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than that which he or any of his fol. science of B, or nature, may be consi. lowers contend for, to challenge its dered complete. validity, venerable and authoritative Let us now try how the same me. though it be.
thod of simple or physical observation We do not, indeed, assert that this works in its application to psychology. maxim, even when taken in its utmost We will call man and his phenomena latitude, contains any thing which is A ; and, as man is here the observer, absolutely false; but we hope to show, as well as the observed, we must call that, in its application to the science the observer A too. Now, it is ob. of man, and as a fundamental rule of vious that in A (man observed) there psychology, it falls very far short of are plenty of phenomena present-his the whole truth, and is of a very mis- sensations, “ states of mind,” &c., leading tendency. If it has acted like and that A (man observing) may confanners upon the physical sciences, it struct a sort of science out of these by has certainly fallen like an extin- simply observing them, just as he conguisher upon philosophy.
structed the natural sciences by observThe method laid down in this canon ing the phenomena of B. And this is as the only true foundation of science, precisely what our ordinary psycholois the method of observation. The gists have done, adhering to the Baconquestion then comes to be : can this ian canon. But the slightest reflection method be properly applied to the will show us that such a science of man phenomena of man, in exactly the same must necessarily be a false one, inassense as it is applied to the phenomena much as it leaves out of view one of of nature ? The disciples of Lord his most important phenomena. For, Bacon tell us that it can, and must, if as in the preceding case of A and B, we would construct a true science of so now in the case of A and A, there ourselves; but, in opposition to their is developed the fact of A's observaopinion, we undertake to show, that, in tion of A. But this fact, which, in the the case of man, circumstances are case of A and B was very properly evolved, which render his observation overlooked, and was merely considered of his own phenomena of a totally dif- as the point to be looked from, cannot ferent character from his observation here be legitimately overlooked, but of the pbenomena of nature. Let us, insists most peremptorily upon being then, illustrate the method of observa- made the point to be looked at; for tion,-first, in its application to nature; the two A's are not really two, but and secondly, in its application to man. one and the same ; and, therefore, A's
We will call nature and her pheno- observation of the phenomena of A is mena B, and we will call the observer itself a new phenomenon of A, calling A. Now, it is first to be remarked, for a new observation. Thus, while that in A there is developed the fact physical observation is simple, philoof A's observation of B : but the pro. sophical, or psychological observation per and sole business of A being to is double. It is observatio duplex : observe the phenomena of B, and A's the observation of observation, obserobservation of the phenomena of B not vatio observationis. being a fact belonging to B, it, of Now, we maintain, that the discourse, does not call for any notice ciples of the Baconian school have whatsoever from A. It would be al- never recognised this distinction; or together irrelevant for A, when ob- rather have never employed any other serving the phenomena of B, to observe than the method of single observation, the fact of his own observation of these in studying the phenomena of man. phenomena. Therefore, in the natu- They have been too eager to observe ral sciences, the fact of A's observa- every thing, ever to have thought of tion of B is the point looked from, and duly observing the fact of observation cannot become the point looked at, itself. This phenomenon, by which without a departure being made from every thing else was brought under the proper procedure of physics. These observation, was itself allowed an imsciences, then, are founded entirely on munity from observation ; and entire. the method of simple observation. Ob. ly to this laxness or neglect, are, in servatio simplex is all that is here our opinion, to be attributed all the practised, and is all that is here neces- errors that have vitiated, and all the sary; and, whenever it shall have been obstructions that have retarded the put forth in its fullest extent, the science of ourselves,
The distinction which we have just creation. In physics, therefore, man pointed out between these two kinds is, as we have said, a mere observer. of observation, the single and the But in philosophy he has, first of all, double, the physical and the psycho- to observe his own phenomena (this logical, is radical and profound. The he does in the free act of his ordinary method to be pursued in studying na- consciousness): he thus creates, by ture, and the method to be pursued in his own agency, a new fact-the fact, studying man, can now no longer be namely, of his observation of these regarded as the same. The physical phenomena; and then he has to subject method observes_but the psychologi. this new fact to a new and systematic cal method swings itself higher than observation, which may be called the this, and observes observation. Thus reflective or philosophic consciouspsychology, or philosophy properly so called, commences precisely at the The observation of our own natural point where physical science ends. phenomena (observatio simplex), is the When the phenomena of nature have act of consciousness: the observation been observed and classified, the of the observation of our own phenoscience of nature is ended. But when mena (observatio duplex), or, in other the phenomena of man, his feelings, words, the observation of conscious. intellectual and other states, have been ness is philosophy: Such are our observed and classified, true psycholo- leading views on the subject of the gy has yet to begin :-we have yet to method of psychology, as contradisobserve our observation of these phe- tinguished from the method of physical nomena,—this fact constituting, in our science. opinion, the only true and all-compre- II. The act of consciousness, or the hensive fact which the science of man fact of our observation of our own has to deal with-and only after it has natural modifications having been thus been taken up and faithfully observed, pointed out as the great phenomena to can philosophy be said to have com- be observed in psychology, we next menced.
