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that he was. This morally brave man Human strength, then, has no posiwas always greatly agitated upon tive character of its own; it is nogoing into action, and used to say, thing but the clear consciousness of “ This little body trembles at what human weakness. Neither has human this great soul is about to perform." morality any positive character of its About this great soul we know no- own; it is nothing but the clear conthing; and, therefore, pass it over as a sciousness of human wickedness. The mere figure of speech. But the whole rudiments of morality are laid trembling of “ this little body," that before us, if we will but admit the fact is, the cowardice of the natural man, (for which we have Scripture war. or, in other words, his want of courage, rant), that all the given modifications in so far as courage is a mere affair of of humanity are dark and evil; and nerves, was a fact conspicuous to all. that consciousness (which is not a Equally conspicuous and undeniable given phenomenon but a free act) is was the antagonism put forth against itself, in every instance, an acting this nervous bodily irepidation. And against these states. Out of this what was this antagonism? What but strife morality is breathed up like a the struggle between consciousness and rainbow between the sun and storm. cowardice?-a struggle by and through Moreover, by adopting these views, which the latter was dragged into we get rid of the necessity of postulight and vanquished--and then the lating a moral sense, and of all the hero went forth into the thickest other hypothetical subsidies to which ranks of danger, strong in the con- an erroneous philosophy has recourse sciousness of his own weakness, and in explaining the phenomena of man. as if out of very spite of the natural Our limits at present prevent us coward that wished to hold him back, from illustrating this subject more and who rode shaking in his saddle as fully; but in our next Number wo he drove into the hottest of the fight. shall show how closely our views are Natural courage, depending upon tem- connected with the approved doctrine perament, will quail at times, and prove of man's natural depravity. In order faithless to its trust; the strongest to penetrate still deeper into the secrets nerves will often shake, in the hour of consciousness, we shall discuss the of danger, like an aspen in the gale; history of the Fall of Man, and shall but what conceivable terrors can daunt show what mighty and essential parts that fortitude (though merely of a ne- are respectively played by the elegative character), that indomitable dis- ments of good and evil in the realisacipline, wherewith a man, by a stern tion of human liberty; and we shall and deliberate consciousness of his conclude our whole discussion by own heart's frailty, meets, crushes, and showing how consonant our speculasubjugates, at every turn, and in its re- tions are with the great scheme of motest hold, the entire passion of fear? Christian Revelation.
IRELAND UNDER THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE-THE POPULAR PARTY, THE
ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS, AND THE QUEEN'S MINISTERS.
History affords us no example of severe in these unpopularlabours, fully rebellion conducted to a successful confident that a day will come, when issue on the principles which are now the most fastidious will acknowledge in action in Ireland. Hence, perhaps, their propriety and importance; and it is that so many of our “practical" encouraged in the mean. me by occapoliticians have been influenced to sional and most welcome assurances regard the troubles and outrages, by that they are not, even now, altogether which that country is afflicted, as local fruitless. and accidental in their origin, and, It is to one of these cheering testi. in their tendency and character,“ de monies the reader is indebted, with sultory and driftless.” Hence, too, whatever feelings he may regard it, in the prevailing indisposition to re- for the article which now solicits his ceive with favour, or even with ordi. attention. The truth is, we had not nary attention, speculations or state- designed to encumber ourselves with ments on matters connected with Irish “ Irish” in our present adventure. politics. If there were "precedents on The Canadas, we felt, would be the file,” by which the ohject of such likely to engross the whole political politics could be easily inferred, and market. Principles, we have been their issue historically prognosticated, long aware, have far less power to exevery reflecting man in the British Em- cite interest than personalities. And pire would become sensible of their pa- while Lord Brougham could, in all ramount importance ; but, seen as they probability, be seen, in the joy of are without the aid of lights derived an armed and offensive neutrality, from “ old experience,” they appear launching well. merited and most im“ formless and void," having no co- partial sarcasms alternately at the fu. herent plan or adequate purpose--the gitive governor of the Canadas, and processes of crime, by which their at the friends who sent him to do their petty and seemingly conflicting ends business, and who, to use an idiom are wrought out, not affording indica. which has more force than clegance, tions of design and government strove to do his business in return; plainer or more certain than may be and, while Lord Durham could be discerned in “ skirmishes of kites and heard, with that stridulous voice, which, crows," and repulsing curiosity by even were it musical, would be of those spectacles of violence and bar- “sweet and threatening harmony, barism and cruelty, which seem to as- rousing the ready though short-breathsign to them their most distinguishing ed vehemence of the Premier, torturcharacteristics.
