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They have since been reinstated in faction, who would render her the uppower, not by a resolution of the Lords conscious instrument of their designs in —not by a division in the Commons- subverting alike the Protestant religion not by the voice of the country, or the and established institutions of the emvalue of their former services, but by a pire. Fortunately the real object of the vote of confidence of three ladies of the plot will soon become apparent, and Queen's household. The great Whig Lord Normanby and O'Connell will party, the pure and patriotic statesmen speedily stand forth as the real rulers who disclaim all court influence, who of the empire, and the dreaded invesdespise all courtly attendants upon tigation of Irish misgovernment will kings and queens, who shudder at the be sought to be stopped by the estavery thought of back-stairs influence blishment of a similar system in this or court intrigue-the noble, patriotic country. Against such an attempt let successors of Somers and Chatham, of the nation arouse all its' moral enerBurke and Fox-censured by the Lords, gies, and pour them forth through cast off by the Commons, despised every constitutional channel; but let by the people-are driven to creep them never forget that faction and inagain into office, clinging to the tails trigue are transient, but the durable of the petticoats of the ladies of interests of the monarchy are permathe bed-chamber. Now, then, is the nent; that maturer years and more time-when such dangers threaten enlarged experience will enlighten the alike the monarchy and the institutions mind of our youthful Sovereign; and of the country- for the Conservatives that, however slender the chances are to come forward and demonstrate, that the ladies about a palace will seboth by their language and their con lect fit men for the administration of duct, their steady adherence to their public affairs, there is greater likeli. principles, and their resolution to se hood of their doing so, than of the faparate the cause of the Queen and the vour of a democratic mob lighting monarchy from that of the Popish upon a worthy statesman.


On a former occasion, the parti. the passion, which they express or cular character or sphere of sentiment signify, or of which they become sug. of the genius of Michael Angelo, as gestive, either in anticipation or in reexemplified in the picture of the Last trospection—the desire or the enjoy. Judgment, was so far attempted to be ment which they are identified with, assigned ; our present object shall be marks the individual worth of each, to endeavour, in some measure, to elu. and by the rank of those divisions of cidate that of the works of his compe- sentiment, wbich, in particular exemtitor for the sovereignty of painting plifications, are enforced in the differ- Raphael da Urbino.

ent arts according to their powers or The title, Il Divino"- the divine medium, the station of those exempli. - which has been bestowed upon Ra. fications must be assigned. From this phael, is not, as may have frequently standard there is no possibility of apbeen supposed, a mere synonyme of peal. It sweeps down all those forexcellence, vaguely accorded in refer- tuitous partialities and fashions in reence to those qualities, which each for spect to art, which are the growth of himself may be most ready to perceive limited localities, and of the mode of a or appreciate; but a definite and discri. day; those particular peculiarities, minating appellation, which has ori. which are not unfrequently set up as ginated in the impression or general standards of judgment; those indivisense of the nature and tendency of dual characteristics, which, instead his works in their connexion with of being merely regarded as integrant the great division of sentiment which portions of the whole art of repregave birth to them, and which they sentative substitution, or imitation, embrace, in art.

as embraced by painting, have freThe apprehension of the sublime, of quently been made the archetypes of the beautiful, of the graceful, of the all excellence. It embraces, in their terrible, and other qualities, which, on dependant order, in the necessary suba wide view of art being taken, must be ordination and connexion of style considered merely to be its adjective at- with sentiment-inseparable as heat tendants, have generally been deemed and light in the rays of the sunthe ultimate subjects of appreciation.f the material, the process, the comThe perception of these has usually ponent parts of the modes and pracbounded the recognition ofthe purposes tice of art-what may be styled its of art; they have been deemed the far- pbysiognomic features - which, not thest limits of its aim; and each, on only in painting, but in the more different occasions, has been held to amply discussed field of literature, be the great centre of its intention or have been frequently mistaken for object. But, in recognising these, we their legitimate purposes, and upon recognise merely qualities secondary to, which criticism has more endeavoured or frequently dependant upon, those to find a basement for its construcmore ultimate relations of the mind, tions than to found itself a science, in which recede into the absolute and relation to those ultimate objects, to final; and, in connexion with which, arrive at which these are merely the the purposes of art truly find their means-less to build its decisions upon value. " In cycle and epicycle" the the nature of man's being, his desires, various arts move round the great powers, and needs, rather than upon centre of all to man--his own mental certain limited portions of the operaconstitution. Their more or less ex- tion of that being, by substituting tended connexion with, and inherence fragments for the whole, and adopting in this—the intellection, the emotion, certain models, and partial purposes as


† Such a limited view has frequently been taken of painting, that any thing in itself disagreeable entering into a picture has been considered not to come under the purposes of art, How or what could The Last Supper really, or pictorially, have been without Judas? Will such analogy not still the treble pipe of this sort of criticism ?

meters-keys of the rivers of thought attempted to be assigned, it would and sentiment, which have been held depend upon the decision of these with too much Anubis-like sameness questions. The genius of Micbael by their watchers.

