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We shall begin with the overthrow of unjust, inasmuch as they were antithe Martignac Ministry, and with the monarchical ; and that at the very appointment of the Polignac Cabinet. time when the Charta, so often ap
In 1829, the French Chamber of pealed to by all parties, established a Deputies began that struggle which monarchical form of government in is still going on against the prero- the country.
Such laws as they regatives of the monarch. The present quired would have vested one hunambassador to the court of St James's, dred thousand small communal repubGeneral Sebastiani, was one of the fore- lics in the French monarchy, by most in the opposition then raised erecting communal assemblies, in against the right conferred by the which the affairs of the state were to Charta of Louis XVIII. on the govern- be brought constantly under the disment, of being exclusively entitled to cussion of the mobocracy. These propose laws to the Chambers. Besides demands originated in a jealousy, if this, the communal and departmental not in a hatred, of the rights and prelaws presented in that session by the rogatives of the Throne, as guaranViscount de Martignac, were so wholly teed by the Charta; and it is only changed by the commission appointed necessary to refer to the journals and to examine them, that, had they passed pamphlets of that period to be conin their altered form, there would have vinced, that the deputies, journalists, been some thousands of little republics and public teachers of the Opposition, established in the very heart, and over levelled all their attacks against the the whole surface, of the kingdom of Throne, the King, the monarchy. France. 66 We march in the midst When the National was prosecuof anarchy !" cried the eloquent and ted, on the 10th March, 1830, for its admirable Martignac-but he could celebrated article, written by Thiers, not go on. The Chamber of Deputies « Le Roi regne, et ne gouverne pas, required the monarchy to yield. The it was so prosecuted because the monarchy refused. The bill was with article was anti monarchical. It is drawn. A new ministry was named. not true that Prince Polignac either Prince Polignac and his friends were hated or feared the press. It is not called on to raise the standard of true that Prince Polignac prosecuted resistance to the encroachments of the French journals either for attacks democracy, and to the threats of the on himself or on his coadjutors ;- the Extreme Gauche that they would prosecutions instituted were only ride their horses rough-shod through against journals, and journalists who the palaces of kings." The selection put forth all the energy of their of the Polignac administration was talent and eloquence to excite the intended to demonstrate, not that people to hate and to oppose the rights Charles X. preferred the priests or the and prerogatives of the Crown. Thus, Jesuits, as some writers have absurdly then, the character of the resistance imagined, but simply that the crown of Prince Polignac, up to the period was well informed as to the character of the signing the fatal Ordinances, of the opposition which had been got which led to the rising of the Pari. up, as to the objects proposed by the sians and the events of July,-was a men of the Gauche, and that, being so resistance to the anti-monarchical disinformed, it had come deliberately positions, tendencies, and acts of the and firmly to the resolution to resist. Chamber of Deputies, press, and poliThe Polignac Cabinet was not in tical associations. We will not admit, tended by the King, the royal family, for it is not true, that either Charles or the court, as a cabinet of attack, X. or the Prince de Polignac had but simply as one of resistance. None any idea of curtailing or attacking had the least notion of making the the liberties enjoyed by the French Ordinances of July 1830, when that people, under the Charta of 1814, cabinet was named,—nor, indeed, till when the Polignac Cabinet was long after those associations were formed. To resist encroachmentformed for refusing the payment of to defend the monarchy—to erect taxes, which were nothing short of barriers against the assaults of demoopen, proclaimed rebellion against cracy-were the only objects prole Crown, the Chambers, and the posed ;--and these objects were not harta. The demands made by the only praiseworthy but indispensable,
aber of Deputies, in 1829, were if merely the semblance of a French
monarchy was to be preserved in that in the state and the country, all concountry.
gratulating the King and the nation It is a favourite opinion with some on that very return. writers, that the opposition to the The first president of the Court of monarchy of Charles X. was founded, Cassation, Count Portalis, accompanot on any dislike on the part of the nied by all the judges and officers of Chambers, the press, or the associa- the highest tribunal of the country, tions, to monarchical institutions, but said, to the alleged “foreign origin" of " Sixteen years ago, this very day, the government of 1814. As this
your Majesty appeared in the midst of error has been widely spread, and as
Weary of pursuing, from revolution its belief by any of our readers would to revolution, after vain phantoms of li. prevent them from rightly understand
berty, France, after having been obliged ing the real character of the continu. to submit to the yoke of despotism in orous opposition of the Gauche to the der to crush the efforts and disorders of monarchy, from 1829 to the very hour anarchy, was reduced to the necessity of in which these observations are writ- fighting for her invaded territory. ten ; we propose to show the fallacy May you, sire, it is the wish of our love, of this statement. It is said that the during a long series of years, receive the origin of all the opposition to Louis
tribute of the gratitude of the country XVIII. and Charles X., is to be
for the great benefits secured to it by your found in the fact, that they were
return. brought back to France by “foreign Baron Seguier, the president of the bayonets." Now, if this were the Royal Court (and the president still), case, the anniversary of such an event accompanied by the judges, the bar, would necessarily be a day of sadness and the officers, approached the foot or of silence. No voice would be of the throne, in April 1830 !! and heard to rejoice in its return,-and it said to Charles X.,would be allowed to pass over with. “Le lien resserré entre votre majestè out notice, even if expressions of re- et la patrie est indestructible ; il garantit gret should not escape from both la grandeur de vos enfans, et la fidelité des magistrates and people. But was this really the case ? Quite the contrary.