ing Lord Glenelg into the moody and Of the aversion to Irish politics, thus mystic eloquence of a rare somuaminduced, we have good reason to be bulism, we felt that the common
It creates an opposition be- place, though tragic, interest of the tween the duties, for which the con- affairs of Ireland must have even less ductors of a periodical like ours have than their ordinary attraction. Асmade themselves answerable, and the cordingly, we had made up our minds projects in which they might be tempt- to let them rest for a more convenient ed to engagc, in order to the attain.
season. A communication, altogether ment of literary or commercial success, unexpected, and of the value of which or the maintenance of a laboriously earn- the reader shall be enabled to judge, ed reputation. Many a time we have has induced us to change our purpose. occupied pages with statements and Some years since, we knew, by restrictures, which, faithful and well-de- putation well-slightly by acquainance signed as they were, the subject had gentleman connected with Ireland rendered distasteful, which we know by birth and fortune, withdrawn by well might have been devoted to mat. his tastes and the habits of his life ter more generally acceptable, and from Irish party contention; but, so which some of our readers would have far as fashion can tolerate political enreceived with greater favour if we had thusiasm, an enthusiast in the sect of left them “ a blauk.” Still we per. that movement party who were then
called Liberal, but who were not then in the newspapers' reports, which he known to have exemplified the term has found to be current, and which he by liberating themselves from the ob. has forwarded to us, of ligations within which, in politics as
Attempts to murder,
242 well as in morals, honest men feel re
Acts of incendiarisin,
17 stricted. Circumstances caused us to remember the principles of this gentle- Threatening notices, arsons, cascs man, and the heat with which, not- of sacrilege, riots, brutal assaults, &c. withstanding his Sybarite refinement, &c., almost innumerable. he sometimes asserted them; and, when Attempts to murder, ascertained we were informed that he had taken
to have been successful, 102 up his residence in Ireland and ad. Attempts not known to have ccdressed himself to the duties of a casioned the death of the object, 142 landed proprietor, we felt some desire
The Irish government appears to to know whether arguments, which we had vainly addressed to him in have offered rewards in seventy-seven gayer times, would be remembered instances. when he had ampler opportunities to Murder,
44 test them. In former years our argu- Attempts to murder,
26 ments were met by the vehement con- Arson,
6 tradictions of adversaries. Now, the Sacrilege,
1 contending statements could both be tried by the standard of actual fact. these statements contain returns from
The reader is not to suppose that We recently learned the result. The which the number of offences in Irefashionable Liberal of the Clubs has land can be learned. A single county matured into the rational Liberal—a could, perhaps, present a larger and Conservative country gentleman ; and, in testimony of the approbation with than that which our correspondent has
more appalling catalogue of crime which he regards our once unaccept- furnished. He has, indeed, guarded able truths, he has forwarded to us a collection of valuable documents (per
us effectually against the idea, that wo mitting us to use them freely), through taining an enumeration of offences, by
are to look upon his notices as conwhich we have no difficulty in tracing the processes and stages by which he from Tipperary. In that one county,
accompanying them with a return was reclaimed to sane views of justice it appears, that, at the spring and the and policy, from the delusions of over liberal and too confiding youth.
