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the first man stood towards it. He against our natural selfishness, lies at had good forced upon him: we have the root of the great principle upon forced ourselves upon it by a voluntary which all justice depends—the princisubmission; and in this kind of sub- ple suum cuique tribuendi. Therefore, mission true freedom consists; because, in every nation of antiquity in which in making it, the initiative movement wise and righteous laws prevailed, originates in our own wills, in an act they prevailed not in consequence of of resistance put forth against the evil any natural sense or principle of justhat encounters us in our natural tice among men, but solely in conseselves, whichever way we turn; and quence of the act of consciousness, thus, instead of this kind of causality which exposed to them the injustice cxercising a strictly causal force upon and selfish passions of their own hearts, us, we, properly speaking, are the and, in the very exposure, got the botcause by which it is induced to visit ter of them. and operate upon us at all.
66 From If we look, too, to the highest sects the days of John the Baptist until of ancient philosophy, what do we benow, the kingdom of Heaven suffereth hold but the developement of consciousviolence, and the violent take it by ness in its antagonism against evil, and force :" that is to say, it does not take an earnest striving after something them by force-it does not force itself better than any thing that is born withcausally upon us. On the contrary, in us? What was the whole theoretiwe must force ourselves upon it by cal and practical stoicism of antiquity ? our own efforts, and, as it were, wring Was it apathy, in the modern sense of from an All-merciful God that grace that word, that this high philoshopy which even He cannot and will not inculcated ? Great philosophers have grant, except to our own most carnest told us that it was so. But oh! docimportunities.
trine lamentably inverted, traduced, Would we now look back into the and misunderstood! The “ apathy' history of our kind, in order to gather of ancient stoicism was no apathy in instances of that real operation of con- our sense of the word-it was no sciousness which we have been speak- inertness—no sluggish insensibilitying of? Then what was the whole no avoidance of passion--and no foldof the enlightened jurisprudence, and ing of the hands to sleep. But it was all the high philosophy of antiquity, the direct reverse of all this. It was, but so many indications of conscious and it inculcated, an eternal war to be ness in its practical antagonism against waged by the sleepless consciousness human depravity ? What is justice, of every man against the indestructible that source and concentration of all demon-passions of his own heart. The law ? Is it a natural growth or en- awalstce of stoicism was an energetic dowment of humanity Has it, in its acting against passion ; and, if our first origin, a positive character of its word apathy means this, let us make own? No; there is no such thing as use of it in characterising that philonatural or born justice among men. sophy. - But we apprehend that our Justice is nothing but the conscious- word apathy signifies an indifference, ness of our own natural injustice, this a passiveness, a listless torpidity of consciousness being, in its very es- character, which either avoids the presence, an act of resistance against the sence of the passions, or feels it not ;
Do the promptings of nature in short, an unconsciousness of passion, teach us to give every man his due ? a state diametrically opposed to the No, the promptings of nature teach apathy of stoicism, which consists in us to keep to ourselves all that we the most vital consciousness of the can lay our hands upon; therefore it passions, and their consequent subjuis only by acting against the prompt- gation thereby. It has been thought, ings of nature that we can deal justly too, that stoicism aimed at the anni. towards our fellow-men. But we can- hilation of the passions ; but it is much not act against these promptings with truer to say, that it took the strife out being conscious of them, neither between them and consciousness, as can we be conscious of them without the focus of its philosophy; it found acting against them to a greater or a true manhood concentrated in this less extent; and thus consciousness, strife, and it merely placed true mandr an act of antagonism put forth hood where it found it for it saw
clearly that the only real moral life of beneath it, and wore smiles of eternal humanity is breathed up out of that constancy ; but when the storm arose, seething and tempestuous struggle. then Hatred, which had been over
The passions are sure to be ever looked by Consciousness, arose also, with us. Do what we will,
and the place of Love knew it no
more. Justice worked well so long " They pitch their tents before us as we
as every one got what he himself
wanted. But no sooner were the de. Our hourly neighbours ;".
sires of any man thwarted, than InjusTherefore, the only question comes to tice, which Consciousness had laid no be—are we to yield to them, or are we restraint upon, stretched out her hand to give them battle and resist them ? and snatched the gratification of them ; And Stoicism is of opinion that we while Justice (to employ Lord Ba. should give them battle. Her voice is con’s * metaphor) went back into the all for war; because, in yielding to wilderness, and put forth nothing but them, our consciousness, or the act the blood-red blossoms of Revenge. which constitutes our peculiar attri. Generosity and Charity, so long as bute, and brings along with it our pro- they were uncrossed and put to no per and personal existence, is obliter- real sacrifice, played their parts to ated or curtailed.