Angelo exhibits or announces the On taking an extended view of that effort of will and desire in man. Its sphere of painting, the value of which reference centres in the fate of the is based in its moral significance, genus; he seems constantly to questwo grand divisions present themselves. tion,-shall humanity be dignified or To one of these belongs Michael An. abased_shall its energy triumph or gelo; to the other Raphael : and the suffer defeat ? He designed a repremore that the ultimate relations of art sentation of venerable Age placed in a are taken into cognizance, the further go-cart, and wrote underneath, An. do these become separated from those chora imparo-I still learn. His around them who belong to the same prophets and sibyls are impressive of circle. Michael Angelo, like his youth. mental power beyond the nature of ful Victory, under whom the aged material being. His statue of Lorenzo warrior bows in support, rises above de Medicis is altogether unapproached, all the labours of his predecessors : in its centred and commanding referRaphael, as the radiance from the ence to a past and a future individuangel in his St Peter conducted ality. His region is the intellectual. from prison dims the torches and the That of Raphael is different—it is the moonlight, absorbs the efforts of his; moral. The one operates through an both with an extended certainty of elevated and abstract bearing on hu. purpose, which renders those labours man emotion; the other, by virtue of (although in some instances their im- moral reliance, raises emotion to the portance can only be affected by com. abstract and intellectual. But, before parison with those of Buonarotti, and proceeding further, it may be neces. Raphael), and also those of their suc. sary to remove several theoretical cessors, limited and partial. But set constructions that have been put upon ting aside their common mode of the nature or purposes of painting, addressing the mind-pictorial repre- which may appear to interfere with sentation—there is no resemblance what may be advanced. betwixt them. The order of senti. One of these is the limitation which ment which the one enters into, is has been attempted to be put to exaltogether different from that of the pression in painting and sculpture. It other. They operate towards their has been considered that they should final purpose or bearing with distinct be confined to the adoption of particu. separateness. They have frequently lar phases of emotion, or rather to the been compared; but there is no mutual nearest approach to the total negation ground of comparison betwixt them. of emotion. A hypothetic demarka

The efficiency of the nature of their tion has been endeavoured to be labours, in connexion with their ulti- pointed out t as the true bounds of mate object, and the extent to which their field, to the implied exclusion of each has entered into, or become iden- some of their grandest productions. tical with, the sphere of mind to which But the existence of these productions his works belong, are grounds of con- (the statue of the gladiator, or the trast, not of comparison; and were cartoon of Pisa, $ for example), and the superiority of the one to the other their effect on the mind-the true cri.

* The use of this word is indefinite-it is at one time applied to whatever relates to the operations of mind, becoming somewhat synonymous with mentality; while at another, it is confined to that serieswhich comes under the designation of ethics. This is noticed, as it will be necessary frequently to adopt its use throughout this enquiry, in the latter sense, though in the present instance it is used in the former.

† See Lessing's Laocoon, in some respects a valuable work, but one of those which puts forward a partialobject, the result of the author's idiosyncracy, to supply the place of what is extensive and general; one of those theories which would feed man on bread alone. But is it necessary to reply to such things? It has been denied that Michael Angelo was a painter; it is not long since Pope was asserted to be superior to Shakspeare ; and, on the other hand, that he was not a poet!

The cartoon of Pisa is said to bave been destroyed by the stolid Bandinelli; but part of its design still exists in copies,

terion of what is right and wrong in language of form and colour, and one art-is a conclusive answer to this cri. general and extended means of extical solecism. There is, however, a pressing and inculcating thouglit. limitation of a different kind which has Literature, or written language, with been made, the examination of which a more varied capacity of specifying will include the reply to this.

and also of conveying ideas, but with Painting and poetry have been fre- less universality or immediate oneness quently compared or paralleled. Muta with nature (its medium being conpoesis, et pictura loquens, has assumed ventional, and not alike addressed to the station of a sententious definition those of different times and countries), of both ; but if poetry is to be regard. pursues the same end. The parallel beed to consist in what even the mean. twixt poetry and painting, substitutes est verses attempt to pursue-the ex- written poetry for the extensive sphere pression of sentiment under the influ. of all written knowledge-literature; ence of enthusiasm or of imagination, and those who have made it must have the parallel is altogether defective experienced the necessity of not being But if this, the legitimate distinction of baffled by difficulties in respect to its what is poetical, is not to be regarded, congruity.* Instead of being conand the recurrence of certain sounds, fined to the enunciation of the poetic or a particular measure of syllables, be element, painting embraces to the deemed distinctive of written poetry, extent that its medium is fitted to rethere might appear to be some grounds cognise, and communicate or convey) for the comparison, inasmuch as there every diversity of sentiment. From may be measured verse and recurring the lyric to the historic, and from that. rhymes (not rhythm, from which descending through various grades of these originate, but which is essentially the specialties of the art-the exhibiand inherently part of verbal poetry), tion of styles of drawing, effect, and where there is no excited feeling, or colour, made ultimate objects; and virtual poetry. Were measure and through a numerous diversity of tranrhyme considered to belong alike to scriptions of, and allusions to, the flucthe expression of every species of tuating modes of life and individual emotion, or of sentiment, or of detail, pursuit ; through all the variety of the parallel might hold; but on re- descriptive scenery in landscape, to garding poetry to be what it really is the literal nomination or repetition of La particular state of sentiment, which fact, in the lowest grade of visible exin language is most frequently express. istence-painting finds its subjects and ed in measured verse, and not con. field. The most poetic, and the most fined to oral or to written language, unelevated or prosaic, come within its but likewise extending throughout all range. Regarding it in any less ex. the arts, as one division or form in tended view, what place can be as. which expression is given to thought, signed to the works of hundreds of at the same time that it is recognised names, which, by no refinement of to hold no connexion with other states analogy, can be considered to belong of mental activity, which are also ex. to poetry; and to those instances in pressed in the different liberal arts the works of almost all the greatest (and, in a descending scale, in various painters, wherein the intention whiclı ways in the mechanical arts)—the com- was pursued, denied, or was not conparison must at once be recognised to sistent with, poetic treatment ? In be altogether defective. But while many of these, the dramatic element painting and poetry cannot be com- becomes so strong, that the poetic has pared, painting and literature may; no place: in others, a narrative mode, and, by keeping such a comparison in rather than what can properly be view, much misunderstanding on the styled dramatic, predominates; and subject may be avoided. Painting is the again, historical severity does not ad.

