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of an excited people, who expected at large into these views, because they that these great paladins of Reform demonstrate that the ministerial crisis were to be occupied night and day in which has lately arisen, and the extrathe great work of political and social ordinary obloquy and contempt into regeneration. But still, it was not the which the Whigs have every where neglect of the national interests, nor fallen, is not to be considered as any the degradation of the national cha. extraordinary or unlooked-for event, racter, which has excited the wide- or as the result merely of incapacity spread discontent of the working or imbecility, but as the effect rather classes in England. These wretched of the false and pernicious princiresults have excited the profound in. ples by which they arrived at power, dignation of all men of intelligence, and which, in every instance recorded property, or education in the country; in history where such principles have and the effect of this universal feeling been acted upon by government, have is clearly seen in every contested elec. proved fatal either to the nation, or tion, apart from Popish tyranny, which their authors, or both. The Morning occurs; but they are too remote, and Chronicle says, it was neither the Ja. bear too little on the senses, to excité maica question nor the Canada questhe masses of mankind. It was the tion which compelled Lord Melbourne denial of the anticipated fruits of re- to resign, but that it was finality which form, the stoppage of the movement, deprived him of the confidence of the and the proclamation of the principle House of Commons and the country ; of Finality, which occasioned the cla- while the Times asserts, that the Minismour.
try, like the scorpion, having got into The Whigs were caught in their the fire, were stung to death by their own trap, and, like all persons who own tail. Both are right; and these have set out on false pretences, they two seemingly contradictory exposi. found them in the end to recoil with tions of the late dissolution of the Whig desperate force upon their own heads. Cabinet, are in fact nothing but dif. After the struggle for the Reform Bill ferent modes of expressing a state of was over, and they were fairly seated, matters produced by the same cause. with an overwhelming majority, in It is the first duty and essence of all power, they found it utterly impracti. good government, to keep things cable to satisfy the wishes or expecta- steady, and to resist change, unless tions which they had themselves ex. obviously called for by tried expericited among the people, and thence ence or experienced necessity. Pertheir party gradually dwindled away, petual movement is not only inconsistill at last it was reduced to the mere tent with any beneficial administration holders or expectants of office; while of public affairs, but is destructive of all the worth, education, and principle it, because it prevents the great object of the country, joined the Conserva of government being accomplished tive ranks, and the great mass of the security and protection to persons and working classes drew off in sullen property. It is as impossible for a silence, or joined the treasonable good government to be founded upon ranks of the Chartists, who, after ha. the basis of perpetual motion, as it is ving exhausted all the efforts of oral for a serviceable house to be consedition, have at length, like the Fifth structed on a platform constantly Monarchy men, openly taken up arms, rolled on wheels. A ministry which to effect a general spoliation of all the is wafted into power by the support of holders of property throughout the the movement party, is necessarily, kingdom.
after the first transports of victory are The universal contempt into which over, reduced to this alternativethe Whigs have fallen, and their evin either they must go on and destroy dent extinction as a party in the state, the country, or stand still and ruin leaving the commonwealth to be con. themselves. tended for by the Conservatives and The main object of the Melbourne Radicals, is to be regarded as the in- administration, ever since it was re-inevitable consequence of the false prin stated in office four years ago, has ciples with which they set out, and the been to give as little to the movement false position in which they placed party as was consistent with their own themselves in the guidance of public retention of office. They saw clearly, affairs; and we have entered the more from the result of the general election under Sir Robert Peel's short adminis- ocular demonstration of what tl e movetration, that the reaction had steadily ment leads to; the Fifth Monarchy set in in the country, especially in the men of the days of Cromwell, the Ja. county constituencies; that the reform cobins of the days of Robespierre have mania had sensibly cooled down, and already arisen in grim array in the that men's eyes were beginning to be manufacturing counties of England. generally opened to the ulterior and Hardly a night has passed for the frightful objects which the revolution. last four months, in which seditious ists had at heart. The significant speeches have not been uttered in the fact of three hundred members being most inflammatory language, both in returned in the interest of the Con. the National Convention and in the servative party, within little more than affiliated societies ; scarcely a day has two years and a half after the