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best of causes, have an advocate on earth. But in some respects Wiclif claims precedence of Luther. We must ever bear in mind that he was two hundred years before him, and that he lived in a darker night of ignorance, and when the papal power was in its fullest strength. Wiclif, too, stood comparatively alone; for though countenanced by the mother of the king, and by the powerful Duke of Lancaster, yet he met with no support that deserved to be compared with that retinue of powerful patronage which gave eflect to the exer. lions of Luther. “ Allowing, however," (says Professor Le Bas,) if we must, to Luther, the highest niche in this sacred department of the Temple of Renown, I know not who can be chosen to fill the next, if it shall be denied to Wiclif.'1

Wiclif died December 30, 1384, of a stroke of the palsy, continuing to the very end of life to labor with increasing zeal in that holy cause to which he had devoted himself in his earlier years. His inveterate enemies, the papal clergy, betrayed an indecent joy at his death, and the Council of Constance, 2 thirty years after, decreed that his remains should be disinterred and scattered. The order was obeyed, and what were supposed to be the ashes of Wiclii were cast into an adjoining brook, one of the branches of the Avon. “ And thus,” says old Fuller, the historian, “ this brook did convey his ashes into Avon; Avon into Severn; Severn into the narrow sea; and this into the wide

And so the ashes of Wiclif are the emblem of his doctrine, which is now dispersed all the world over."3

The character of Wiclif was marked by piety, benevolence, and ardent zeal, to which was added great severity, and even austerity of manners, such as befitted the first great champion of religious liberty. In the extent and variety of his knowledge he surpassed all the learned men of his age; and the number of his writings still extant, though very many were burnt both before and after his death by order of the Pope, is truly astonishing. Most of these now exist in manuscript, in the public libraries in England and Ireland, and some in the Imperial Library at Vienna. His great work was the translation of the Scriptures, and to him belongs the high honor of having


1 "In all stages of society, those unquestionably deserve the highest praise, who outstep the rest of their contemporaries; who rise up in solitary majesty amidst a host of prejudices and errors, combating intrepially on one side, though assailed and weakened on another. The merit-consists in setting the example; in exhibiting a pattern after which others may work. It is easy to follow where there is one to lead; but to be the first to strike out into a new and untried way, in whatever state of society it may be found, marks a genlus above the common order. Such men are entitled to everlasting gratitude." Read-Burneli's English Prose Writers.

? A town in Switzerland on the west of the lake of the same name. This papal Council, which met
iu 1414, condemned John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who were both burnt at the stake.
8 Wordsworth has thus beautifully expressed this thought :-

Wiclir is disinhumed;
Yen-his dry bones to ashes are consumed,
And flung into the brook that travels near:
Forthwith, that ancient voice which streams can hear,
Thus speaks-(that voice which walks upon the wind,
Though seldom heard by busy human kind:)
"As thou these ashex, little brook, wilt bear
Into the Avon-Avon to the tide
or Severn-Severn to the narrow seas--
Into main ocean they-this deed accurst,
An emblem yielis to friends and enemies,
How the bold teacher's doctrine, sinctified
By trutli, shall spread througliout the world dispersed."

given to the English nation the first translation of the entire Scriptures in their mother tongue, which he made, however, not from the original languages, but from the Latin Vulgate. The following are his reasons for this great under. taking:

WICLIF'S APOLOGY. Oh Lord God! sithin” at the beginning of faith, so many men translated into Latin, and to great profit of Latin men; let one simple creature of God translate into English, for profit of Englishmen. For, if worldly clerks look well their chronicles and books, they shoulden find, that Bede translated the Bible, and expounded much in Saxon, that was English, eithers common language of this land, in his time. And not only Bede, but king Alfred, that founded Oxenford, translated in his last days, the beginning of the Psalter into Saxon, and would more, if he had lived longer. Also Frenchmen, Bemers, and Britons han the Bible and other books of devotion and exposition translated into their mother language. Why shoulden not Englishmen have the same in their mother language? I cannot wit. No, but for falseness and negligence of clerks, either for our people is not worthy to have so great grace and gift of God, in pain of their old sins.