turned our attention to the contents Further, the divergence which, in and origin of this act, subdividing our consequence of this distinction, takes enquiry into three distinct questions : place at their very first step, between When does consciousness come into psychological and physical science is manifestation: How does it come into prodigious. In constructing the phy, manifestation ; and what are the consical sciences, man occupies the posi- sequences of its coming into manifestation of a mere observer. It is true tion. that his observation of the phenomena 111. In discussing the question, of nature is an act--and that so far he when does consciousness come into is an agent as well as an observer, manifestation ? We found that man is but as this act belongs to himself, and not born conscious; and that thereas he has here. no business with any fore consciousness is not a given or phenomena except those belonging to ready-made fact of humanity. In nature, he cannot legitimately take looking for some sign of its manifestaany notice of this agency. But in tion, we found that it has come into constructing a science of himself man operation whenever the human being occupies more than the position of a has pronounced the word “1," know. mere observer—for his observation of ing what this expression means. This his own phenomena is an act—and as word is a highly curious one, and quite this act belongs to himself whom he is anomaly, inasmuch as its true studying, he is bound to notice it; meaning is utterly incommunicable by and, moreover, as this act of observa- one being to another--endow the latter tion must be performed before it can with as high a degree of intelligence be observed, man is thus compelled to as you please. Its origin cannot be be an agent before he is an observer; explained by imitation or association. or, in other words, must himself act Its meaning cannot be taught by any or create the great phenomenon which conceivable process ; but must be orihe is to observe. This is what he ginated absolutely by the being using never does in the case of the physical it. This is not the case with any other sciences—the phenomena here observ- form of speech. For instance, if it be ed are entirely attributable to nature. asked what is a table ? a person may Man has nothing to do with their point to one, and say, “that is a table.”
But, if it be asked : what does “ I" scrutiny of the act of consciousness mean; and if the same person were to showed us, that this act, or in other point to himself and say—“ this is words, that our observation of our
1,'” – this would convey quite a own phenomena, is to a certain exwrong meaning, unless the enquirer, tent, a displacement or suspension of before putting the question, had ori. them; that these phenomena (our ginated within himself the notion“ I,” sensations, passions, and other modifor it would lead him to suppose, and fications) are naturally of a monopoto call that other person “1."— This lising tendency—that is to say, they is a strange paradox, but a true one ; tend to keep us unconscious—to enthat a person would be considered mad, gross us with themselves,—while, on unless he applied to himself a particu- the contrary, consciousness or our lar name, which, if any other person observation of them, is of a contrary were to apply to him, he would be tendency, and operates to render us considered mad.
unsentient, unpassionate, &c. We Neither are we to suppose that this found, from considering facts, that word “I” is a generic word, equally consciousness, on the one hand, and applicable to us all, like the word all our natural modifications on the « man ;" for, if it were, then we other, existed in an inverse ratio to should all be able to call each other one another_that wherever the natu“ J," just as we can all call each ral modification is plus, the consciousother with propriety, “ man." ness of it is minus, and vice versa. We
Further, the consideration of this thus found that the great law reguquestion, by conducting us to inquiries lating the relationship between the of a higher interest, and of a real sig- conscious man (the “I”) and the nanificance, enables us to get rid of tural man was the law of* antagonism most or all of the absurd and unsatis- and thus consciousness was found factory speculations connected with to be an act of antagonism ; or (in that unreal substance which nobody order to render our deduction more knows any thing about — called distinct) we shall rather say was found "mind." If mind exists at all, it ex- to be evolved out of an act of antaists as much when man is born, as it gonism put forth against the modifi. ever does afterwards—therefore, in cations of the natural man. the developement of mind, no new But out of what is this act of form of humanity is evolved. But no antagonism evolved? What are its man is born “I”; yet, after a time, grounds ? Let us consider what it is every man becomes « 1.” Here, then, put forth against ? All man's natuis a new form of humanity displayed ral modifications are derivative-and -and, therefore, the great question, this act is put forth against all these is,—what is the genesis of this new natural modifications—there is not form of man ?- What are the facts of one of them which is not more or less its origin? How does it come into impaired by its presence. It cannot, manifestation ? Leave “ mind” alone therefore, be itself derivative, for if ye metaphysicians ! and answer us it were, it would be an acting against that.