Reform passed during the same period in Bill had passed, showed at once that which preparations have not been made the middle classes had no inclination by multitudes, in the most popu. to go on with the movement, till they lous parts of the country, for overt themselves were thrown into the revo- acts of high treason. The burnings lutionary furnace. This was rendered of farm-houses and rural disturbances, still more apparent in August 1837, about which so much noise was made when, upon the dissolution after the in November 1830, and which were accession of the present Queen, the held forth by the Whigs as decisive Conservative party in the Lower proof of the disastrous effects of Tory House was increased to 320, in spite misrule, sink into insignificance, when of the whole weight of Govern- compared with the wide-spread disment, the most unsparing use of the content and open preparations for Queen's name, and the combined insurrection which now pervade the operation of mob violence, and general manufacturing counties, in conseloyalty and attachment to a youthful quence of only seven years of Reform sovereign. In presence of this formi. administration. Insurrection has acdable opposition, ministers could no tually broken out in many quarters, longer pursue their revolutionary pro- the troops and the yeomanry are in jects. Supported by such a phalanx permanent requisition ; disturbances in the Lower House, the Peers felt and bloodshed bave occurred, and themselves both called upon and bound the alarming posture of public afto stop all measures having a decided. fairs has compelled the Home Se. ly revolutionary character. Thence cretary, as the only means of genethe general arrest of the movement ral defence, to invite all the better policy, and the universal obloquy into classes of society to form associawhich the Whigs have fallen, inso- tions for their mutual defence, and much, that it is hard to say now, whe- furnish them with arms from the Gother they are most execrated by the vernment stores. This is the fruit of Conservatives for the false and flagi. Liberal government- this the consetious pretences by which they roused quence of that atrocious system, which, the country to madness eight years pandering in the outset to the worst ago, or by the Radicals for the stop. passions of the people, for the purposes page to the movement which they of selfish ambition, is in the end driven have since interposed, from a just sense to the necessity of arming one part of the imminent peril in which, as of the nation against another, and Lord John Russell has told us, any plunging the country into the hor. further advance would immediately rors of plebeian insurrection and civil involve the crown, the constitution, warfare. and the country.
What are the principles which That the Melbourne Ministry were these frantic incendiaries proclaim, right in this opinion, and that Lord and in support of which they are John Russell's late finality manifesto now prepared to drench England is founded on just principles, and a in blood ? Annual parliaments-unitrue appreciation of the present state versal suffrage-vote by ballot the of the empire, can be doubted by no abolition of primogeniture, and the man whose judgment is not pervert- new-modelling of the House of Comed by political ambition or private mons on the principle of giving one interest. The principles and proceed member to every fifty thousand inhaings of the Chartists, afford daily and bitants. How long would the Monarchy stand against a House of Commons pour down upon the defenceless arsenso elected ? Not one week. How als of Great Britain ; that fifteen long would the Peerage stand, or the hundred thousand Chartists in Engproperty of the country be safe from land are prepared to deluge the counspoliation? How long would the try in blood, in pursuit of the vain Protestant religion maintain its ground chimcras of revolutionary passion ; against the deluge of two hundred and that two millions of Precursors members from Ireland ? The veil, in Ireland, guided by a disciplined therefore, is now completely with. militia of three thousand priests, are drawn; the ulterior objects of the ready, any day that O'Connell gives Revolutionary party stand disclosed. the word, to let slip the dogs of war, The destruction of the Monarchy, of and renew, after the lapse of two centhe House of Peers, of the Protestant turies, the awful Protestant massacre of religion ; a general spoliation of pro- 1641 ;-all this is universally known perty, stand revealed as the objects for and admitted. Government see these which fifteen hundred thousand men dangers-know them-acknowledge are prepared to take up arms, and them; and they have given the most incur the penalties of high treason. convincing proof of the terror with Truly it is not surprising that the which they are inspired by them, by middle classes are petitioning Govern. having, under the pressure of apprement for leave to arm themselves, and hension, relinquished office, and forgot that the shopkeepers are every where even the ruling passion usually strong forming associations for their mutual in death, defence. They begin now to see what What, then, in such circumstances, it is to let the revolutionary spirit and when surrounded by such danloose upon mankind, and in what aw. gers, has been the conduct of the ful perils any further concessions to Liberal Government? They have the democratic party will involve put one ship of the line in com. themselves and their children.
