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terion of what is right and wrong in language of form and colour, and one art-is a conclusive answer to this cri. general and extended means of extical solecism. There is, however, a pressing and inculcating thought. limitation of a different kind which has Literature, or written language, with been made, the examination of which a more varied capacity of specifying will include the reply to this. and also of conveying ideas, but with
Painting and poetry have been fre- less universality or immediate oneness quently compared or paralleled. Muta with nature (its medium being conpoesis, et piclura loquens, has assumed ventional, and not alike addressed to the station of a sententious definition those of different times and countries), of both ; but if poetry is to be regard- pursues the same end. The parallel beed to consist in what even the mean. twixt poetry and painting, substitutes est verses attempt to pursue-the ex- written poetry for the extensive sphere pression of sentiment under the influ- of all written knowledge--literature ; ence of enthusiasm or of imagination, and those who have made it must have the parallel is altogether defective. experienced the necessity of not being But if this, the legitimate distinction of baffled by difficulties in respect to its what is poetical, is not to be regarded, congruity.* Instead of being conand the recurrence of certain sounds, fined to the enunciation of the poetic or a particular measure of syllables, be element, painting embraces (to the deemed distinctive of written poetry, extent that its medium is fitted to rethere might appear to be some grounds cognise, and communicate or convey) for the comparison, inasmuch as there every diversity of sentiment. From may be measured verse and recurring the lyric to the historic, and from that. rhymes (not rhythm, from which descending through various grades of these originate, but which is essentially the specialties of the art—the exhibiand inherently part of verbal poetry), tion of styles of drawing, effect, and where there is no excited feeling, or colour, made ultimate objects; and virtual poetry.
Were measure and through a numerous diversity of tranrhyme considered to belong alike to scriptions of, and allusions to, the flucthe expression of every species of tuating modes of life and individual emotion, or of sentiment, or of detail, pursuit ; through all the variety of the parallel might hold; but on re- descriptive scenery in landscape, to garding poetry to be what it really is the literal nomination or repetition of -a particular state of sentiment, which fact, in the lowest grade of visible exin language is most frequently express- istence--painting finds its subjects and ed in measured verse, and not con. field. The most poetic, and the most fined to oral or to written language, unelevated or prosaic, come within its but likewise extending throughout all range. Regarding it in any less exthe arts, as one division or form in tended view, what place can be as. which expression is given to thought, signed to the works of hundreds of at the same time that it is recognised names, which, by no refinement of to hold no connexion with other states analogy, can be considered to belong of mental activity, which are also ex. to poetry; and to those instances in pressed in the different liberal arts the works of almost all the greatest (and, in a descending scale, in various painters, wherein the intention whiclı ways in the mechanical arts)—the com- was pursued, denied, or was not conparison must at once be recognised to sistent with, poetic treatment ? In be altogether defective. But while many of these, the dramatic element painting and poetry cannot be como becomes so strong, that the poetic has pared, painting and literature may ; no place: in others, a narrative mode, and, by keeping such a comparison in rather than what can properly be view, much misunderstanding on the styled dramatic, predominates; and subject may be avoided. Painting is the again, historical severity does not ad.
Dryden's parallel, annexed to his translation of Du Fresnoy, might more properly be called an attempt to twist or distort portions of the means or material of painting into comparison with portions of those of different forms of poetic composition ; confounding the epic, dramatic, &c., in poetry, with the historic or any other class in painting, which appears first to present itself. Thus, what he calls position or grouping, is in one mass placed against the dramatic arrangement of the chorus and acts of a tragedy-colouring, against the beauties of diction, &c.
VOL. XIV. XoCCLXXXIV.