Sire, vous aimez à être aimé ; Let us look at the facts of history
fût le meilleur moyen du vainqueur de la and turn to the official record of Ligue. Votre royal penchant de famille France—the Moniteur. And, in order
sera comblé outre mesure par nos cæurs that we may escape from the charge
reconnaissans et devoués.” of selecting a period of public history
And lest it should be said that this when the people were most favour- was only the language of courtiers ; ably disposed towards the Crown and turn to the speech of Count de Chalthe government, we will turn to the rol, now so popular with even the accounts of the proceedings which Gauche, and hear what he said, as took place on the 12th April, 1830, prefect of the department of the Seine, the sixteenth anniversary of the return representing, on this 16th anniversary of the Count d'Artois (Charles X.) of the return of the Bourbons, the into the capital. Let it be remem- whole population of Paris. bered that, on 12th April, 1830, the “ As organ of the faithful inhabitants country was in state of unparalleled of your good city of Paris, we come, on agitation-that the address of the 221 the return of this joyous day, to pray you had veen voted—that the King had to accept the homage of the love, respect, prorogued the session to 1st Septem- and devotedness of all its population.” ber, preparatory to a dissolution, And finally, “ The Society for the and that from one end of the kingdom Protection of Agriculture" came with to the other the Gauche was plotting its offering of grateful recollection on against the government and the mon- the 16th anniversary of the entry of the archy. Yet, on this sixteenth anni. Bourbons “ with foreign bayonets ;" versary of the return of the Count and no language could be more loyal d'Artois (Charles X.) to Paris, we or respectful. The King replied, read the following account of the “ The souvenirs which you recall to proceedings of the representatives of my mind produce, I assure you, the livethe various civil and military orders liest satisfaction ; rendered, as they are,
more lively by the fact, that I see the Chamber; the day that it shall be estabcountry tranquil and happy, and agri. lished as a fact, that the Chamber may culture Nourishing in all my kingdom. A repulse the ministers of the King, and king-a father-how can he desire any impose on him others who shall be the thing else than the happiness of his chil- ministers of the Chamber, and not the dren?"
ministers of the King ;-the day that this Had the Chamber of Deputies been shall arrive, there will not only be an end sitting at the period of the anniversary of the Charta, but of our royalty-of that in question, its members likewise independent royalty which protected our would have appeared at the Tuileries fathers, and from which alone France has
received all that she ever possessed of lito express their gratitude and love. All classes and ranks were represented France will be a republic; and yet the
berty and of happiness. On that day, on the return of the 12th April of Charta wills that we remain a monarchy.” every year--and all vied with each other in declaring that such anniver- Yet this very M. Royer Callard saries were to them the source of un- took up to Charles X., and read to feigned delight. It is not true, that him an address, which attacked, in the only official representatives, paid func- name of the “ majority of the Chamtionaries, or persons attached to the ber," this very prerogative of the court made these declarations : no, all King, which, only a few months preclasses sent their deputations to the viously, he had defended with so much palace, to assure the King that the re- of truth and eloquence! This address membrance of the day on which the —this attack-led to the ordinances Bourbons returned to the capital gave of July and to the Revolution ; and them unqualified satisfaction. It can- nine years afterwards, the very not be, then, that the “ foreign same attacks are renewed against origin” of the events of 1814, and the Louis Philippe, although some of the return of the Bourbons to France most valuable rights and prerogatives with foreign bayonets, were the rea- of the crown, as enjoyed under the sons why, in 1830, the majority of the Charta of 1814, were repealed by the Chamber of Deputies, the press, and Charta of 1830. the associations, sought to destroy the The language and conduct of Charles prerogatives and rights of the Throne, X. did not justify the aversion felt by and to reduce it to a state of depend the majority in the Chamber of Depuence on 100,000 communal republics. ties to the influence of the crown.