mission, which, after a struggle of And what a woful picture does the four months, is hardly yet equipped present state of the country exhibit of with its full complement of seamen, the paralysis with which the measures and they have added fifteen hundred of the Revolutionary Cabinet and men to the regular army. Literally Reform party have afflicted the once- speaking, this is the whole that they powerful and energetic government have done, or ventured to do, to main. of England. Early in the debates on tain the country from external enethe Reform Bill, the Duke of Welc mies, when menaced by the whole lington asked the celebrated question, power of America on the one side, 6 How, under the new constitution, the and the whole force of Russia on the King's government was to be carried other ; and to save the nation from on." Truly, Lord Melbourne's ad. internal bloodshed and ruin, when ministration has not furnished any threatened alike by a revolutionary solution to the difficulty. That the insurrection in Great Britain, and by nation is now placed in an unpa, the horrors of a Catholic massacre in ralleled state of difficulty ; that the Ireland. For dangers in reality less colonies are all in a state of smothered than these, she had, in the late war, discontent or anticipated revolt ; that six hundred thousand men in arms the mutual passions of two populations and a thousand vessels afloat; but Sir must necessarily bring on a bloody Charles Adam now assures us, that national warfare on the banks of the “ we are perfectly secure against the St Lawrence; that the West Indies, united Russian and American navies, burning with indignation at the uni. for that we have three ships of the line versal and unprincipled spoliation of and three guard-ships to protect the property with which they have been shores of England." And Lord Mel. visited, may be tempted to throw them- bourne deems bimself quite safe from selves into the arms of the first hostile English madness, or Irish revenge, power which shall seriously menace both inflamed to the highest point of the British flag ; that a vast and costly exasperation, because he has added war has already commenced on the the amount of three weak battalions to banks of the Indus ; that forty Rus. the British army! And this is the sian ships of the line, manned by state of weakness and decrepitude to thirty thousand troops, are ready to which, in seven short years, a Liberal administration and Reform principles peril our whole empire in Hindostan? have brought the country of Nelson Clearly the short-sighted policy of the and Wellington!
Liberal Government in that country, Numerous and formidable as are which, from the miserable desire of the dangers which on all sides men- gaining a temporary popularity, and ace the country, there is not one of rounding a few periods about economy them which may not be distinct and retrenchment before some demoly traced to the false policy pur. cratic electors of Great Britain, brought sued, or pernicious principles instilled about a ruinous reduction both in our into the country, by the Liberal Go. European and native army in the East, vernment. Look at external matters. and necessarily induced that weakness What has brought on the alarming and timidity in the Indian administracrisis in Canada, produced two fright- tion, wbich, in an empire so situated, ful insurrections in that country, and and founded entirely on opinion, is roused the frontier population of the the invariable forerunner of dissoluUnited States to such a pitch of hosti. tion. lity, as may, ere long, bring on a We are far from blaming the expecostly and ruinous war with America ? dition across the Indus, costly and Clearly the monstrous conduct of the hazardous as it was ; on the contrary, Liberal Goveroment, who first, for at the time it was undertaken, we years, spread doctrines and used lan- believe it to have been indispensable to guage from the seat of authority in stop the progress of Russian intrigue, this country amply sufficient to set the and restore the tarnished glory and most phlegmatic people in the world on credit of the British name in the profire, and then, when the flame had vinces of Central Asia. What we say begun to spread among the French is, that the enormous expense and impopulation on the banks of the St minent risk of this distant expedition Lawrence, from the dread of offend. was the necessary consequence of, and ing their liberal allies in this country, the only way of averting, the ruinous dallied with and pampered treason to effects of the previous infatuated and such a degree amongst the Canadian short-sighted parsimony of the former republicans, as at length brought on an Whig administrations in India, espeopen revolt, and, but for the extraor- cially Lord William Bentinck's, which dinary circumstance of the St Law. had reduced the British force so much, rence not being frozen up in the mid- and discredited the British name so dle of December, would, eighteen entirely, that it lost its whole influence months ago, probably have severed among the powers of Central Asia, our whole North Americin colonies and was driven to this desperate effort from the British empire. With their in order to regain it. In 1826 our usual and characteristic blindness, they army in India numbered two hundred had, to meet this revolt, the result of and ninety thousand combatants ; in their own weak and infatuated con- 1838 it had been reduced to one duct, and which every man of sense hundred and eighty thousand, although in the kingdom had seen for years was the necessities and wants of the em. approaching, just three thousand men pire had greatly increased, from the in Canada; and the consequence was, extension of our frontier into the Burthat the revolt was so imperfectly sup- mese territories, and the rapid progress pressed, that it broke out a second of Russian influence in the states of time, led to a lamentable effusion of Central Asia. What did the British human blood, and has sown the seeds Government do, under the influence of of indelible jealousy and discord on this miserable, parsimonious spirit, oriboth sides of the American frontier. ginating in the desire to curry favour
