation to learn the Christian religion, appoint me a Jews. After these spoils passed by a great many men, time, and I will give you that instruction.". carrying the images of Victory, whose structure was Arguments being in vain, the proconsul threatened entirely either of ivory, or of gold. After which Ves- him with the wild beasts. “ Call for them,” said pasian marched in the first place, and Titus followed
“ for we are immutably resolved not to him; Domitian also rode along with them, and made change the better for the worse, accounting, it fit and a glorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was comely to turn only from vice to virtue.” worthy of admiration.
thou makest so light of wild beasts,” added the magis. “Now the last part of this pompous show was at the trate, “I have a fire that shall tame thee, uuless thou temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither when they were repent.” Polycarp replied, “ Thou threatenest me come, they stood still; for it was the Romans' ancient with a fire that burns for an hour, and is presently custom to stay till somebody brought the news that the extinct; but thou art ignorant, alas ! of the fire o general of the enemy was slain. This general was eternal damnation, and the judgment to come, reservou Simon, the son of Gioras, who had then been led in for the wicked in the other world. But why delayest this triumph among the captives; a rope had also been thou? Bring forth whatever thou hast a mind!” put upon his head, and he had been drawn into a pro- Astonished at his firmness, and regarding it as obper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented stinacy, he called the cryer to proclaim, “Polycarp has by those that drew him along; and the law of the confessed himself a Christian.” Multitudes shouted, Romans required, that malefactors condemned to die “This is the great Doctor of Asia, and the Father should be slain there. Accordingly, when it was re- of the Christians! This is the destroyer of our gods, lated that there was an end of him, and all the people that teaches men not to do sacrifice, or worship the had set up a shout for joy, they then began to offer deities !” The cry being over, the crowd addressed the those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the ASIARCH, the Arch-priest of the idolators, at whose prayers used in such solennities ; which when they had charge the public sports were provided, to entertain finished, they went away to the palace. And as for them with a lion let loose upon the Christian confessor: some of the spectators, the einperors entertained them but, as he had gratified them with a hunting show in at their own feast; and for all the rest, there were the amphitheatre a short time before, he refused ; noble preparations made for their fcasting at home; when they demanded that he should be burnt alive. for this was a festival day to the city of Rome, as cele. This brutal clamour was satisfied by the venerable brated for the victory obtained by their army over their bishop being led to the amphitheatre, and, in the enemies, for the end that was now put to their civil presence of a multitude who eagerly fetched large miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of quautities of wood and faggots, was sacrificed in the future prosperity and happiness."
fames. Many Jew3, it is said, were active in this murder. It is worthy observation, that when the officers
came to nail the martyr to the stake, as was the cusECCLESIASTICAL BIOGRAPHY.
tom, Polycarp desired them to omit it; assuring them,
“He who gives strength to endure the fire, will enable POLYCARI, MARTYRED A.D. 167.
me to stand immoveable in the hottest flames.” Thus 25. POLYCARP, bishop of the Christian church_at God was glorified in his faithful servant. Sinyrna in Asia Minor, is deservedly famous in Ecclesiastical annals. He was a successful defender of
PRAYER OF POLYCARP AT THE STAKE. the gospel during a long course of years, and at length sealed his testimony for Christ with the blood" of
“O Lord God Almighty, the Father of thy well bemartyrdom.
loved and ever-blessed Son, Jesus Christ, by whom we Polycarp was born, as is believed, at Smyrna, in the
have received the knowledge of Thee; the God of reign of Nero; but sold as a slave when a child : he
angels, powers, and of every creature, and of the whole
race of the righteous, who live before Thee; I bless was purchased by a Christian lady, named Calisto, and
Thee that Thou hast graciously condescended to bring educated by her in the doctrines of her religion. He
me to this day and hour, that I may receive a portion is supposed to have been a disciple of the Apostle
in the number of thy holy Martyrs, and drink of John, and to have conversed with many who had heard
Christ's cup, for the resurrection to eternal life both discourses from the lips of Jesus Christ. Polycarp succeeded Bucolus in the pastoral office over the Chris
of soul and body in the incorruptibleness of the Holy
Spirit. tians at Smyrna, and laboured for many years, with
Into which number, grant I may be received
this day, being found in thy sight as a fair and acceptpersevering zeal, to preserve the purity of Christian doctrine, and to advance the saving knowledge of
able sacrifice, such a one as Thou thyself hast prepared ;
that 30 Thou mayest accomplish what Thou, O true Christ among the people. Marcus Antoninus, the and faithful God,' hast foreshown: therefore I praise Roman emperor, was induced by the pagan priesthood
Thee for all thy mercies, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee, to persecute the Christians, and Polycarp was called to the honour of martyrdom.
