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With these sentiments, it can hardly be expected that I should give the details of the birth, parentage, and life of a private individual. With all the allurements that are attached to biography, people are too apt to descend to the frolics of a school-boy, or the eccentricities of a man, which are little interesting to the public; and it would be better, I conceive, for a man's failings to die with him, and his virtues to live after him.

Suffice it to say, my parents were of good families, and much respected; they had eleven children; two died when young, and the remainder lived long after their parents, and were respected in their different stations of life.

As to myself, I was the second son of Samuel Vaughan, Esq., long a merchant in London, and Sarah, the daughter of Benjamin Hallowell, Esq., of Boston, Massachusetts. I was born on the 22d of Sept. 1752, a month and a year ever memorable in this country for the alteration of the Style; and, if it is of any further importance, my birthday is remarkable from the coronation of George III. having taken place on its anniversary in 1763, which, as long as he lived, was kept with public rejoicings.

My parents were desirous of giving their children a good and useful education; and my excellent mother paid great attention to their health, religion, morals, and temper.

I was placed at an early age at Mr. Newcome's school in Hackney, (one of the best private schools of the day,) and from thence was removed to the academy at Warrington, where my elder brother Benjamin had preceded me, and which is situated between Liverpool and Manchester, the seats of commerce and manufactures. At Warrington I derived many advantages from attending the various lectures on history, literature, and general knowledge, which

may perhaps have had a tendency to give a bent to some of my occupations in life, for which opportunities I feel grateful to my parents.

The academy at Warrington, at that period, was held in great estimation from the reputation of its tutors and the greater field they held out in promoting general knowledge and science on liberal principles, and many other pursuits not to be obtained in common grammar-schools. Dr. Aikin, the divinity tutor, was a man of great reputation, and was the parent of Dr. John Aikin and Mrs. Barbauld, whose literary works are well known to the public. Dr. Priestley was another tutor distinguished for his amiable character and kindness of manner as well as for his literary and philosophical pursuits, and for his lectures on history, &c. &c. My eldest brother Benjamin and myself resided in his house, and derived very great advantages from that circumstance.

My brother was possessed of considerable talents and general knowledge, which by perseverance made him conversant with philosophical pursuits, and introduced him to the acquaintance of many distinguished men.

After leaving Warrington he went to Cambridge, and thence to the Temple, where he studied law, and went subsequently to Edinburgh, where he studied medicine, but never practised either professionally. He was in Parliament for some time, and afterwards removed to America, and resided many years at Hallowell, in the State of Maine, where he continued his literary, scientific,

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and agricultural pursuits. His valuable library was easy of access, particularly to medical men, and he was often with them at their consultations as a friend, but not professionally. He died in December, 1835, in his eightyfifth year, much beloved by his family and regretted by society. He was well acquainted with Sir Joseph Banks, Mr. Cavendish, Dr. Price, Dr. Franklin, Sir Charles Blagden, and Dr. Priestley, who, when he published his Lectures on History, in 1797, dedicated them to his pupil. His friendship and connexions with Dr. Franklin were intimate and lasting, particularly during the period when my brother was confidentially employed to promote the negociation for a peace with America. In 1779 he collected and published, without a name, the “ Political, “ Miscellaneous, and Philosophical Essays of Dr. Frank“ lin,” which was the best collection that could then be obtained. In 1796 a more enlarged collection of Dr. Franklin's papers, with his life, appeared in 3 vol. 8vo. which my brother also superintended. He afterwards, with other friends, prevailed on Dr. Franklin to collect his works and to write a memoir of his own life, which were subsequently published by his grandson, Temple Franklin, in 3 vol. 4to. * One copy of the manuscript life was sent to the Duke de la Rochefoucauld, at Paris, and another copy was sent to my brother, which the Doctor kindly permitted me to peruse. It remained some time in my possession, and I profited much from the life and

* There is a more recent publication of Dr. Franklin's Life, Works, and Letters, by Jared Sparks, in six volumes.

I have in my possession a good portrait of Dr. Franklin and his walkingcane, which he gave to my father, and which I greatly value.

writings of a man who was an ornament to society, and who ever considered utility as the great principle of life.

With respect to myself I shall only state that I attended all the lectures at Warrington except Divinity; it being intended that I should follow mercantile pursuits. My studies were much directed to geography, history, travels, and voyages of discovery. I took great interest in accounts of shipwrecks and other disasters at sea. I also saw and heard a great deal respecting canals, docks, manufactures, commerce, and population; and as small beginnings often lead to greater efforts, I was, in 1791, induced to join with some friends in endeavouring to procure a good collection of the history and plans of the canals of this country, with a view of forming a society for their encouragement; and, for this object, I wrote a prospectus, which appeared on the wrapper of the European Magazine ; but the attempt failed. A copy of this paper will be found in the Miscellaneous Part, No. 1.

In Dr. Rees' Cyclopædia will be found an accurate description of all the canals then made, making, and projected in England; and there is also another article in the same work which gives much information on the subject of docks. With a view to these objects I made a collection of all the plans of canals, both English and foreign, which I could meet with, with descriptions and details, forming three large folio volumes; and another collection on the subject of docks, which formed two volumes more, with various other documents connected with these subjects.

A society was also formed for the improvement of naval

architecture, and for collecting the best information on that subject, in which the late Colonel Beaufoy took the lead. Many experiments were made in the Greenland Docks of importance to science, which were conducted principally under his inspection ; and his son, Henry Beaufoy, Esq., of South Lambeth, has lately published an account of them in a princely style, giving the work to a great many public bodies and private individuals both at home and abroad.

Some of the first naval men of the time belonged to this society, and his late Majesty William IV. when Duke of Clarence, honoured it with his sanction. I often attended the committee with Colonel Beaufoy, Captain Laird, R.N., Mr. Daniel Brent, the ship-builder, and others; and I contributed a paper on naval architecture and the preservation of timber, a copy of which will be found in the Miscellaneous Part, No. 2.

In 1783 I was elected a Director of the Royal Exchange Assurance Corporation, and continued in it, first as director and afterwards as sub-governor and governor, until the year 1829, a period of forty-six years without intermission. This period embraced the most useful, important, and pleasant part of my life, during which I formed many friendships and attachments. Having some leisure, and wishing to make myself useful in that situation, I drew out various general and consolidated statements of the different branches of the concerns of the corporation for a century, namely, from the year 1720 to 1819 inclusive, for which I received the thanks of the Court, and they were pleased to adopt many of the hints and suggestions therein submitted to their consideration, and to request me

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