Turn to the East Indies. What is with the ten pound urban-constituenit that has produced the present alarm, cies of England ? Why, they dismanting crisis in that country, which has led or sold the whole Bombay navy, rendered necessary the march of thereby shutting us out from any nearly 30,000 British troops across the maritime influence in the Persian gulf, Indus, and involved the Indian go and they refused to ratify the judicious vernment in a costly and distant en treaty made by Lieutenant Burnes, terprise in Central Asia, the success by which, for the moderate subsidy of of which is uncertain, and the defeat fifty thousand pounds, we would have of which would place in the utmost secured the cordial co-operation of Mahomed Khan and the Affghanistan East, and the pass to the subjugation chiefs, and erected an impenetrable of our Indian empire, into the hands barrier to the further advances of Rus of the Imperial Autocrat of Russia ? sia across the shores of the Ganges. What is it that has now left the Bri. The consequence was, that these tish shores defenceless, save from the chiefs, in disgust, threw themselves into three ships of the line and three guardthe arms of Russia ; our influence at ships, of which Sir Charles Adams so the Court of Persia dwindled away to loudly boasts in the House of Com. nothing; our able ambassador, Sir mons, against the thirty ships of the John M.Neill, was compelled to aban- line and thirty thousand men which don Tehran, leaving the Persian court are in constant readiness in the Baltic, entirely open to Russian influence. to carry conflagration and ruin into The consequence was, that the Rus the whole naval arsenals of England ? sian emissaries soon reached the north. Who has lowered the character of the ern provinces of India, and they were British navy to such a degree, that found on the banks of the Sutledge, even the French, though hardly re. and on the banks of Nepaul, secretly covered from the terrors of the Nile organising a vast confederacy against and Trafalgar, deem themselves in the British power in Hindostan. Then, safety to insult the British flag during and not till then, the imminence of the the establishment of a blockade of a danger flashed upon our rulers in the neutral power? Who, but the miser. East, and a gigantic expedition at able, democracy paralysed Liberal Go. length, at a vast cost, was undertaken vernment, who never venture to proto remeasure, in an opposite direction, pose a decided measure, or take a the march of Alexander the Great to vigorous step, or bring forward an India, and endeavour to regain, by enlarged estimate, lest they should force of arms, that commanding influ. weaken the allegiance of their tenence in the passes between Persia and pound supporters, or endanger the Hindostan, which we had lost by the support of the extreme Liberal section weakness of former diplomacy and in the House of Commons. the abject submission to blind demo. The spectacle which the West Incratic parsimony.
dies exhibits is, perhaps, still more Turn to European affairs. Have melancholy and instructing, because the Liberal Government upheld the it is there that the rashness and mob character, or maintained the interests subserviency of the Liberal Govern. of the British empire in our own more ment was first brought into action, immediate concerns ? Who surren. and that the effects of such a system, dered Antwerp to the French-that in consequence, have been already great outwork of continental ambition most fully developed. The West In. against British independence, which dies were the first victim of the selfNapoleon declared he lost his king- government of the dominant multitude dom because he would not abandon ? in the British Islands. The English Who kept alive the flames of a fright people were determined, per fas aut ful civil war in Spain, and drenched nefas, that the slaves should be emanthe valleys of the Ebro with blood, cipated, and by a mighty effort they and stained the name of England, by forced through this prodigious change aiding in the overthrow and subjuga without sufficient regard either to the tion of the Basque provinces ? Who circumstances of the slaves who were to brought an unheard of disgrace upon be the victims of the perilous experi. the British arms, and exhibited the ment, or of the ruling power by whom spectacle, unprecedented for five cen- the price of their enfranchisement was turies, of Englishmen armed with to be paid. Not content with this, in Tower guns, and commanded by of- a few years after, they insisted upon ficers of the British army, flying in the immediate termination of the aputter rout and confusion before an prenticeship system and total abolition array of Spanish mountaineers? Who of slavery, whether the negroes were brought the Russian standard down to in a fit condition to bear the ultimate Constantinople, and refused aid to the change or not. The consequence has Grand Seignior, when, in the agony of been, that the West Indies have been distress, he threw himself upon us thrown into an indescribable state of for protection, and placed the keys confusion and uneasiness ; field-labour os: Constantinople, the gate of the of every kind, generally speaking, has