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fects and palpable tendency to the renewal of war. We have given, in the Parliamentary Debates, the reasonincs at considerable length, of our most enlightened statesmen on those momentous subjects. We have traced with an impartial, and, we hope, unerring hand, the shades of difference which have arisen, between those great leading characters who have, since the commencement of their public career, acted together; but who have, under those extraordinary and unprecedented circumstances which form the subject matter of the history of the present year, taken up widely differing lines of conduct; and who have given new appellations and energies to political combination. Above all, we have endeavoured to point out the danger which must arise to the interests, nay, the very existence of the British empire, from the unchecked and uncontrouled spirit of aggrandisement and ambition in the present ruler of France; and the utter impossibility there exists of our maintaining the usual relations of peace and amity, with his overweening and restless insolence.

On the subject of the French expedition to St. Domingo; on the affairs of Switzerland ; and on that of the complicated system of the German indemnities, we trust we shall have been found to have manifested no inconsiderable rescarch and labour.

To Ireland our attention has been particularly directed. That coui try rising every day in political importance, the


settlement of whose domestic affairs was the ostensible cause, of the loss to the British empire of the union of the greatest and most brilliant assemblage of talents, she had ever witnessed, united in one administration ; required more than ordinary attention. To attempt to trace the causes of her present discontents to their true source, and point out the most probable means to remedy them, we hope we have exhibited in our chapter on that subject; which at least will have the merit (if no other çan be found) of novelty to recommend it.

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Our colonial establishments, both in the East and West Indies, claimed a particular share of our attention, and which, to the utmost of our ability and extent of our information, we have bestowed upon those important subjects ; nor will there, generally speaking, be found any matter which our “ History of Europe” usually embraces, which we have not brought before our readers in their progressive and natural order, and with as much minuteness as consisted with the nature of the work.

In our selections, we have been unusually attentive to what we conceived would be the taste and wish of our readers. Our “ Chronicle” we have endeavoured to make more than usually interesting by the extent and variety of matter. In our extracts from the best works of the year, we have been particularly anxious to dwell on those which relate to Egypt, that very extraordinary country, which has been, from the remotest antiquity, the subject



of research and inquiry, and which on a late memorable occasion, was the theatre of the gallant exploits of our brave countrymen, and that of the humiliation and total discomfiture of our implacable enemy.

In our Miscellaneous and Poetical Articles, some ori. ginal unpublished pieces, of no ordinary share of merit, are inserted.

We now dismiss our volume to the perusal and judgment of our kind, we hope partial, friends, the public. That public whom we have faithfully served for four and forty years ; whose interests we have carefully guarded, and whose approbation and patronage has been the constant object of our unceasing and unwcaried solicitude.



For the YEAR 1802.





E U R O P E.

CH A P. I.

Meeting of the Imperial Parliament--meets at an earlier Period than usual.- His Majesty's Speech from the Throne, announcing the Adjustment, by Convention, of the Differences with the Northern Powers of Europe and of the Preliminaries of Peace being signed with France, &c.-Addresses of Thanks moved in the Lords and Commons.--Debates. - Address carried in both Houses.


HE signature of the prelimi- maintained its integrity and its ho

nary articles of peace, which nour, yet it had been deemed so took place on the 1st day of October, impossible to rescue the other states at London, was an event of such of Europe from the grasp of France, importance, that his majesty con- that peace was the universal wish vened the parliament at an earlier of the nation. The insolence of period than the session has been several of the successive governo for many years accustomed to com- ments of France, their poverty mence. Although the British con- even, which from not possessing stitution had been preserved, and any thing to lose, naturally exthis country (alone), of all the cited them to .try desperate meapowers engaged with France, had sures for bettering their situation, Vol. XLIV.



all inclined the people of this coun- He next informed them that pretitry to believe that peace was still minaries of peace liad been signed distant, when suddenly and unex- between him and the French repectedly, the signature of the pre- publie, in which he trusted that liminaries was announced, and very this important arrangement would shortly after his majesty's procla- be found to be conducive to the mation appeared, appointing the substantial interests of this country, parliament to assemble on the 29th and honourable to the British chaof October, for the dispatch of racter. He also expressed his graweighty and important business. This titude to Divine Providence for the weighty and important business W25 bounty aitorded to his people in the immediately known to be, the offi- abundant produce of the last harcial communication to the great rest, and his acknowledgınents to council of the nation, of the signa- the distinguished valour and eminent ture of the preliminaries of the services of his forces both by sea peace. The mass of the nation, and land, the unprecedented exerat first, expressed the most enthusi- tions of the militia and fencibles, and astic joy at hearing of the reesta- the zeal and perseverance of the blishment of peace, without can- yeomanry and volunteer corps; and vassing the terms of it, or consi- was persuaded that parliament would dering whether it was such a join with him in reflecting with peace as this country had a right peculiar satisfaction on the naval to expect ; but when the parliament and military operations of the last was about to assemble, the attena- campaign, and on the suceessful tion of every one was turned to the and glorious issue of the expedition opinions which should be delivered to Egypt, which had been marked there, by those men, whose super throughout by achievements, tendrior abilities and opportunities of ing in their consequences and by forming a correct judgnient en- their exaniple to produce lasting abled them to throw the greatest advantages and honour to this counpossible light upon the subject. try. He concluded by expressing

On the 29th of October, his ma- his most fervent prayer, " that his jesty opened the sessions, by a people might experience the respeech from the throne: he an- ward they had so much merited, nounced to his parliament that the in a full enjoyment of the blessings ditfcrences with the Northern Pows of peace, in a progressive increase ers had been adjusted by a conven- of their commerce, credit and retion with the emperor of Russia, sources, and above all, in the unto which the kings of Denmark disturbed possession of their reliand Sweden had expressed their gion, laws and liberties, and in the readiness to accede. He stated, safeguard and protection of that that, in this convention, the essen- constitution, which it had been the tial rights for which this country great object of all their efforts to contended, were secured, and pro- preserve, and which it was their vision made that the exercise of most sacred duty to transmit unthem should be attended with as impaired to their descendants.” An little molestation as possible, to the address of thanks to his majesty, subjects of the contracting parties. for his most gracious specch, was

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