We contend, then, Ist, That the Though that amiable prince insisted Government of France, as established on the importance of the great prinby the Charta of 1814, was that of a ciple of legitimacy to the stability of limited monarchy ; 2d, That the mass the political institutions of France, yet of the people not merely adopted, but his language was always mild, paterpreferred that form of government; nal, and benignant. Docs he reply 3d, That the people had no aversion to the president of the Court of Casto the Bourbons, from the fact that, sation? he says, in 1814, they were replaced on the “ L'amour que les Français ont conthrone of their ancestors by foreign servé pour la race de leurs rois est, j'ose bayonets; 4th, That a faction in the le dire, ce qui constitue leur force et ce country, and a majority of forty in the qui consolidera á jamais leur bonheur. La Chamber of Deputies, began, in 1829, légitimité, et je puis en parler moi-même, its attacks on the rights and preroga.
car il n'y a pas la de merite personnel, la tives of the crown ; and, 5th, That légitimité a.ce caractère distinctif
, que pow, in 1839, this same faction, joined l'interet même des peuples en fait la force by others, after having stripped the
et assure le succes de ses efforts : je l'ai throne of some of the most valuable bien éprouvé lors de mon entrée dans of its prerogatives, as possessed by the Paris.” eldest branch of the House of Bour- Does he speak to the Court of Acbon, is now engaged in bringing about compts? he says,the state of things years ago described Uniquement occupé du bonheur de by M. Royer Callard, in one of his mon peuple, j'espere parvenir à le conadmirable speeches.
solider; mon vou le plus cher c'est que “ The day that the Government shall la posterité puisse bénir mon nom.” only exist by the will of the majority of the Does he address the citizens of
Paris, through their organ the Count tation and excitement of the revolude Chalvol ? he says,
tionary party, but, on the contrary, “ Tous mes efforts tendront comme ils appeared to act as a stimulant to them ont tendu jusqu'ici à consolider d'une to cry, with even more fervour and munière indestructible le bonheur des zeal,-“ France has the right to govern Français."
herself ;" and it is precisely the same Does he publish a proclamation to cry, in precisely the same words, all France, and call on the electors to which is uttered to-day. After nine do their duty,-hear the mild and years of agitation, civil war, regicide, moderate language he makes use of, insurrections, prevotal courts, states in June 1830, on the eve of the gene- of siege, and then amnesty, order, ral elections :
prosperity, and peace, the National “ La dernière Chambre des Deputés a
still exclaims, as it did when Thiers méconnu mes intentions. J'avais droit de
was one of its editors,>" The first compter sur son concours pour faire le
and great idea of the first French Rebien que je meditais : elle me l'a refusé! volution was, the right of France to Comme père de mon peuple, mon cour
govern herself. This same idea has s'en est ailligé; comme roi, j'en ai été been constantly kept in view ; and offensé : j'ai prononcé la dissolution de now, in 1839, France again returns to cette Chambre.
it, and asks why she is not competent " Maintenir la Charte constitutionelle to govern herself?" et les institutions qu'elle a fondées, a été, As Charles X. was attacked, in 1829 et sera toujours, le but de mes efforts. and 1830, for naming an administra
“ Mais pour atteindre ce but, je dois tion in which he had confidence, so is exercer librement, et faire respecter, les Louis Philippe forthe same proceeding droits sacrés qui sont l’apanage de ma attacked now. As Charles X., in 1830,
was accused of having the intention “ C'est en eux qu'est la garantie du of establishing an absolute monarchy, repos public, et de vos libertés. La nature
and of getting rid of the Charta, so is du gouvernement serait alterée si de cou.
Louis Philippe now. As Charles X., in pables atteintes affaiblissaient mes prero
1830, was supported by the property, gatives ; et je trahirais mes sermens, si je character, and aristocracy of the counle souffrais. “C'est votre Roi qui vous le demande; melancholy exception, indeed, that the
try, so is Louis Philippe now; with the c'est un père que vous appelle. Remplissez vos devoirs ; je saurai remplir les miens." peerage is no longer hereditary, and
that some of the oldest families of Does the King open the Session on France have refused to identify themthe 2d March, 1830,—what does he .selves with the Crown. As the joursay? Why, he points out, in mea- nals and factions in 1830, with the sured and constitutional, though firm Agier defection, and the Chatcauand decided language, the attacks briand defection too, insisted that which are made against the Crown, the attacks then made on the royal the royal prerogatives, the rights of authority and prerogatives were not the throne,—the monarchy itself. against the monarchy, but only
“Messieurs- Le premier besoin de mon against the ministers :--So now, in cæur est de voir la France heureuse et 1839, the Guizot and De Brorespectée, developper toutes les richesses glie, the Soult and the Persil defecde son sol et de son industrie, et jouir en tions, make use of the same language paix des institutions dont j'ai la ferme -and vow that all they do “ is for the volonté de consolider le bienfait. La good of the Crown, and out of pure Charte a placé les libertés publiques sous love to the reigning dynasty.” As the la sauve-garde des droits de ma couronne:
Chamber of Deputies, in 1830, voted ces droits sont sacrés : mon devoir envers
that address of the 221, to which we mon peuple est de les transmettre intacts
shall hereafter have occasion to refer à mes successeurs.”
