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not only upon the grounds of its utility, but upon that of its amusing tendency also, and as procuring a solid object of employment during their hours of absence or temporary "relaxation from business, which, to their future sorrow and regret, are too often spent in idleness and ruinous dissipation, 'especially in the metropolis.

I think, therefore, a greater service cannot be done to learning, youth, and the public in general, than by urging arguments which may induce the young to a closer, a more general and vigorous pursuit of the study of it than has hitherto been practised; and, by demonstrating that the DIATHEMATICS, of all the branches of human knowledge, with a view to the improvement of the mind, for their subserviency to other arts, and their utility to the public, deserve most to be encouraged.

Probably a treatise of this nature may not be considered as of much importance in the eyes of those, who, while they are ignorant of the mathematics, think themselves masters of all valuable learning; but the progress the study of this science is beginning to make, even in private academies, sufficiently warrants me in not hesi. tating to promulgate, more extensively and forcibly, a useful truth, and to recommend the consideration of it to every youth who has time and inclination to profit by the knowledge of it, and the adoption of the study it recommends. Q 3


made the chief instrument of promoting your own pleasure.

You ought to avoid every thing, ingenuous youth! that has the appearance of selfishness, or betrays a 'sordid griping turn; and carefully cherish those early habits of goodness and feeling for the wants and miseries of your fellowcreatures, which, as it is the most beneficial, social quality, that you can possess, so it is the most important lesson you have to learn at the outset, of life.,

Love for your COUNTRY is another valuable principle which you ought also equally to cherish, with the last mentioned, and particularly at this most critical and arduous period, when it is in danger;' threatened from without, and its peace and stability attempting to be undermined at home. . .

Man may be considered in three great points of view, viz. first, as a rational being; second, as a child of the Supreme parent, a creature of the Author and Governor of the Universe, who

sees and knows all his actions, and to whom · he is accountable for them; and, third, as a social

being. In which last view of the matter, nothing seems to me more to deserve your care and pains than to possess yourself strongly with a sense of the connexion you have with the PUBLIC, and the meanness of all selfish and narrow views. In this third character you sus

tain an important duty, and the part you have to act deserves an especial regard.

Now, the most essential ingredient in this, is, public spirit, and love of one's country; and the most opposite principle to the public character, with which Nature hath in yested us, is, that little, wretched, meán disposition, we , call selfishness. This is a quality which, above all things, debases human nature, as man is a social creature; and is accompanied with the most pernicious effects, with regard to the community of which he is a member. .

Therefore, were a sense of the connexion they have with the public, and their obligations to promote its interests, strongly imprinted upon the minds of youth, it would lead them, in the future busy scenes of public life, to act in a more wide and exalted sphere. For that purpose, they should call to mind the examples of great and good inen, who have been lovers of their country, its warm defenders and supporters, and who have deserved well of their fellowcountrymen and posterity. They should recall the memory of an Alfred, a Henry V., an Elizabeth, a Hampden, a Sydney, a Drake, a Newton, . : Wolfe, a Chatham, a Howard (the visitor of

prisons); and place in their view the recent actions of a St. Vincent, a Cornwallis, a Nelson, an Abercrombie ; and a Wilberforce, the friend of humanity!

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Were this more practised, we should see young men keep the good of their country more steadily in view, and never dare to prostitute or even postpone it to self-interest, upon any occasion whatever; nay, they could not do it without a secret check from within, nor without the sharp stings of remorse for acting against the plain relations and honourable engagements of social life. Here it may be said that, by making youth good men, they will of course become good patriots. It is true, in some respect, that just private affection is the foundation of that which is public; but there are many sensible of the private relations of life who have little sense of what they owe to the public; and it is painful to perceive, that, in the education of youth, more attention is not paid to this kind of instruction.

The dulce est pro patria pati et mori” [it is sweet to suffer, and even die, for one's country] ought to be early and firmly engraved on the

tionate, and ingenuous hearts of youth.

It is not so easy for us moderns to take in our connexion with the public, because it is a larger whole; and the generality do not so much feel their influence in the state as the ancients did, whose forms of government were more popular, or confined to a particular city or province, where all could discern their immediate interest in public concerns, and the greatest part had some


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share in the management; yet there are still among us, several public, images to suggest ideas of a PuBLIC, and, consequently, to excite public. affections : qur public buildings, courts, halls, gardens, parliament houses, councils, fleets, armies, and the like symbols, which direct our view to a common good, in which all share in some degree.

Accụstom yourself, therefore, ingenuous youth! to attend frequently to these, and observe their reference to a public weal; that such ideas may grow familiar to your mind; that every thing you see and are coversant with may strike you , with your relation to the public, and put you in mind of the duties you owe to your country. . Whatever science, art, or profession, you apply to, you should consider the connexion it has with public utility, that your studies and daily occupation may run in a public channel, and that your private interest may appear not only connected with that of the public, but likewise subordinate to it. :

Above all, accustom yourself to be strictly obedient to the laws, and submissive to the rulers of your country, legitimately and constitutionally called to act under them, or put them in execution. . .

You ought to be convinced, and to feel, that your happiness is of a wider extent than mere persona pleasures or gains ; that you must be more or less happy or miserable as others are so; that your


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