perfection ; but so soon as any unThe Epicureans sailed upon an- pleasant occasion for their exercise other tack. The Stoics sought to arose, then the selfish passions, of reproduce good, by first overthrowing which Consciousness had taken no evil ; the only method, certainly, by note, broke loose, and Charity and which such a reproduction is practi- Generosity were swept away by an cable. They sought to build the avalanche of demons. Virtues upon the suppression of the Such has invariably been the fate Vices, the only foundation which ex- of all those epicurean attempts to perience tells us is not liable to be bring forward and cultivate Good as swept away. But their opponents in a natural growth of the human heart, philosophy went more directly to instead of first of all endeavouring to work. "They aimed at the same end, realize it as the mere extirpation of the reproduction of good, without, evil; and hence we see the necessity however, adopting the same means of of adopting the latter method of prosecuring it: that is to say, without cedure. Every attempt to establish ever troubling themselves about evil or Jay hold of good by leaving evil at all. They sought to give birth to out of our account, by avoiding it, by Love without having, first, laid strong remaining unconscious of it, by not bonds upon Hatred. They strove to bringing it home to ourselves, must establish Justice on her throne, with. necessarily be a failure ; and, sooner out having, first, deposed and over- or later, a day of fearful retribution thrown Injustice. They sought to is sure to come-for the passions are call forth Charity and Generosity real madmen, and consciousness is without having, first of all, beaten their only keeper ; but man's born down the hydra-heads of Selfishness. amiabilities are but painted masks, In short, they endeavoured to bring which (if consciousness has never ocforward, in a direct manner, all the cupied its post) are liable to be torn amiable qualities (as they were sup- away from the face of his natural posed to be) of the human heart, with- corruption, in any dark hour in which out having gone through the inter- the passions may choose to break up mediate process of displacing and from the dungeons of the heart. vanquishing their opposites through The true philosopher is well aware, the act of consciousness. And the that the gates of paradise are closed consequence was just what might have against him for ever upon earth. He been expected. These amiable chil- does not, therefore, expend himself dren of nature, so long as all things in a vain endeavour to force them, or went as they wished, were angels; to cultivate into a false Eden the ficbut, in the hour of trial, they became titious flowers of his own deceitful the worst of fiends. Long as the sun heart ; but he seeks to compensate for shone, their love basked beautiful this loss, and to restore to himself in
* Lord Bacon calls revenge a species of wild justice.
some degree the perfected image of fronting and resisting the ages of iron his Creator, by sternly laying waste, and of brass. By following the footthrough consciousness, the wilderness steps of nature, he imagines that he of his own natural desires, for he well may be carried back into the paradise knows, that wherever he has extirpa- from which his forefather was cast ted a weed, there, and only there, will forth. But, alas ! it is not thus that God plant a flower, or suffer it to the happy garden is to be won; for, grow. But the epicurean, or false “ at the east of the garden of Eden philosopher, makes a direct assault hath not God placed “ cherubims, and upon the gates of paradise itself. He a flaming sword which turns every seeks to return straight into the arms way, to keep the way of the tree of of good, without fighting his way life?" and, therefore, the epicurean is through the strong and innumerable compelled, at last, to sink down, outforces of evil. He would reproduce side the trenches of paradise, into an the golden age, without directly con- inert and dreaming sensualist.
Neither overrating nor underrating him in such a position as may enable the pretensions of philosophy, let us the influences of loftier truth, and of now, as our final task, demonstrate more substantial good, to take due the entire harmony between her and the effect upon his heart. The discipline scheme of Christian revelation. Phi- of philosophy is essentially destruc. losophy has done much for man, but tive—that of Christianity is essentially she cannot do every thing for him; constructive. The latter busies her. she cannot convert a struggling act self in the positive reproduction of (consciousness in its antagonism good; but only after philosophy has, against evil); she cannot convert this to a certain extent, prepared the act into a permanent and glorified ground for her, by putting forth the substance. She can give the strife; act of consciousness, and by thus exebut she cannot give the repose. This cuting her own negative task, which Christianity alone can give. But nei. consists in the resistance of evil. ther can Christianity do every thing Christianity re-impresses us with the for man.
