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They would not prolong ' and extensive cold, i ri council for themselves ! with smoke and red flame, but they from self-love

he commanded them over throw off God's.

the mansion, void of council, They had much pride

to increase the terror-punishthat they against the Lord

ment. would divide

They had provoked accusathe glory-fast place,

tion; the majesty of their hosts, grim against God gathered tothe wide and bright sky.

gether, To him their grief happened, to them was grim retribution envy, and pride ;

come. to that angel's mind

They said, that they the kingthat this ill counsel

• dom began first to frame,

with fierce mind would possess, to weave and wake.

and so easily might. Then he words said, Them the hope deceived, darkened with iniquity, after the Governor, that he in the north part the high King of Heaven, a home and high seat

his hands upreared. of heaven's kingdom

He pursued against the crowd ; would possess.

nor might the void of mind, Then was God angry, vile against their Maker, and with the host wrath enjoy might that he before esteemed Their loftiness of mind departed, illustrious and glorious. their pride was diminished. He made for those perfidious Then was he angry; an exiled home,

he struck his enemies a work of retribution, . with victory and power, Hell's groans and hard hatreds. with judgement and virtue, Our Lord commanded the pu- and took away joy:

nishment-house . peace from his enemies, for the exiles to abide,

and all pleasure': deep, joyless,

Illustrious Lord ! the rulers of spirits.

and bis anger wreaked When he it ready knew on the enemies greatly, with perpetual night foul, in their own power sulphur including,

deprived of strength. över it full fire

He had a stern mind,

grimly provoked ;

; he seized in his wrath on the limbs of his enemies, and them in pieces broke, i wrathful in mind. He deprived of their country his adversaries, from the stations of glory he made and cut off, Our Creatór! . ., the proud race of angels from i heav'n; the faithless host. The Governor sent the hated army on a long journey, with mourning speech.

To them was glory lost, ...
their threats broken, .
their majesty curtailed,
stained in splendor;
they in exile afterwards
pressed on their black way. .
They needed not loud to laugh;
but they in Hell's torments
weary remained, and knew

sad and sorry :
they endured sulphur,
covered with darkness,
a heavy recompence,
because they had begun
to fight against God.

Ced. p. 1,2.

. “But that part of Cedmon which is the most original product of his own fancy, is his account of Satan's hostility. To us, the Paradise Lost of Milton has made this subject peculiarly interesting; and as it will be curious to see how an old Saxon poet has previously treated it, we shall give another copious extract. Some of the touches bring to mind a few of Milton's conceptions. But in Cedmon the finest thoughts are abruptly introduced, and very roughly and imperfectly expressed. In Milton the same ideas are detailed in all the majesty of his diction, and are fully displayed with that vigour of intellect in which he has no superior.

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* For The universal Ruler had
of the angelic race,
through his hand-power,

The holy Lord!
a fortress established..
To them he well trusted

that they his service

to a worse thing. would follow,

He began to upheave strife would do his will.

against the Governor For this he gave them under- of the highest heaven, standing,

that sits on the holy seat. and with his hands made them. Dear was he to our Lord ; The Holy Lord

from whom it could not be hid, had stationed them

that his angel began so happily.

to be over proud. One he had so

He raised himself strongly made,

against his Master; so mighty,

he sought inflaming speeches ; in his mind's thought; he began vainglorious words; he let him rule so much; he would not serve God; the highest in heaven's king- he said he was his equal dom';

in light and shining; he had made him

as white and as bright in so splendid;

hue. so beautiful

Nor could he find it in his was his fruit in heaven,

mind which to him came

to render obedience from the Lord of Hosts ; to his God, that he was like

to his King. the brilliant stars.

He thought in himself Praise ought he

that he could have subjects to have made to his Lord; .. of more might and skill he should have valued dear than the Holy God. his joys in heaven;

Spake many words he should have thanked his Lord this angel of pride. for the bounty which

He thought through his own in that brightness he shared ; craft when he was permitted that he could make so long to govern.

a more stronglike seat, But he departed from it higher in the heavens.

“ Satan is represented as uttering this soliloquy, which begins with doubting about his enterprise, but ends in a determination to pursue it :

“ Why should I contend ? I cannot have any creature for my superior ! I may with my hands so many wonders work! and I must have great power to acquire a more godlike stool, higher in the heavens !

Yet why should I sue for his grace? or bend to him with any obedience ? I may be a god, as he is. Stand by me, strong companions ! who will not deceive me in this contention. Warriors of hardy mind!

they have chosen me for their superior ; illustrious soldiers ! with such, indeed, one may take counsel ! with such folk may seize a station ! My earnest friends they are, faithful in the effusions of their

mind. I may, as their leader, govern in this kingdom. So I think it not right, nor need I flatter any one, as if to any gods a god inferior. I will no longer remain his subject'.

“After narrating the consequent anger of the Deity, and the defeat and expulsion of Satan, the poet thus describes his abode in the infernal regions :

“ The fiend, with all his fol


fell then out of heaven; during the space of three nights and days; the angels from heaven into hell ; and them all the Lord turned into devils : because that they his deed and word would not reverence. For this, into a worse light

under the earth beneath the Almighty God placed them, defeated ; in the black hell. There have they for ever, for an immeasurable length, each of the fiends, fire always renewed. There comes at last the eastern wind, the cold frost mingling with the fires.

t i. e. his younger.

Always fire or arrows, . in the midst of hell : some hard tortures,

brands and broad flames ; they must have:

so likewise bitter smoke, it was made for their punish- vapour, and darkness.ment.

They were all fallen Their world was turned round. to the bottom of that fire Hell was filled

in the hot hell, with execrations.

thro' their folly and pride. • They suffer the punishment Sought they other land, of their battle against their it was all void of light, Ruler ;

and full of fire, the fierce torrents of fire a great journey of fire.

“ Another of Satan's speeches may be cited :


« Then spake the overproud He hath marked that

with mankind that was before

to be settled. of angels the most shining; . This is to me the greatest sorrow, the whitest in heaven;

that Adam shall, by his Master beloved, he that was made of earth, to his Lord endeared ;

my stronglike stool possess. till he turned to evil

He is to be thus happy, Satan said,

while we suffer punishment; with sorrowing speech

misery in this hell ! Is this the narrow place, Oh that I had free unlike, indeed, to the others the power of my hands, which we before knew, and might for a time high in heaven's kingdom, be out; that my Master puts me in? for one winter's space, But those we must not have, I and my army! by the Omnipotent

but iron bonds deprived of our kingdom. lay around me! He hath not done us right, knots of chains press me down! that he hath filled us

I am kingdomless ! with fire to the bottom

hell's fetters of this hot hell,

hold me so hard, and taken away heaven's king- so fast encompass me! dom.

Here are mighty flames

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