mit poetical elevation. Of the first sight, which will present things, or of these, Raphael himself not unfre- more properly mental impressions, diquently furnishes exemplifications, vested of those circumstances which Andrea del Sarto, in the Life of S. link with purposes aside from their Philip Benizzi, in the cortile of the more important or ultimate end Church of the Annunziata at Flo- resting upon that alone which is most rence, and the Communion of St valuable in relation to mind. This is Jerome by Domenichino, may serve the essence of painting, and it is need. to instance the second : while the less to say, after what has been obhistorical is largely exemplified in served, that its application extends to Poussin, almost the only one among a very varied scale. In one instance the old masters who can be said it becomes connected with abstract to have rendered historical subjects intellection ; in others it is limited to in a historical spirit, divested of con- a mere reproduction of an impression ventionalities and extraneous conco
of sense. Hence that variety which mitants, either in method or in style. constitutes the taste of different peTo descend from these, and seek poe- riods, and necessarily diversity, or try throughout the works of Gerhard fitness to various grades of mind; from Douw, Netscher, and Terburg, or in whence, by some particular branches Teniers, Jan Steen, and Ostade, might of the art gaining the ascendency, certainly be an exercise for ingenuity, while no invariable standard of greatbut its reward would be scanty. The ness or worth has been recognised, attempt would be almost as vain, as and while the general sense (never were the diver to plunge in search of wrong if operating freely) of the true *coral into one of their country's canals. or absolute value of the various proThey have it not; but they make no ductions of painting has been lost pretensions to it. These qualities are sight of, or denied, by prejudice or in. other, and different, and consummate dividual preferences, much confusion in their sphere; but, by the endeavour and discrepancy of opinion has origito throw a false illumination over nated. them, their just character is misun- The supposed oneness of the object derstood the appreciation of their of painting, or the language of form real nature or worth is lost sight of, and colour, with that of the particuand confused notions in respect to lar portion of written language desig. them are originated. Hence they are nated poetry, must have arisen from at one time treated with contemptuous the very extensive influence of the disregard; and at another with jealous lyric mode of imitation* in Greece, partisanship, asserted to realize the and its almost universal adoption in highest excellence in painting. the early Roman Catholic art of Italy
Painting, then, in a just significa, and of other countries. Under this tion, is reiterative of whatever impres, mode, literature, painting, and sculpsions may be conveyed by the most ture, have at particular epochs been subtle and extensive of the senses one in poetry; but it was at periods sight. The external world presents a which present these under a much continued tablet. Every visual sen- more circumscribed development than sation is a picture ; and it is only by their history now exhibits. Thus (setmeans of other senses that it becomes ting aside the exemplification of this more. Every arrangement of objects in other times) for centuries, the reis a picture to the eye; of which there vived arts of painting and seulpture is not a line, or a colour, or gleam of in Europe were poetie. From the light, or dimness of shade, which vir- attempts of the Greeks of the middle tually does not at once, and ever after, ages, to those of Chimabue, which, in constitute part of the mental relations forms half-human that never could have of the perceiver; and the art of paint possessed human faculties, fearful ing, in its proper acceptation, re-im- gropings to imitate what they render presses, re-presents them, in their col- malcreated and hideous, to the time of lected tendency: It strives to create the still cramped, but more organized a world recognizable by the sense of efforts of Mantegra, and Domenico
* See “On the peculiarities of thought and style in the picture of the Last Judgement, by Micbael Angelo," No. CCLXXX.
Ghirlandajo, and from these to the purposes of painting which most freaccumulated power displayed in Buo- quently present themselves-having narotti, Raphael, and Titian, painting, endeavoured to clear the way for a in the greater number of instances, direct path into the pantheon of artwas regulated in its modes and expres- we now with lowliness approach the sion by poetic forms and sentiments. presence of Raphael. Thus the poetic element may have Summarily, then, and fundamentbeen considered general to all paint- ally, the works of Raphael are ethiing-but this, even before the period cal. They are the result of the opeof the greater names had been widely ration of moral sentiment; from and encroached upon; and it was not re- under the influence of which they oriserved for the pictorial art of other ginated, and upon which they tend to countries only, to render sentiments strengthen reliance. This is their in which the enthusiasm and excite- basis. Looking back upon them in ment of poetry had no place.