She, too, demands her pre- positive image of God which we had requisites ; she demands a true con- lost through the fall; but philosophy, sciousness on the part of man of the in the act of consciousness, must first, condition in which he stands. In other to a greater or a less extent, have words, she demands, on man's own commenced a defacement of the feapart, a perception of his own want or tures of the devil stamped upon our need of her divine support. This natural hearts, before we can take on, support she can give him, but she in the least degree, the impress of that cannot give him a sense of his own divine signature. need of it. This philosophy must Such, we do not fear to say, is the supply. Here, therefore, Christianity preliminary discipline of man, which accepts the assistance of philosophy; Christianity demands at the hands of true though it be, that the latter, even philosophy. But there are people in her highest and most exhaustive who imagine that the foundation-stone flight, only brings man up to the of the whole Christian scheme conpoint at which religion spreads her sists in this ; that man can, and must wings, and carries him on to a higher do, nothing for himself. Therefore, and more transcendent elevation. Her let us speak a few words in refutation apex is the basis of Christianity. The of this paralyzing doctrine. highest round in the ladder of philo- Do not the Scriptures themselves sophy is the lowest in the scale of say, “ask and it shall be given unto Christian grace. All that true philo- you." Here, then, we find asking sophy can do, or professes to do, is made the condition of our receiving : merely to pass man through the pre- and hence it is plain that we are not paratory discipline of rendering him to receive this asking ; for supposing conscious of evil, that is, of the only that we do receive it, then this can only “thing of which he can be really con be because we have complied with the scious on this earth ; and thus to place condition annexed to our receiving it; or, in other words, it can only be be- after it. To this discovery philosophy cause we have practised an anterior leads us, by teaching usto know ourselves asking in order to obtain the asking – by teaching us what we really are. which has been vouchsafed to us. And what does philosophy teach us Therefore this asking must ultimately, respecting ourselves ? Does she teach according to the very first requisitions us that we stand in an harmonious reof Christianity, fall to be considered lation towards the universe around us as our own act; and now, then, we towards the universe within us-toput the question to those who main- wards the world of our own passions and tain the doctrine just stated—must we desires-towards the strength or the not “ ask,” must not this “ asking" be weaknesses (be they which they may) our own deed—and do you call this of our own flesh and blood ? And doing nothing for ourselves ? In the does she thus show us that the life of same way does not the Gospel say, man here below is a life of blessedness “ seek and ye shall find, knock and it and repose ? No!-on the contrary, shall be opened unto you,” evidently she shows us that our very act of conholding forth seeking as the condition sciousness, on the one hand; and, on of our finding, and knocking as the the other hand, all the natural laws condition upon which “it shall be and conditions under which we are opened.” And, now, must not this born, stand in a relation of diametri“seeking” and this “knocking' be cal discord towards each other: that we done by ourselves; and if they must, are made up of passions and suscepti. what becomes of the doctrine that man bilities, every one of which is thwarted can do nothing, and must attempt to and condemned in our very conscious. do nothing, for himself?
ness of it: that “there is a law in our This doctrine that we can do no- members” (the causal law) “warring thing for ourselves is based upon an against the law in our minds” (the law evident oversight and confusion of of will, of freedom, of consciousness); thought in the minds of the espousers and that the war between these two of it. “Attempt no toil of your own," laws is one which no truce, brought say these inert disciplinarians of hu- about by human diplomacy, can ever manity, “but seek ye the kingdom of still. For though consciousness may heaven in the revealed word of God, act against evil, yet it can never change and there
shall find it with all its the mere resistance of evil into a poblessings. True ; but these teachers sitive body of good. Consciousness overlook the fact that there are two may resist wrath, but it cannot condistinct questions, and two distinct tasks vert this resistance of wrath into a involved in this precept of " seeking positive peaceful-mindedness. Conthe kingdom of heaven.” To some sciousness may resist hatred, but this people, the injunction, “seek for it act cannot transmute the resistance faithfully, and ye shall find it in the of hatred into positive and substanScriptures," may be sufficient. But tial love. Consciousness may reothers, again, (and we believe the gen- sist selfishness, but it cannot convert erality of men are in this predica- this resistance of selfishness into a dement) may require, first of all, to be cided and abiding spirit of charity. informed about a very different mat. This conversion cannot be effected ter, and may be unable to rest satisfied by consciousness or by philosophy, it until they have obtained this informa- must be effected by the intervention tion: they may demand, namely, an of a higher power-building, howanswer to a new question—but where ever, on the ground-work which conshall we find the seeking of the king- sciousness lays in its antagonism dom of heaven ? Before finding it against evil ; and this is what philoself, we must know how, and where, sophy herself teaches unto man. She and in what way, we are to find the shows him, that so long as our conseeking of it; for that is the great se- sciousness and our passions merely, cret which eludes and baffles our re- are in the field, although it is true searches.