Christian men and women, old and young, shoulden study fast in the New Testament, and that no simple man of wit should be aferde unmeasurably to study in the text of holy writ; that pride and covetisse of clerks,7 is cause of their blindness and heresy, and priveth them fro very understanding of holy writ. That the New Testament is of full autority, and open to understanding of simple men, as to the points that ben most needful to salvation ; that the text of holy writ ben word of everlasting life, and that he that keepeth meekness and charity, hath the true understanding and perfection of all holy writ; that it seemeth open heresy to say that the Gospel with his truth and freedom sufficeth not to

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1 For this noble labor, which he completed in 1380, he received abuse without measure from the
priests. The following is but a mild specimen of papal rage. It is from one Henry Knyghton, a
contemporary priest. "This master John Wiclir trauslated out of Latin into English, the Gospel
which Christ had intrusted with the clergy and doctors of the church, that they might minister it to
the hity and weaker sort, according to the exigency of times and their several occasions. So that
by this means the Gospel is made vulgar, and laid more open to the latty, and even to women who
conld rend, than it used to be to the most learned of the clergy, and those of the best understanding,
And so the Gospel jewel, or evangelical pearl, is thrown about and trodden under foot of swine.
- Even in the third year of Henry V., (1413,) it was enacted by a Parliament held in Leicester, " that
na bosouver they were that should read the Scriptures in their mother tongue," (which was then
called Wicüs's learning,) "they should forfeit land, cattle, body, life, and goods, from their betrs for-
ever, and be condemned for heretics to God, enemies to the crown, and most arrant traitors to the

% Since.

3 Or.

4 Bohemians.

5 Have.

6 Know, or tell.

7 Scholars.

8 Or because

salvation of Christian men, without keeping of ceremonies and statutes of sinful men and uncunning, that ben made in the time of Satanas and of Anti-Christ ; that men ought to desire only the truth and freedom of the holy Gospel, and to accept man's law and ordinances only in as much as they ben grounded in holy scripture, either good reason and common profit of Christian people. That if any man in earth either angel of heaven teacheth us the contrary of holy writ, or any thing against reason and charity, we should flee from him in that, as fro the foul fiend of hell, and hold us stedfastly to life and death, to the truth and freedom of the holy Gospel of Jesus Christ; and take us meekly men's sayings and laws, only in as much as they accorden with holy writ and good consciences; no further, for life, neither for death.

And so (says Wiclif) they would condemn the Holy Ghost, that gave it in tongues to the apostles of Christ, as it is written, to speak the word of God in all languages that were ordained of God under heaven, as it is written.

MATTHEW, CHAP. v. And Jhesus seynge the peple, went up into an hil; and whanne he was sett, his disciplis camen to him. And he openyde his mouthe, and taughte hem ; and seide, Blessid be pore men in spirit; for the kyngdom of hevenes is herun. Blessid ben mylde men: for thei schulenweelde the erthe. Blessid ben thei that mournen ; for thei schal be coumfortid. Blessid be thei that hungren and thirsten rightwisnesse :8 for thei schal be fulfilled. Blessed ben merciful men: for thei schul gete mercy, Blessed ben thei that ben of clene herte: for thei schulen se God. Blessid ben pesible men: for thei schulen be clepid goddis children. Blessid ben thei that suffren persecucioun for rightwisnesse: for the kyngdom of hevenes is hern. Ye schul be blessid whanne inen schul curse you, and schul pursue you: and schul seye al yvel agens you liynge for me. Joie ye and be ye glade: for your meede is plenteous in hevenes : for so the han pursued also prophetis that weren bifore you. Ye ben salt of the erthe, that if the salt vanishe awey wherynne schal it be salted ? to nothing it is worth over, no but it be cast out, and be defoulid of men. Ye ben light of the world, a citee set on an hill may not be hid. Ne men leendith not a lanterne and puttith it undir a bushel : but on a candilstik that it give light to alle that ben in the hous. So, schyne your light bifore men, that thei see youre gode workis, and glorifie your fadir that is in hevenes. Nyle ghe deme that



1 The original spelling is preserved in this extract from Wiclil's Bible as a curiosity, & Theirs.

3 Rightfulnesse, in many manuscripts.

I cam to undo the Lawe or the prophetis, I cam not to undo the lawe but to fulfille. Forsothe I sey to you till hevene and erthe passe, oon lettre, or con title, schal not passe fro the Lawe til alle thingis be don. Therefore he that brekith oon of these leeste maundementis, and techith thus men, schal be clepid the Leest in the rewme of hevenes: but he that doth, and techith, schal be clepid greet in the kyngdom of hevenes.