throngh the eternal High-Priest, thy beloved Son Jesus
Christ; with whoin to Thyself and the Holy Spirit be Being brought before the proconsul, that magistrate
glory both now and for ever. Amen." endeavoured to prevail upon him, but in vain, to recant. “Regard,” said he, “thy great age-swear by the genius of Cæsar. Repent, reproach Christ, and say
THE CHRISTIAN'S BADGE. with us, Take away the impious,” meaning the Christians. Polycarp resented the proposition, and replied, The Romans had a law, that every one should, where. “Eighty and six years I have served Him, and he ever he went, wear a badge of his trade in his hat, or never did ine any harm; how then shall I now blas- outward vestment, that might be known. Thus the phen.e my King and iny Saviour ?” The proconsul Christian is never to lay aside the badge of his holy pro. still importuned him to swear by the genius of Cæsar: fession; but to let his light shine, and adorn the doc but he replied, “Since you are so "vainly ambitious trine of God his Saviour in all things.
information from his devout ancestors. Many a serene ENOCH.
summer's evening, - many a consecrated festival,
many a memorable anniversary, - many a holy Sabbath BORN A. M. 623. TRANSLATED A, 1. 988, AGED 365 YEARS.
would be improved, in treasuring up the instructive The Purentage of Enoch.
communications which fell from the lips of his ances“Enoch, the seventh from 'Adain" in the line of Seth, tors, the distinguished "suns of God," especially from was a person of extraordinary excellence and honour. Enos and Seth, and from his venerable progenitor In early years his parents devoted him to the service Adam, who had been so remarkably favoured in comof God, and his eminent character corresponded with
munion with God. his name, which signifies dedicated.
As Enoch is testified to have lived more than three This naine, Enoch, was given by Cain to his eldest hundred years contemporary with Adam, some of our son; but we have every reason to believe, that the two young readers may feel disposed to inquire, what was were persons of very different dispositions, and of ihe reason of the patriarchs living so long, - many of opposite courses of life. Their parents, their educa- them to nearly a thousand years. To satisfy their tion, and their habits of life, were of a contrary
minds it may be replied, that though we may not be character; and such coutrarieties we still perceive in
able to declare the whole, yet there were several evident persons bearing the same name among ourselves. reasons for their long continuance on earth. First, it
The father of Enoch was Jared : but of him we have must be chiefly resolved into the sovereign power and no particular information, beyond that which is con- goodness of God. He prolonged their lives for the tained in the book of Genesis,-the simple mention inore speedy peopling of the earth, and for the more of his name, - his father Mahaleel, — his son Enoch,- effectual preservation of religion, while there were no his age and death,-and the fact of his having sons and
written records of God's revealed will, the knowledge daughters: yet the course of his life was greatly ex.
of which was handed down principally by tradition. tended. “And all the days of Jared were nine hundred As they lived to so extended an age, the father could sixty and two years : and'he died.” Gen, v, 20.
instruct his children to the fifth or sixth generation, in We are not able to pronounce with confident as- the things which had been revealed to him from the surance, but the probability is strong that Jared was “ Father of lights” and fountain of grace. i inan of sincere personal religion, especially from the All the recorded patriarchs until Noah, “were born fact of the dedication to God of his son Enoch, whose
before Adam died : so that from him they might reexalted piety is celebrated, both in relation to his public ceive a full and satisfactory account of the creation, and private life.