summer assizes for 1838, One of these documents, that with The number of Coroner's Inquests rewhich we propose to make the reader turned, (for which the county paid), acquainted, is a comparative view of
224 the activities of that terrible personi. The number of presentments for fication which is called the Irish peo. malicious injuries to property, ple, and of the abstraction which,
also paid, before it had become “identified with the popular party," was visible, and Such a return would, of itself, teach invested with something of authority, us to infer, that the statements of our in what is styled the Irish government. correspondent, gathered from reports The selections of our correspondent of crime in every part of Ireland, conare taken from the public prints, but tain not an enumeration of capital ofthey are taken cautiously, and are fences, but a selection from them. It authenticated by convincing evidence. is a fearful thing to be thus reminded, They are also taken fairly, without that the details of 242 attempts (of partiality or exaggeration. We lay, which 102, at least, were successful) in substance, the history of a single to murder, occurring within a space of year, or rather part of a year, before less than eleven months, are to be rethe reader. It all be that of the garded as no more than specimens of year past, or of cleven months of it. the offences perpetrated in Ireland. So much may serve as a specimen. Yet so it is. Enormous as this amount Within that space of time, or, to be of crime ought to be considered, it is more exact, within ten months and perhaps not a tenth, we believe certwenty-fonr days (up to November tainly not a fifth part of the offences 24), our correspondent bas observed of which it is a selected specimen.
The principle of selection adopted and authority of this law are so nuby our correspondent, appears to us, merous, that our difficulty would be if we have rightly divined it, eminent- to select from them; and they are so ly sound and
good. It has assisted us notorious, that, were it not indispenmuch in ascertaining the acts which sable to other parts of our subject, we are held as capital offences, by what should not have thought it necessary has been termed the “ de facto govern- even to make selections. It appears ment of Ireland." The details with that every individual at all concerned which we have been favoured, are of in the enforcement of the obnoxious cases in which the cause of the mur- rights is a party in the crime, and derous assault had been discovered, or liable to the severest penalty. The was surmised. They rarely have re- tenant who enters into possession of ference to crimes of which private the farm from which a predecessor has malice or revenge was the instigating been evicted—the bailiff who has served
The murderous assaults of notice of ejectment, or who has given which our correspondent has given us the intruder possession—the agent the details were punishments, it would who has superintended the processes seem, visited by a community for a the landlord who has directed or breach of its laws. These laws are authorised them-all have rendered not plainly and authoritatively pro- themselves liable to the penalties of mulgated, but, although failing in this insurrectionary law ;-nay, the indi. important requisite, and, in conse- vidual who may be so bold as to conquence, appearing often somewhat ca- tinue a friendly intercourse with a pricious in their operation, they are, delinquent placed under ban, must be nevertheless, vigilantly administered, upon his guard—the excommunication and may be learned by all who take is strict. pains to study them, as the laws of
LANDLORDS. nature herself are studied, in their effects, in the dreadful execution of County Waterford. - Mr Keeffe their penal sentences. In this neces. of Mountain Castle, in the county of sary study, our valued correspondent Waterford, had committed a breach of is evidently a proficient. His papers the agrarian laws, and was condemned establish the truth, that the following for the offence. His age (he was as well as other seemingly innocent eighty-two years old) could not move acts, are held to be capital offences in compassion; and an attempt, which Ireland, by a body powerful enough proved abortive, was made to assasto punish for them.
sinate him. 1. Enforcement, or being instru- “ Our informant states," we give the mental in the enforcement, of rights report as extracted from the Waterford of property.
Mail, “ that, a short time since, Mr Keeffe 2. Unpopular exercise of the elec- purchased a large estate in the county, and tive franchise.
that, on the leases falling into his hands, 3. Prosecuting or giving evidence the occupying tenants would not pay more against one accused of what is termed for the land than what they had previously an insurrectionary offence.
paid, which, we have been informed, was 4. Delivering, as a juror, an ob- only 5s. per acre. Mr Keeffe, who was a noxious verdict on a capital charge. wealthy man, and of course purchased the
5. Protestantism-with or without property as any other man might, expected the aggravation of having embraced
an advanced rent. The tenants objected the heresy as a convert.
to any advance, and some were ejected. 6. Refusal to enter into certain se
On Sunday last, on Mr Keeffe's way to cret societies, or even ignorance of chapel, about five miles from Dungarvan,
as he was riding, he was accosted in the their signs and pass-words.
