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which it properly belongs. Thus, the SECOND, or Persian kingdom, does not take in the nations of Chaldæa and Allyria, which make the body of the first kingdom, nor the THIRD, or Græcian kingdom, the countries of Media and Persia, being the body of the second. In like manner, the FOURTH, or Roman kingdom, does not, in the contemplation of the prophet, comprehend those provinces, which make the body of the third, or Græcian kingdom, but such only as constitute its own body, that is, the provinces on this side of Greece: where, therefore, we are to look for the eleventhe or Antichristian kingdom, as being to start up among the ten, into which the Roman kingdom should be divided.
We see, then, that, as Antichrist was to arise within the Roman kingdom, fo his station is farther limited to the European part of that kingdom, or to the western empire, properly so called.
This observation (which is not mine, but Sir Isaac Newton's) is the better worth
making, because, in fact, the papal sovereignty never extended farther than the western provinces ; at least, could never gain a firm and premanent footing in the countries, which lie east of the Mediterranean sea. But, whether you admit this interpretation, or not, it is still clear that Antichrist was to arise fomewhere within the limits of the Roman empire. In what part of that empire he was to make his ap. pearance, we certainly gather from
II, A SECOND prophetical note or character of this power, which is, That his seat and throne was to be the city of Rome itself.
The prophet Daniel acquaints us only that the power we call Antichristian, would spring up from among the ruins of the fourth, or Roman kingdom : But St. John, in the Revelations, fixes his residence in the capital city of that kingdom. For, when, in one of his visions, he had been shewn a portentous beast with seven beads and ten borns, and a woman arrayed in purple, riding Vol. II,
upon him, an Angel is made to interpret , this fymbolic vision in the following words: --The Seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth—and the ten horns, which thou sawest, are ten kings--and the woman, which thou Sawest, is that great . city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth [e].
Words cannot be more determinate, than these. The woman, that rides this BEAST, that is, the fourth empire, in its last statę of ten horns, or divided into ten kingdoms, is that. Antichristian power, of which we are now inquiring. She is feated on seven bills, nay, she is that great city, which reigneth (that is, in St. John's time, which reigned) over the kingdoms of the earth. Rome, then, is the throne of Antichrist, or is that city, which shall one day be Antichristian.' There is no possibility of evading the force of these terms.
It hath been said, that Conftantinople, too, was situated on seven bills. It may be ..
(] Rev. xvii. 3; 4; 9. 12. 28.
fo: But Conftantinople did not, in the time of this vision, reign over the kings of the earth. Besides, if its dominion brad not been mentioned, the city on seven bills is so characteristic of Rome, that the name itself could not have pointed it out more plainly: Aš must be evident' to all those, who recollect, what the Latin writers have said on this subject.
The septem domini montes--of one (f 1 poet is well known; and seems the abridgement of a ftill more famous line in another ($)
Septem urbs alta jugis, tóto quze prefidet orbi :: To which, St. John's idea of a woman, feated on seven hills, and reigning over the kings of the earth, so exactly correfponds, that one sees no difference between the poet and the prophet; except that the latter personifies his ideá, as the genius of the prophetic style required.
(f) Martial. l. iv. ep. 64.  Propert, 1. III. ix. 57.
But a passage in Virgil is so much to our purpose, that it merits a peculiar attention. This poet, in the most finished of his works, had been celebrating the praises of a country life, which he makes the source and origin of the Roman greatness : Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini; Hanc Remus et frater: fic fortis Etruria crevit : Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma [h]
The encomium, we see, is made with that gradual pomp, which is familiar to Virgil. And the last line (from its majeltic fimplicity, the noblest, perhaps, in all his writings) one would naturally expect should close the description. Yet he adds, to the surprise, and, I believe, to the disappointment of most readers,
Septemque una fibi muro circumdedit arces.
Had we found this passage in any other of the Latin poets, we should have been apt tö question the judgement of the writer ; and to suspect, that, in attempting to rise upon hi.nself, he had fallen, unawares, into an evident anti-climax. But the cor