-so the Chamber of Deputies, in 1839, In all this there is nothing that is voted, within four or five votes, paranot constitutional, liberal, and wise, graphs quite as strong, and sentiments at the same time that it is monarchical quite as anti-monarchical. As the and paternal. But yet this language Chamber of 1830 discussed the right did not satisfy the faction- did not of Charles X. to name and maintain content the majority of the Chamber his own ministers—so the Chamber of of Deputies--did not appease the irri- 1839 accused one of the three powers
of the state (always so alluding to it neur, la France est bien heureuse ; as to make it quite clear which of the son Dauphin, comme son Roi, ont un three was intended), of attempts to ceur d'or et un corps de fer." When overthrow the other two powers, and the fleet sailed for Algiers, the cries, to destroy the constitutional character Vive le Roi! and Vive le Dauphin ! of the existing monarchy. As the were so often repeated, and so loud, Lafayettes and Corcelles, Audry de that a correspondent of that period Puiraveans, and Dupont de L'Eurés wrote word, though himself a royalist, of 1830 joined with the Sebastianis, “ that the enthusiasm was almost exGautiers, Schonens, and Charles Du- cessive," and the crews of the vessel pins of that period, in forming a coa- sailed from the port with yet "seven" LITION against the court and the and “ seven times seven more cheers." Crown - so in the present day, the When the Duke d'Angoulême ap. Garnier Pages, Lafittes, Aragos, and peared at Lyons, the Academy of Cormenins of the Chamber, are joined Sciences, Belles Lettres, and the Fine by the Periers, the Guizots, the Per- Arts, undertook to address him; and sils, the Duchatels, and the Thiers's the following is a specimen of the lan—and another coalition is forming guage they adopted towards a family, against the French monarchy. It is whom three months afterwards they not a coalition against Count Molé, as tranquilly beheld expelled from France we shall prove hereafter, but against by 93 deputies out of a Chamber Louis Philippe as King, and because of 450 :-* Oui, Monseigneur, nous he is King ; which coalition would be croyons que la liberté ne peut exister formed against any other king, what- qu'avec T'ordre
- que l'ordre n'a ever might be his name or character, d'autre guarantie qu'un pouvoir fort simply because he was king.
et protecteur-que le pouvoir n'est fort There is no reliance to be placed on qu'autant qu'il est stable, et que la French assurances, and no confidence stabilité est inseparable de la légitito be reposed in even French con- mité. C'est à la royauté, Monseigduct. Look at the language, as pub. neur, que les communes durent leurs lished in the official and other records, franchises ; c'est à la royauté légiwhich was made use of to Charles X. time que nous devons la Charte ; c'est and to the royal family, even up to the elle qui la main tiendra; c'est elle period of the Revolution. Did the seule que peut la maintenir ; et King appear at the Chamber? He ce n'est qu'à l'abri des droits sacrés et was received with shouts of “ Vive le imprescriptibles du trône que fleurirRoi ! ” Did his majesty receive con. ont les libertés publiques.” Did the gratulatory addresses on occasion of Duchess d'Angoulême proceed, evenin the capture of Algiers ? They were July 1830, to the baths of Vichy for her full of protestations of devotedness to health ? Every where she was received the monarchy. Did the Duke d’An, with shouts of “ Vivent les Bourgoulême journey to Marseilles, Tou. bons !" Whenever she appeared in lon, and the south of France, to super. public, the people were in transports intend the departure of the Algiers of joy--and even up to the 13th July, expedition ? Every where the air re- the inhabitants of Lyons professed sounded with the cries of “ Vive le their ardent loyalty at the inauguraDauphin ! Vive le Roi! Vivent les tion of the portrait of the King. As Bourbons !” At Aix, the co-citizens to the addresses presented to Charles of the republican Thiers, who was at X. by all classes, on occasion of the that very moment labouring in the conquest of Algiers, they were so comNational of 1830 to overthrow the mo. plimentary as to be fulsome: and could narchy, were so loud in their demon- the French have been believed, no strations of affected loyalty, that there people could be more loyal, or more seemed exaggeration in their zeal, monarchical. And yet, this very whilst the procureur-general said, Count Portalis, this very Baron Se“Ce jour est beau pour nous, monseig- guier, these very same public funcneur ; et les acclamations d'une po- tionaries who stimulated the King, pulation fidèle montrent toujours à by their speeches and addresses, to votre altesse royale comment les pro- arm himself with the power vested in vençaux savent aimer leur roi.” . At him by the Charta, and to “ save the Marseilles, the prefect, in the midst monarchy," but a few weeks after. of the citizens, exclaimed "Monseig, wards reproached him for complying