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a hemisphere 2 inches in diameter with the most perfect relief.1 If we adopt this principle, and call в the breadth of the statue of which we require dissimilar pictures, we must B make n = and n × 2 = B, that is, the distance of the 21 semi-lenses in the binocular camera, or of the lenses in two cameras, must be made equal to the breadth of the statue.

In concluding this chapter, it may be proper to remark, that unless we require an increased relief for some special purpose, landscapes and buildings should be taken with the normal binocular camera, that is, with its lenses 2 inches distant. Scenery of every kind, whether of the picturesque, or of the sublime, cannot be made more beautiful or grand than it is when seen by the traveller himself. To add an artificial relief is but a trick which may startle the vulgar, but cannot gratify the lover of what is true in nature and in art.

The Single Lens Binocular Camera.

As every photographer possesses a camera with a lens between 2 and 3 inches in diameter, it may be useful to him to know how he may convert it into a binocular instrument.

In a cover for the lens take two points equidistant from each other, and make two apertures, c, d, Fig. 43, ths of an inch in diameter, or of any larger size that may be thought proper, though is the proper size. Place the cover on the end of the tube, and bring the line joining the apertures into a horizontal position. Closing one aperture, take the picture of the sitter, or of the statue, through the

1 It is only in a horizontal direction that we can see 180° of the hemisphere. We would require a circle of eyes 24 inches distant to see a complete hemisphere.

other, and when the picture is shifted aside by the usual contrivances for this purpose, take the picture through the other aperture. These will be good binocular portraits, fitted for any stereoscope, but particularly for the Achromatic Reading Glass Stereoscope. If greater relief is wanted, it may be obtained in larger lenses by placing the two apertures at the greatest distance which the diameter of the lens will permit.

The Binocular Camera made the Stereoscope.

If the lenses of the binocular camera, when they are whole lenses, be made to separate a little, so that the distance between the centres of their inner halves may be equal to 2 inches, they become a lenticular stereoscope, in which we may view the pictures which they themselves create. The binocular pictures are placed in the camera in the very place where their negatives were formed, and the observer, looking through the halves of his camera lenses, will see the pictures united and in relief. If the binocular camera is made of semi-lenses, we have only to place them with their thin edges facing each other to obtain the same result. It will appear, from the discussions in the following chapter, that such a stereoscope, independently of its being achromatic, if the camera is achromatic, will be the most perfect of stereoscopic instruments.

The preceding methods are equally applicable to landscapes, machines, and instruments, and to solid constructions of every kind, whether they be the production of nature or of art.1

1 See Chapters X. and XI.



HAVING described the various forms of the stereoscope, and the method of taking the binocular portraits and pictures to which it is to be applied, we have now to consider the relation that ought to exist between the instrument and the pictures,-a subject which has not been noticed by preceding writers.

If we unite two dissimilar pictures by the simple convergency of the optical axes, we shall observe a certain degree of relief, at a certain distance of the eyes from the pictures. If we diminish the distance, the relief diminishes, and if we increase it, it increases. In like manner, if we view the dissimilar pictures in the lenticular stereoscope, they have a certain degree of relief; but if we use lenses of

bring the eyes nearer

a higher magnifying power, so as to the pictures, the relief will diminish, and if we use lenses of a less magnifying power, the relief will increase. By bringing the eyes nearer the pictures, which we do by magnifying them as well as by approaching them, we increase the distance between similar points of the two pictures, and therefore the distance of these points, when united, from

any plane in the picture, that is, its relief will be diminished. For the same reason, the diminution of the distance between similar points by the removal of the eyes from the picture, will produce an increase of relief. This will be readily understood if we suppose the eyes R, L, in Fig. 24, to be brought nearer the plane MN, to R' L', the points 1, 1 and 2, 2 will be united at points nearer MN than when the eyes were at R, L, and consequently their relief diminished.

Now we have seen, that in taking portraits, as explained in Fig. 45, we view the two pictures, ab, a'b', with the eyes at E and E', exactly, and with the same relief in the air, as when we saw the original A B, from L, L', and therefore Ec is the distance at which the dissimilar pictures should be viewed in the stereoscope, in order that we may see the different parts of the solid figure under their proper relief. But the distance Ec Lc is the conjugate focal length of the lens L, if one lens is used, or the conjugate equivalent focal length, if two achromatic lenses are used; and consequently every picture taken for the stereoscope should be taken by a camera, the conjugate focal length of whose lens corresponding to the distance of the sitter, is equal to five inches, when it is to be used in the common stereoscope, which has generally that depth.


Between the pictures and the purely optical part of the stereoscope, there are other relations of very considerable importance. The exclusion of all external objects or sources of light, excepting that which illuminates the pictures, is a point of essential importance, though its advantages have never been appreciated. The spectacle stereoscope held in the hand, the reflecting stereoscope, and the open lenticular

The bin

stereoscope, are all, in this respect, defective. ocular pictures must be placed in a dark box, in order to produce their full effect; and it would be a great improvement on the lenticular stereoscope, if, on the left and right side of each eye-tube, a piece of brass were to be placed, so as to prevent any light from entering the left angle of the left eye, and the right angle of the right eye. The eyes, thus protected from the action of all external light, and seeing nothing but the picture, will see it with a distinctness and brilliancy which could not otherwise be obtained.

The proper illumination of the picture, when seen by reflected light, is also a point of essential importance. method universally adopted in the lenticular stereoscope is not good, and is not the one which I found to be the best, and which I employed in the first-constructed instruments. The light which falls upon the picture is prevented from reaching the observer only by its being incident at an angle greater or less than the angle of reflexion which would carry it to his eyes. A portion of the scattered light, however, does reach the eye, and in Daguerreotypes especially, when any part of the surface is injured, the injury, or any other imperfection in the plate, is more distinctly seen. The illumination should be lateral, either by a different form of window in the front, or by openings on the two sides, or by both these methods.

When the lenticular stereoscope is thus fitted up, and the pictures in this manner illuminated, the difference of effect is equally great as it is between a picture as commonly

1 When any external light falls upon the eye, its picture is reflected back from the metallic surface of the Daguerreotype, and a negative picture of the part of the Daguerreotype opposite each eye is mixed with the positive picture of the same part.


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