that our regeneration must commence The only answer that can be given in their strife, yet that these elements to these querists is, you must find the meet together only in a bitter and inseeking of it in yourselves. The Bible terminable struggle, and do not emreveals to us the kingdom of heaven body of themselves any positive issues itself; but philosophy it is that leads of good. Thus is he led by the very us to the discovery of our own search strife which philosophy reveals to him, tearing his being asunder, to tween himself and his whole natural feel the necessity under which he lies man, philosophy, of course, brings of obtaining strength, support, and him to entertain the desire that this repose, from a higher source :-thus strife should be composed. But the is he led by philosophy to discover, in desire that this strife should be comthe bitter strife between consciousness posed, is itself nothing but a seeking and his passions, his own importunate of the kingdom of heaven. It is no seeking of the kingdom of heaven, as desire on man's part to give up the the only means through whose in- fight, to abandon the resistance of tervention his struggling and toil. evil, but it is a determination to carry some acts may be embodied and per- this resistance to its uttermost issues, petuated in glorious and triumphant and then, through Divine assistance, substances-his resistance of hatred to get this resistance embodied in posichanged by Divine grace into Chris- tive and enduring good. Thus phitian love and all his other resistances losophy having brought man up to of evil (mere negative qualities) trans- the points so forcibly insisted on by muted by the power of a celestial Christianity-having taught him to alchemy into positive and substantial “knock,” to “ ask,” and to " seek”virtues.
having explained the grounds of these Thus philosophy brings man up to pre-requisites (wbich Scripture postu. the points which Christianity postu- lates, but does not explain), she then lates, as the conditions on which her leaves him in the hands of that more blessings are to be bestowed. In re- effective discipline, to be carried forvealing to man the strife, which, in the ward in the career of a brighter and very act of consciousness, exists be constantly increasing perfectibility.
We will now conclude, by recapitu- looked in the study of man, while, in lating very shortly the chief points of consequence of this oversight, his our whole discussion.
freedom, will, morality-in short, all I. Our first enquiry regarded the his peculiar attributes, have invariably method to be adopted, and the proper crumbled into pieces whenever he has position to be occupied when contem- attempted to handle them scientific plating the phenomena of man, and, cally. out of that contemplation, endeavour- We trace this erroneous method, ing to construct a science of ourselves. this false position, this neglect of the The method hitherto employed in fact of consciousness, entirely to the psychological research we found to be attempts of our scientific men to estain the highest degree objectionable. blish a complete analogy between It is this: the fact, or act of conscious- psychological and physical research ; ness, was regarded as the mere me. and, to follow the error to its foun. dium through which the phenomena, tain-head, we boldly trace it up to a or “ states of mind”—the proper facts latitude of interpretation given to the of psychology, as they were thought fundamental canon of the Baconian to be—were observed. Thus con- philosophy: “ Homo, naturæ minister sciousness was the point which was et interpres, de naturæ ordine tantum looked from, and not the point which scit et potest, quantum observaverit, was looked at. The phenomena looked nec amplius scit aut potest." at were our sensations, passions, emo- As far as this great rule is held aptions, intellectual states, &c., which plicable to the study and science of miglii certainly have existed without nature, we admit it to be unexceptionconsciousness, although, indeed, they able ; but when we find it so extended could not have been known except in its application as to include man through that act. The phenomenon indiscriminately with nature, we must looked from, although tacitly recog- pause ; and although this extension of nised, was in reality passed over with its meaning should be shown to be in out observation ; and thus conscious- perfect accordance with the whole spi. ness, the great fact of humanity, torit of Bacon's writings, we must vengether with all its grounds and conse- ture, in the name of philosophy, and quences, has been altogether over- backed by a more rigorous obscrvation