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they existed at a particular instant, so that the lights and shades, upon every individual part of the statue, will be correctly related to each other. But valuable as these drawings are, compared with those executed by the pencil, their value becomes tenfold greater when they are taken with the binocular camera, and with small lenses, as already described. When combined in the stereoscope, he may reproduce the statue in relief, in all its aspects, and of different sizes, and derive from its study the same advantages which the statue itself would have furnished. In one respect the creations of the stereoscope surpass the original. While the artist is surveying and drawing instruction from the marble prototype, its lights and shadows, and consequently the delicate forms, convex and concave, by which they are produced, are constantly changing, whereas, in the stereoscopic statue, everything is fixed and invariable. In taking busts and statues from the living subject, the sculptor will derive great advantage from the stereoscope. Double pictures of the whole, or of any portion of the subject, may be taken and raised into relief, and from such binocular pictures, executed on one side of the globe, an artist, on the other side, may complete an admirable statue. The dying and the dead may thus be modelled without the rude contact of a mask, and those noble forms perpetuated which affection or gratitude has endeared.

We must warn the sculptor, however, against the employment of binocular pictures taken with large lenses. Not only will the individual picture be deformed, but a double

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1 A French sculptor has actually modelled a statue from the stereoscopic relief of binocular pictures.

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deformity will be induced by their union ; and whether he copies from a statue or from a living figure, his work must be defective, even to an ordinary eye.

In architecture, and all those arts in which ornamental forms are given to solid materials, the binocular camera and the stereoscope will be found indispensable. The carvings of ancient, or mediæval, or modern art may be copied and reproduced in relief, whatever be the material from which they have been cut. The rich forms of Gothic architecture, and the more classical productions of Greek and Roman genius, will swell the artist's portfolio, and possess all the value of casts. With the aid of the Kaleidoscope the modern artist may surpass all his predeces

He may create an infinite variety of those forms of symmetry which enter so largely into the decorative arts ; and if the individual forms, which constitute the symmetrical picture, are themselves solid, the binocular-kaleidoscopic pictures, taken photographically, will be raised into the original relief of their component parts, or they may be represented directly to the eye in relief, by semi-lenses placed at the ocular extremities of the reflecting plates.1 If the symmetrical forms are taken from lines in the same plane, no relief will be obtained from the kaleidoscopic pictures.

But it is not merely to the decorative parts of architecture that the stereoscope is applicable. The noblest edifices, whether of a civil, a religious, or a military character, which he could otherwise study only as a traveller, and represent in hurried and imperfect sketches, will, when taken binocularly, stand before him in their full relief and gran

1 See my Treatise on the Kaleidoscope, second edition, just published.

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deur, reflecting to his eye the very lights and shadows which at a given hour the sun cast upon their walls.

In the erection of public buildings, hourly or daily photographs have been taken of them, to shew to the absent superintendent the progress of his work ; but these pictures will be still more expressive if binocular ones are combined in the stereoscope.

To the engineer and the mechanist, and the makers of instruments of all kinds, the stereoscope will be of inestimable value. The difficulty of representing machinery is so great that it is not easy to understand its construction or its mode of operation from plans and perspective views of it. The union of one or two binocular pictures of it, when thrown into relief, will, in many cases, remove the difficulty both of drawing and understanding it. Photographs of machinery, however, consisting of a number of minute parts at different distances from the eye, have, when taken by large lenses, all the defects which we explained in reference to trees and their branches and leaves. Supports and axles will be transparent, and the teeth of the wheels, and the small and distant parts of the mechanism, will be seen through all the nearer parts whose width is less than the diameter of the lens.

In taking a binocular picture of a machine or instrument consisting of various parts, that minute accuracy which is necessary to give the true form and expression of the human face is not required ; but if it should happen that, in a correct binocular view of the object, parts are concealed which it would be useful to see, we must discover the binocular angle which will shew these parts in the two pictures, or, generally speaking, which will give the best view of the mechanism, and then adjust the lenses of the camera to give the desired representations of it. These observations will be found useful in obtaining stereoscopic views of the structures in carpentry and shipbuilding

CHAPTER XII.

APPLICATION OF THE STEREOSCOPE TO NATURAL

HISTORY

In treating of those objects of natural history which enter into the composition of landscape scenery, such as trees, plants, and rocks, we have pointed out the method of having them accurately drawn for the stereoscope ; but it is to the importance of stereoscopic photography in natural history as a science that we propose to devote the present Chapter.

When we reflect upon the vast number of species which have been described by zoologists, the noble forms of animated nature, whether wild or domesticated, and the valuable services which many of them perform as the slaves of man, we can hardly attach too much importance to the advantage of having them accurately delineated and raised into stereoscopic relief. The animal painters of the present day,—the Landseers, the Cowpers, and the Ansdells, have brought this branch of their art to a high degree of perfection, but the subjects of their pencil have been principally dogs, horses, deer, and cattle, and a few other animals, with which they are well acquainted, and specimens of which were within their reach.

To give

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