middle of the road by a person in a blue We shall, painful as the task must
coat, who had a blunderbuss concealed, be to writer and reader, select and
with, “ What do you mean to do with the arrange under each of these heads,
man in jail ? '-alluding to the former some details illustrative of the prin
assassin-on which Mr Keeffe attempted ciple expressed in it.
to dismount, saying, at the time, 'spare 1, ENFORCEMENT, &c., of Rights OF my life and his shall be spared.' The PROPERTY.
fellow instantly levelled his blunderbuss,
which he discharged, killing the horse, The evidences of the existence and lodging part of the contents in Mr
Keeffe's body, who, we understand, died was openly avowed, in which a noble. the same night. This occurred on the man has been murdered, main road, in the sight of several persons within the distance of one hundred and The agrarian system has been well fifty yards, and the fellow was allowed directed. Its ministers have walked to depart, without the smallest inter- warily. Their first punishments were ference to arrest him, into a neighbour- visited upon the poor and helplessing wood."
on those whom necessity forced to County Tipperary.--The follow. break their laws-on tenants who ing extracts, from a provincial paper must perish if they gave up the reand the Gazette, will tell their own sidence which the “ people" restory :
quired them to surrender and on “ The Excellent Population again.--On bailiffs, and those other humbler serSunday last, as Mr John Scully was riding vants of a landed proprietor, whose in from his place at Dualla, to attend mass only means of living were derived at the chapel, he was attacked by some from employments by which they were men in arms, with their faces blackened, sometimes transgressors against the who handed him a written document, to “agrarian” law. This was a species the contents of which they ordered him to of tactique in which the gentry could
Mr Scully courageously refused. not imitate them. They would not They then told him to dismount, and go punish tenantry, or servants, or deupon his knees, till they would shoot him; pendants who kept the secrets of the whereon he replied he would not, but conspiracy, or who contributed to the would die as he was, adding, that if they funds by which agitators were hired spared him, he would acquit himself bo and insurrection was extended. They nourably with regard to the business in used to say, “ We cannot visit, on question. They replied they would give these poor defenceless creatures, penal him a trial, and departed. Mr Scully is a Roman Catholic, and one of the ma
consequences of misdeeds to which gistrates recently appointed by Lord Mule they are comqelled." The cruelty of grave, notwithstanding which, he was thus
the insurgents was, for its purpose, treated by the noble pisantry.”
wiser. It gradually weakened the de
pendence of the poor upon the rich(From the Dublin Gazeite.)
loosened the attachment which should “ Dublin Castle, June 19, 1838.--Jolin subsist between them-sowed the sceds Scully, Esq., of Dualla, in the county of of mutual distrust-embarrassed the Tipperary, was stopped within a mile and operations of law -- and, in time, a half of Cashel, at eleven o'clock A.M.,
brought the whole rural population on the 17th instant, by two men, having under the authority of the system to their faces partly blackened, and one of which it ministered. them armed with a pistol, which he placed to Mr Scully's breast, and threatened him increased, its victims were selected
As the power of the confederacy if he would turn a Widow Cody from her land.- One hundred pounds."
from higher stations. Within the last
year the number of gentlemen who Queen's County." — It is enough to have been murdered, or assaulted, or pame the late lamented Earl of Nor- threatened, is so considerable, as to bury, a nobleman and a landlord indicate a very alarming degree of whose high and benevolent qualities confidence in the directors of the moveeven bigotry and political opposition ment. The Dublin Evening Mail confess. Generosity and forbearance, gives publicity to a report that Lord and the great benefits flowing from Carew, a well-known Liberal, received the residence of a wealthy and munifi- threatening notices, in consequence of cent proprietor, could not avail to which he left the country. The Goprotect him. Within his own de- vernment offered a reward for the mesne, in open day, the generous and writer of a threatening notice, or, as unsuspecting nobleman was assassina- the document might be interpreted, a ted. This, we believe, is the first in- friendly warning to Lord Bloomfield. stance, since the butchery of Lord Other noblemen and gentlemen have Kilwarden in 1803, when rebellion been similarly admonished; and, as a
In this one instance we depart from the lists furnished by our correspondent. In all others we limit ourselves within the events of last year.