connexion with the history and chaAfter having thus recognised the racter of the period in which they extent and variety of the sphere of were produced, they become strikingly painting, it is scarcely necessary to detached from all the associations advert to another distinction or limi. with which it is commonly regarded ; tation which has been made in respect not that the connexion with these ori. to its object, or rather definition of its ginating sources is not sufficiently intention. It has been asserted, that distinct-it is the brilliant distinctness the duty of poetry is to instruct; that of that connexion which constitutes of painting to please. That there is the peculiarity of their appearance. a distinction in respect to these pure At a time when political and ecclesiasposes, in the view in which they were tical contention were all-engrossing apprehended by those who have spe. when history would make man appear cified them, may be admitted, and to have been at the mercy of every detelikewise the specification itself; at the riorating influence—to have been under same time that the ridiculous limits the subjection of selfish power, which to which it would confine both arts, the ignorance and misrule of centuries are altogether denied. But from what had rooted too strongly to be yet has been observed in reference to their shaken off, his genius appears through comparison, the crudeness of this as- the troubled elements of the time, a sertion must be fully apparent.*
beautiful inspiration of the never-dyHence, having in some measure ing Eros in the human breast, and of attempted to remove those miscon. the creed of charity which he illustraceptions in respect to the nature and ted. The mythic allegory of Peace
* These, with many other propositions connected with art, many of which, to those who are staggered by them, appear to find no bottom, may in one sense be of service in promoting the examination of its bearings; but on many occasions they must have obstructed the road, both to the knowledge of its practice and its theory. They, however, may be considered to be a part of the investigation of the subject-in the field of painting, of that inductive experiment and observation, the influence of which has passed over metaphysics, politics, and religion, and their “long trains of light descending,' with a scrutiniziog rigour which has frequently appeared to wrench their every joint and member asunder—which has introduced into one and all of them pyrrhonism and practical experimentalism, to the extent, that metaphysical enquiry has not seldom been regarded to be worthless, and scarcely mentionable-politics have been embroiledand religion and the spirit of sectarianism have been confounded. Each has been broken up in the attempt to uncover its hidden nodus, and its vivifying spirit sought for in the dissection of scattered fragments. But if the investigators of mental philoso. pby have frequently mistaken their aim-if political movement may often be considered merely to be change-or religion and controversy (which it ought to subdue and an. tagonize) not seldom appear identical, the fiery experiments which they have undergone must have important results. Whether or not there is to be a day when just and extended analogy may bind together, and gather into granaries, the harvest that analysis and induction have been considered destined to reap; there appears so far to be a change coming over the spirit of the time. A disposition towards the adoption of synthetic data seems to preponderate. Questions in respect to the validity of religion have died away—in mental speculations first principles are more recognised--and in politics, the tendency seems at least towards immobility or fixity.
and Justice having fled from the earth, be discriminated by its greater or more originated in the very contradiction of limited degree of power or aptitude what it asserted. Fashions, to use a to promote this end.
At its insti. light phrase, of prejudice, persecu- gation, “radiant philosophy and startion, and discord, have “ turned and crowned art," political and physical changed together:" the bipenne, the science, go forth. In this they have gladius, and the rapier, have each had one universal aim-one general bond their day-a trifling enough motive of union. In this, without anticipa. at times, serving to lead to their use- ting uninterrupted happiness or perfecpossibly to try their edge, or a new tion on the one hand, or being in dread shape; but into whatever Tartarus it of their extinction on the other — may descend, the beautiful to xalov- neither considering partial evil to be honestum-of man's moral being, how. universal good - neither being Utoever offuscated and obscured it may pian, Leibnitzian, or Utilitarian, may be at times, has accompanied, and be found a cause and end of exertion, must ever accompany his progress; that may be considered to absorb, or whether that is onwards to a millen- even to render necessary, the wars and nium-like state of improved happi- fightings of intellect, passion, and inness, or through a succession of indi- stinct- one general object, which, vidual and profitless experiences. without being considered to be gained
Discarding those theories which or to be alone reachable by any one wo in the first place, cut asunder path, becomes a common purpose, reason from moral sentiment, and af. which, as the links of one chain, binds terwards substitute the one for the into unity the separate efforts of man, other, or which would derive from from whence result his individual en. limited principles others that are gen. joyment or suffering. eral (such as Hume's utility or Man- It is upon this ground that the often deville's selfishness)—without regard talked of but scarcely defined value of to such systems, which invalidate the the arts is establislied; upon which distinction betwixt right and wrong; they bring forward that combination it must be contended, that intellectual of intellectual and moral expression, and moral perception are equally co- or signification, in connexion with the existent portions of one whole-mind, excitement of emotion, joined to the in whatever degree it may be evolved; gratification of sense, which consti. and to one or other of which all emo- tutes them a series of the most inflution must be held to be related or sub- ential means that operate in sustainjected. These two inclusive branches ing the distinction of humanity. of mind become the first or original But, in order that the connexion of categories of every mental act. Both the works of Raphael with the hucarry forward one ultimate purpose, manizing influence of moral sentiment of which (without reference to super- may be fully perceived, the particular mundane or transcendental relation) mode in which their bearing is evolved the visible scope or bearing may be must be distinctly recognised. The designated the impulse or will of religious sentiment, which may be deman to sustain himself in humanity; fined, the desire to find an objective originating, as its highest hypostasis, existence for the intellectual and the the endeavour to base the mind in per- moral, in respect to which emotion manency-to find an immovable foun. may be brought into exercise, is the dation for the good and true-to re- most inclusive and universal form of concile the individual with the whole, the operation of the mind.