itself, which is absurd. Being, thereIV. It is obvious that the new form fore, an act which opposes all that is of humanity, called “l,” is evolved derivative in man, it cannot be itself out of the act of consciousness, and derivative, but must be underivedthis brings us to the second problem that is, must be an absolutely origiof our inquiry : how is the act itself nal, primary, and free act. This act of consciousness evolved ? A severe of antagonism, therefore, is an act of
Our leading tenet may be thus contrasted with those of some other systems in a very few words. The sensual or Lockeian School teaches, that man becomes conscious ; or “I” in consequence of his sensations, passions, and other modifications ; the Platonic and Kantian Schools, teach that man becomes “T," not in consequence, but by occasion of his sensations, passions, &c.; and this is true, but not the whole truth. According to our doctrine, man becomes I” or a conscious Being, in spite of his sensations, passions, &c. Sensation, &c. exist for the purpose of keeping down consciousness and consciousness exists for the purpose of keeping down sensation, &c. &c.
freedom,-or, we shall rather say, is blem-How does Consciousness come evolved out of freedom. Its ground into operation ? the law of antagoand origin is freedom.
nism, established by facts, between But what are the explanatory the natural and the conscious man, grounds of freedom? We have but to being the principle upon which the ascertain what is the great law of whole solution rests. bondage throughout the universe, and, V. In discussing the consequences in its opposite, we shall find the law of the act of consciousness, we endeaor grounds of freedom. The law of voured to show how this act at once bondage throughout the universe, is displaces our sensations, and, in the the law of cause and effect. In the vacant room, places the reality called violation, then, of this law, true free. “I,” which, but for this active displacedom must consist. In virtue of what, ment of the sensations, would have then, do we violate this law of bond. had no sort of existence. We showed age or causality ? In virtue of our that the complex phenomenon in which human will, which refuses to submit to this displacing and placing is embothe modifications which it would im- died, is perception. The “ I," therepose upon us. Human will thus forms fore, is a consequence of the act of the ground of freedom, and deeper consciousness ; and a brighter phase than this we cannot sink. We sum of it is presented when the state which up our deduction thus : The “I” is the act of consciousness encounters evolved out of the act of conscious and displaces is a passion instead of ness—the act of consciousness is being a sensation. We showed that evolved out of an act of antagonism morality originates in the antagonism put forth against all the derivative here put forth. But we have already modifications of our being: This act expressed ourselves as succinctly and of antagonism is evolved out of free clearly as we are able on these points ; dom; and freedom is evolved out of and, therefore, we now desist from will; and thus we make will the low. adding any more touches to this very est foundation-stone of humanity. imperfect Outline of the Philosophy
Thus have we resolved, though we of Human Consciousness. fear very imperfectly, the great pro
Edinburgh : Printed by Ballantyne and Hughes, Paul's Work.
France has arrived at another crisis. vile literature, the nature of her poliIt is one of no ordinary importance; tical institutions, and of the profitless and the results which will spring from experiments she has been making in it involve nothing short of the peace the science of government for the last or war of the whole world. When halfcentury, as well as the influence she we make use of this language, we do exerts over the leaders of the democratic so advisedly. It is not for the purpose parties of all countries, give an importof rounding a period, or of exciting at- ance to her movements, and a weight to tention. If the Conservative cause in her decisions, which cannot be too conFrance shall now be defeated, and if stantly felt or too frequently referred Louis Philippe shall be reduced to to. We invite, then, the best attention accept for ministers men imposed of our thinking readers to the followupon him by a majority of the Cham- ing view of the state of France with ber of Deputies, who will then be not reference to her elections - such his ministers, but the ministers of a elections having been resorted to by faction:—from that moment there is the King of the French as the only and not only an end to the Charta and last means for preserving the remains to the Royalty of France, and not only of a monarchy which can date its will that country then practically be origin from Pharamond and Clodion, come a republic—but from that hour all Childeric and Clovis. The defeat of the friends of propagandism, war, revo- Louis Philippe is the defeat of the lution, anarchy, and mob government, French monarchy, and its defeat is will be let loose—and Europe must be nothing short of war to the hilt against up and defend herself, from the ag- all the monarchical institutions of gressions, insults, bad faith, encroach. Europe. We approach, then, this subments, and violence of modern French ject with natural anxiety and just democrats. We propose, in this alarm; we shall exaggerate nothing article, to establish by indisputable - but we shall not conceal any facts facts the truth of these assertions, which are calculated to present, in its facts which we have selected from a true light, the present situation of the mass of materials, and to which we country whose decisions and destinies could add at pleasure ; and facts which must have so powerful an operation will open the eyes of the most uncon- over the futurity of the whole of Eua cerned to the present dangerous and rope. alarming condition not only of France, For the right understanding of this but of the whole of Europe. The momentous question, it is necessary to geographical position of France, the take a rapid review of the events of character of her people, the general the last nine years. We shall be as adoption of ber language on the brief as these events will admit-but Continent, the diffusion of her modern it is essential to present a resumé,
VOL. XLV. NO, CCLXXXII.