JOHN BARBOUR. 1326—1396. Anong the very earliest of the poets of Scotland was John Barbour, Archdeacon of Aberdeen. But very little is known of his personal history. The only work of consequence which he has left, is entitled « Bruce.” It is a metrical history of Robert the First (1306—1329)—of his exertions and achievements for the recovery of the independence of Scotland, including the principal transactions of his reign. Barbour, therefore, is to be considered in the double character of historian and poet. As he flourished in the age im. mediately following that of his hero, he enjoyed the advantage of hearing, trom eye-witnesses themselves, narratives of the war for liberty. As a history, his work is good authority. He himself boasts of its “soothfastness;" and the lofty sentiinents and vivid descriptions with which it abounds, prove the author to have been fitted by feeling and principle, as well as by situation, for the task which he undertook.

As many of the words in Barbour are now obsolete, we will give but one quotation from his heroic poem. After the painful description of the slavery to which Scotland was reduced by Edward I., he breaks out in the following noble Apostrophe to Freedom. It is in a style of poetical feeling uncommon not only in that but many subsequent ages, and has been quoted with high praise by the most distinguished Scottish historians and critics.

«A! fredome is a nobill thing!
Fredome mayse man to haitf liking!
Fredome all solace to man gisfis :
He levys at ese that frely levys!
A noble hart may haiff nane ese,
Na ellys nocht that may him plese,
Gyff fredome failythe: for fre liking
Is yearnyt our all othir thing.
Na he, that ay hase levyt fre,
May nocht knaw weill the propyrte,
The angyr, na the wretchyt dome,
That is cowplyt to foule thyrldome.
Bot gyff he had assayit it,
Then all perquer he suld it wyt;
And suld think fredome mar to pryse

Than all the gold in warld that is.' 1 The following paraphrase of the above lines is taken from Chambers's Biographical Dictionare

of Eminent Scotsmen :

Ah! freedom is a noble thing,
And can to life a relish bring i


That renowned Poet
Dan Chaucer, Well of English undefyled,
On Famc's eternall beadroll worthie to be fyled.

That noble Chaucer, in those former times,
Who first enriched our English with his rhymes,
And was the first of ours that ever broke
Into the Muse's treasures, and first spoke
In mighty numbers; delving in the mine
or perfect knowledge.


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We now come to one of the brightest names in English literature-to him who has been distinctively known as « The Father of English poetry" — Geoffrey Chaucer. Warton, with great beauty and justice, has compared the appearance of Chaucer in our language to “ a premature day in an English spring, after which the gloom of winter returns, and the buds and blossoms which have been called forth by a transient sunshine, are nipped by frosts and scattered by storms."

Chaucer was born probably about the year 1328, though all attempts to fix the precise year have utterly failed. His parentage is unknown, nor is there any certainty where he was educated. His great genius early attracted the notice of the reigning sovereign, Edward III., and he soon became the most popular personage in the brilliant court of that monarch. It was in this circle of royalty that he became attached to a lady whom he afterwards married, Philippa Pyknard. She was maid of honor to the queen Philippa, and a younger sister of the wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. By this connection, therefore, Chaucer acquired the powerful support of the Lancastrian family, and during his life his fortune fluctuated with theirs. To his courtly accomplishments he added much by foreign travel, having been commissioned by the king in 1372 to attend to some important matters of state at Genoa. While in Italy he became acquainted with Petrarch,' and probably with Boccacio, whose works enriched his mind with fresh stores of learning

Freedom all solace to man gives;
He lives at ease that frecly lives.
A noble heart may have no case,
Nor aught beside that may it please,
If freedom ful-for 'lis the choice,
More than the chosen, man enjoys.
Ah, he that ne'er yet lived in thrall,
Knows not the weary pains which gall
The limbs, the soul, of him who plains
In slavery's foul and festering chains.
If these he knew, I ween right soon
He would seek back the precious boon
or freedom, which he then would prize

More than all wealth beneath the skies.
1 The three distinguished scholars of Italy of the fourteenth century were, DANTE, (1265-1321,)
the father of modern Italian poetry; PETRARCH, (1304—1374,) the reviver of ancient learning, and
the first founder and collector of any considerable library of ancient literature: and Boccacio, (1313
- 1375,) the father of modern Italian prose.

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