Paradise, the fall, the promise, and those divine preEntertaining this pleasing persuasion, a distinguished
cepts, which concerned religious worship and a religious modern poet has eulogized both father and son, in
life; and if any mistakes arose, they might have rethese beautiful lines :
course to him while he lived, as to an oracle, for the " Jared, who full of hope beyond the tomb,
rectifying of it; and after his death, to Methuselah, and Hallow'd his offspring from his mother's womb,
others, that had conversed with him : so great was the And Heaven receiv'd the son that parent gave,
care of Almighty God -to preserve in his church the He walk'd with God, and overstept the grave.
kuowledge of his will, and the purity of his worMONTGOMERY'S WORLD BEFORE THE Floop.
ship."—Henry. There is a fragment of an ancient tradition respect- Natural causes also, no doubt, favoured long life in ing Jared, which has been preserved to our times. It those early ages of the world. Man was indeed exstates, that his name Jared, which signifies descending, cluded from Paradise, which the LORD had planted; the was given to himn on account of a hundred young men, earth was cursed with thorns and thistles; but still it of the posterity of Seth, having descended from the was more fruitful, the productions of it more nutri. holy mountain, on which they dwelt, to marry the tious, and the air more pure and healthful than after the “ daughters of men,” and mingle with the Cainites, con- deluge. Besides, the cheerfulness of the pious, and the trary to the counsel of Jared. The same tradition
temperance of those simple ages, would unite with the reports, that Jared was a prophet; and that, when be blessings of a bounteous God to prolong their lives, drew near his end, he called to him Enoch, Methuselah, and thus to secure the accomplishment of his holy Lamech, Noah, and their children: he gave them some and benevolent purposes in their families. pious counsel, and having appointed Enoch to be his
(To be continued.) successor, he blessed them in the name of the Lord, and died in the hope of a blessed immortality. As Enoch was born in the six hundred and twenty.
THE BANYAN, OR INDIAN FIG TREE. third year
of the world, he'must have been for more The glory of India is the sacred Banyan, or fig tree. than three hundred years contemporary with his first This giant of the forest, or rather forest in itself, parent, Adam. From his own lips, therefore, he would extends its branches in every direction, and throwing have the delightful opportunity of learning the won- out new shoots, which fall to the ground and there take drous story of the creation,- the terms of the covenant root without separating from the parent tree, it forins of obedience, according to which he was constituted a continuous and delightful shade, and provides a home lord of the whole earth, - the felicities of the conse- and shelter for the houseless native. crated Paradise, -the awful circumstances of the fall It is said to derive its name of Banyan from the by his transgression,--the explained import of the adoration which that caste pays to it, who paint it Divine promise assuring a Saviour from deserved daily, make offerings of rice, and pray to it. wrath,- the design of sacrifices,- and other sublime Penuarit says, it is called the pagod tree, and tree of and inestimable truths and doctrines.
councils, because idols are placed under its shade, and Although we have no particular account of the man- cuuncils held beneath its branches. ner or frequency of the intercourse of these venerable In some places it is believed to be the haunt of patriarchs, which the lirevity of the book of Genesis would spectres, as the ancient oaks of Wales have been of not allow, yet we can have no doubt of their profitable fairies. Pillars of stone, and posts elegantly carved conferences, and their frequent religious coinmunica. and ornamented, with the most beautiful porcelain to tions. Enoch, from his recorded habits and character, supply the use of mirrors, are occasionally placed would certainly be inquisitive for the most precious under its shade.
Letters to a Mother, upon Eduoation.
even of understanding what was said ; the utmost efforts
being used to prevent distressing him, or occasioning him LETTER II.
to cry; - what, but a tranquil inind in a healthy body? Dear Madam,
Unaccustomed to be distressed, the process of mental
development would proceed, neither being clouded nor In my last Letter it was intiinated, that liable to obliquity, and a happy temperament estathe subject of Education naturally divides itself into blished, which might resist the influence of future cirfour branches, corresponding to those qualities of hu- cumstances calculated to produce despondency or illman nature which it professes to educe, and to direct to temper. the ends they were intended to answer; namely, the If you should doubt the dependence of the mental physical, moral, intellectual, and religious. That branch
temperament upon early treatment, I might refer you which may be called physical education first preseuts it- to the case of the poet Cowper, who ascribes that deself, and 'respecting which I now proceed to offer you spondency which rendered his life so miserable, that my sentiments.