It is or perfection with the fixed and per. scarcely denied, in some degree, to fect. The operation of this impulse- . the lowest grade of faculty-to the its advancement or failure—the con- nearest junction of the rational with flict of Ormuz and Ahrimanes, has the the instinctive animal. It embraces a. fate of battle ; but, to whichever side union of the intellective and the mothe balance tends, “ humanity's afflict- ral nature of man, in combination with ed will" does not cease from the strife. his emotive faculties; and the various Under its influence, religion, science, degrees of these, the greater or the and the arts, are produced, each in its inferior measure of reliance which is separate essence, including a multi- placed on the one or the other, distin. tudinous variety of action or effort; guishes or constitutes the characteris. the relative importance of every parti- tics of the numerous creeds which have cular exemplification of which, must succeeded each other, and found place
in the world. It is in connexion with jects of emotion. The trust, or faith, the manner in which moral obligation or love, or charity, of human feeling, is recognised by Christianity, that the becomes to a certain extent, or may, works of Raphael must be considered. in one sense, be said to be, the key to This, with few exceptions, supplies the happiness of existence, both in both their substantive combinations, this life and in a future. and constitutes their distinguishing cordium of Christian humanity is beelement their vivifying spirit. Ra- nevolence, which must be held to rephael is the most eminently Christian gulate (eheu ! only to modify) human painter; not so much merely in respect action. to the subjects of his pictures, which It is from this that the spirit of the were in general those most adopted by works of Raphael emanates. Benethe painters of the time; but in respect volence is influential throughout them. to their sentiment. Religion having At a period when such would appear passed through the mystery and in a great measure to have been pracgreatness of the creeds of India and of tically banished from religion itself, Egypt, under the influence of Grecian it was in them the groundwork of an philosophy became denuded of every extensive means of supporting relielement except that of pure reason. gion. Other grand features of these In Greece, theology, or more properly times may also
be traced to this origin, the theogony, was a classification of which, in so-called history, if adverted numbers or qualities, which was so to at all, appear only to form a porextended, that pantheism was philoso- tion of its register of error, illiberaphy, and philosophy religion, so com- lity, and crime. A history of sentipletely, that the Roman, whose form ment would exonerate the human race. of worship was derived from that of Under this influence, rejecting all the Greek-a lengthening of its pro- allusion to the evils which it is fitted gression-might erect an altar si to to oppose~in almost no instance adthe unknown God” wherever he so- verting to or expressing moral dejourned. But a revulsion was about ficiency- the pictures of Raphael deto take place.
A new and more monstrate practical virtue, founded powerful combination of religious sen- upon, and in connexion with its exemtiment was to be formed, embracing plification in the characters by which elements which had either been alto. Christianity is announced. They are gether denied, or poorly and inade- an interpretation of the nature of these, quately recognised ; and upon which made by, and addressed to, the affecan important and direct dependence tions. It was in this that they supwas to be placed. The Orphic or ported and illustrated the doctrines of Hesiodic all perfect Love, from being the Church; not merely, as already regarded merely as a mythic genesis noticed, in respect to, or in dependence of the gods--the remote power which on, the subjects which they adopt, but originated their existence from or also in regard to the tendency of the against Night—was to be considered sentiments which they enforce—their (and in this sense might still sustain a unison with the precepts which it in. somewhat similar allegory) an influ- culcates, in the bearing of which, the encing principle of human action ;- scope of the labours of Raphael must a virtue which might dwell in man- be deemed to be co-inherent, alike charity; which originates, or, in a wide finding their value in the constitution acceptation, is properly one with of the mind of man. Called forth in trust, faith, or reliance. Dependant aid of religion by the power of the upon this, the moral code of Christian Church of Rome, they bring home to theology is evulgated in those parti- men's bosoms those universal senticular forms by which it is strikingly ments in which its morality is based. distinguished. Its doctrines, the sen- Made the means of moving the heart, timents which it inculcates, and the by exciting those sympathies which all characters by which they are exem. are expected to feel, they also proplified, from the first become the sub- duced reliance on the doctrines of re.
It may be considered to have been the contention for a time, betwixt pure reason and religious sentiment under popular notions, not altogether that betwixt knowledge and ignorance, which led the people in Greece to banish their sages, and make them drink the hemlock.