* Dryden's parallel, annexed to his translation of Du Fresnoy, might more properly be called an attempt to twist or distort portions of the means or material of painting into comparison with portions of those of different forms of poetic composition; confounding the epic, dramatic, &c., in poetry, with the historic or any other class in painting, which appears first to present itself. Thus, what he calls position or grouping, is in one mass placed against the dramatic arrangement of the chorus and acts of a tragedy-colouring, against the beauties of diction, &c.


mit poetical elevation. Of the first sight, which will present things, or of these, Raphael himself not unfre- more properly mental impressions, diquently furnishes exemplifications. vested of those circumstances which Andrea del Sarto, in the Life of S. link with purposes aside from their Philip Benizzi, in the cortile of the more important or ultimate end Church of the Annunziata at Flo. resting upon that alone which is most rence, and the Communion of St valuable in relation to mind. This is Jerome by Domenichino, may serve the essence of painting, and it is need. to instance the second : while the less to say, after what has been obhistorical is largely exemplified in served, that its application extends to Poussin, almost the only one among a very varied scale. In one instance the old masters who can be said it becomes connected with abstract to have rendered historical subjects intellection ; in others it is limited to in a historical spirit, divested of con- a mere reproduction of an impression ventionalities and extraneous conco. of sense. Hence that variety which mitants, either in method or in style. constitutes the taste of different peTo descend from these, and seek poe- riods, and necessarily diversity, or try throughout the works of Gerhard fitness to various grades of mind: from Douw, Netscher, and Terburg, or in whence, by some particular branches Teniers, Jan Steen, and Ostade, might of the art gaining the ascendency, certainly be an exercise for ingenuity, while no invariable standard of greatbut its reward would be scanty. The ness or worth has been recognised, attempt would be almost as vain, as and while the general sense (never were the diver to plunge in search of wrong if operating freely) of the true *coral into one of their country's canals. or absolute value of the various pro

They have it not; but they make no ductions of painting has been lost pretensions to it. These qualities are sight of, or denied, by prejudice or in. other, and different, and consummate dividual preferences, much confusion in their sphere; but, by the endeavour and discrepancy of opinion has origito throw a false illumination over nated. them, their just character is misun. The supposed oneness of the object derstood the appreciation of their of painting, or the language of form real nature or worth is lost sight of, and colour, with that of the particuand confused notions in respect to lar portion of written language desigthem are originated. Hence they are nated poetry, must have arisen from at one time treated with contemptuous the very extensive intluence of the disregard; and at another with jealous lyric mode of imitation* in Greece, partisanship, asserted to realize the and its almost universal adoption in highest excellence in painting.

the early Roman Catholic art of Italy Painting, then, in a just significa, and of other countries. Under this tion, is reiterative of whatever impresmode, literature, painting, and sculpa sions may be conveyed by the most ture, have at particular epochs been subtle and extensive of the senses-- one in poetry ; but it was at periods sight. The external world presents a which present these under a much continued tablet. Every visual sen- more circumscribed development than sation is a picture ; and it is only by their history now exhibits. Thus (setmeans of other senses that it becomes ting aside the exemplification of this more. Every arrangement of objects in other times) for centuries, the reis a picture to the eye; of which there vived arts of painting and sculpture is not a line, or a colour, or gleam of in Europe were poetic. From the light, or dimness of shade, which vir- attempts of the Greeks of the middle tually does not at once, and ever after, ages, to those of Chimabue, which, in constitute part of the mental relations forms half-human that never could have of the perceiver; and the art of paint. possessed human faculties, fearful ing, in its proper acceptation, re-im- gropings to imitate what they render presses, re-presents them, in their col. malcreated and hideous, to the time of lected tendency. It strives to create the still cramped, but more organized a world recognizable by the sense of efforts of Mantegra, and Domenico

* See “ On the peculiarities of thought and style in the picture of the Last Judge ment, by Michael Angelo," No. CCLXXX.

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