in the course of it he attempted twice to destroy himI shall confidently presuppose you to be fully con. self, to the conduct of the elder boys to him when comvinced of the sympathy between the body and the mind; paratively a child at Westminster school. The influence or, in other words, their natural tendency to assume of external circumstances is, though not perhaps equal, the same state of feeling the one with the other. This yet of immense importance throughout the whole pehas indeed been shown to be very natural, and the mode riod of youth, and even of life itself. But the reality of it has been partly explained by many celebrated and the philosophy of their operation are far better atwriters; but after all the most convincing proofs may tested and explained in the following quotation, with be derived by every individual from his own experience which I shall close my present Letter. It is from Paand observation. It is also another principle, which we ley's Moral Philosophy, in a note upon the sixth chapderive from the same sources, that in order to act upon ter, under the title “ Human Happiness." the mental part of man's nature, you must immediately "If any positive signification, distinct from what we apply to the physical or corporeal; and that if you mean by pleasure, can be affixed to the term happiness, would increase the strength of the mental powers, or I should take it to denote a certain state of the nervous communicate cheerfulness and vivacity to the inind, you system in that part of the human frame in which we must strengthen the body, and provide for the due re
feel joy or grief, passions and affections. Whether this gulation of the animal functions. I beg also to pre- part be the heart, which the turn of most languages suppose you in possession of a third principle, that, in would lead us to believe, or the diaphragm, as Buffon, order to produce a habit or state, either of mind or or the upper surface of the stomach, as Van Helmont body, in a human being, it is necessary to repeat those thought, or rather a kind of fine network lining the several acts and applications, which tend to produce whole region of the præcordia, as others have imagined; that state or habit." Settle it therefore in your mind, it is possible, not only that each painful sensation may that much of the inental and moral character of your violently shake and disturb the fibres for the time, but offspring will depend upon the state of the physical that a series of such may at length so derange the very part of his constitution, and the treatment it receives; texture of the system, as to produce a perpetual irritaand that if you wish him to have a sound mind, you will tion, which will show itself by fretfulness, impatience, need to be very careful that he possesses a sound body. and restlessness. It is possible also, that a succession Attention to this as well as to all his interests, can of pleasurable emotions may have such an effect upon scarcely begin too early, owing to the extreme suscep- this subtle organization, as to cause the fibres to relax tibility of his physical organization, and the intense and return into their place and order, and thereby to sympathy which it possesses with the mind during the recover, or if not lost to preserve that harmonious conearliest years of existence. I have no doubt that the
formation, which gives to the mind its sense of complatemper of a child especially, and therefore as inuch of
cency and satisfaction. This state may be denominated the character of a child as depends upon his temper, happiness, and is so far distinguishable from pleasure, may depend upon the treatinent he receives during the that it does not refer to any particular object or engagefirst six inonths.
inent, or consist, like pleasure, in the gratification of It is not difficult to decide as to the natural effect of one or more of the senses, but is rather the secondary uneasy and disagreeable circumstances. Suppose him effect which such objects and gratifications produce to be swathed according to a method too barbarous even upon the nervous system, or the state in which they to have been admitted by barbarous nations; perpetu- leave it." ally exposed to tight clothing; suddenly and roughly
I remain, your, &c. &c. awaked from slumber; handled without tenderness by a nurse or attendant; laid in uneasy postures; dis
CLERICUS. tressed by the loud and absurd laughter or harsh voice of a nurse; washed by her careless hands, as if it were an inanimate being ; often compelled to weep by these and
DISCOVERY OF A SECRET. many other species of absurd and irrational treatment; - what would be the natural result, but a fretful, dis- A learned Bishop being one day in company with the tressed, gloomy, and desponding temperament, which celebrated David Garrick, their conversation turned on would be fixed, and colour the career of future Jife, the influence of language, of action, of truth, and of long before those around him had imagined it capable representation, on the passions of men.
“ But how of being affected by external treatment? What, on the is it,” said his Lordship, addressing himself to Garother hand, would be the natural result of loose, easy rick, " that you, who deal in nothing but fiction, can clothing; being awaked from slumber by the very gra- so affect your audiences, as to throw them into tears; dual pressure of a finger upon his hand; handled with while we, who deliver the most awful and interesting tenderness while awake; laid to slumber in a position truths, can scarcely produce any effect whatever ? by the attendant, which her own experience may have My Lord,” replied the actor, “ here lies the setaught her is the most calculated for easy repose ; spoken cret : - you deliver your truths as if they were to throughout the day, not in nonsense or half words, but fictions ; 'but we deliver our fictions as if they were in a gentle, cheerful, intelligent tone, as if he were capable truths."