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Londesborough's, Lord, garden at
Loranthus europeus at Glasnevin, 118
Luggage defined, 110
JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURE AND COTTAGE GARDENER.
Parraquets, egg-eating. 92; manage-
catarrhed, 132; disordered,
Portsmouth Poultry Show, 178; Orni-
Paul's, Mr. W., Roses, 341
Pots, soil shrinking, 288
MALAYS, 151, 172; AT BRISTOL SHOW,
Maldon Poultry Show. 496
Palings, varnishing, 248
ST. HELENA SEEDLINGS, 399
Sea-kale, blanching, 188; decayed, 63;
PACKING PLANTS FOR EXPORT, 491
Paint, white, 866
Paisley Ornithological Society's Show, Plums, falling, 441; pruning, 40; scale
Todea superba culture, 460
Trenched ground not fertile, 169
Tropaeolum, tubers shootless, 230;
Tropical vegetation, 38
Tumours, in fowls, 175; on hens, 286
Turfing in winter, 126
Turkeys, cocks, 403; feeding young,
ULVERSTON CANARY SHOW, 181 Utricularia montana culture, 388 Uvaria Kirkii, 7
VALVES, THROTTLE, 211
Veitch Memorial, 223; prizes, 26), 8 8;
Verbenas, for beds, 288; culture, 222
493; in pots, 268, in house, 843;
WAGES, EFFECT OF INCREASED, 415
Walls, for fruit trees, 327; painting to
Walsall Poultry Show, $63
Waterers' Rhododendrons, 378
Weeds, destroying, 327
Week, work for, 14 38, 60, 82, 103, 124, 147, 167, 187, 208, 228, 246, 267, 286, 305, 326, 342, 359, 378, 897, 417, 438, 458. 474, 491, 516; doings of last, 15, 32, 61, 82, 104, 125, 147, 168, 188, 208, 228, 246, 267, 287. 807, 342, 360, 379, 898, 418, 439, 459, 475, 492, 517
Wells, decorating, 457
Wheat, Mummy, 344; poisoned, 38)
White flowers, 446
Wildfowl, pinioning, 131
Hyacinth support Level, spirit
95 507 100 37
314 Mitchell, Mr. 314
Malines, M. de Cannart d'Hamale's grande
serre, lake, and Magnolia
8 Oak, the Panshanger....
260, 261 292 368 868
New South Wales Horticultural Society's Exhibition..
318 519 77
874 454 890
802 412 145
January 2, 1873. ]
JANUARY 2-8, 1873.
Josiah Wedgwood died, 1795.
2 SUNDAY AFTER CHRISTMAS.
PRINCE ALBERT VICTOR BORN, 1864.
From observations taken near London during forty-three years, the average day temperature of the week is 41.7; and its night temperature 29.0°. The greatest heat was 57', on the 3rd, 1860; and the lowest cold 11° below zero on the 4th, 1867. The greatest fall of rain was 0.86 inch.
botany. They toiled cheerily, and in this was their
THE OLD YEAR TO THE NEW YEAR.
Y brother, although thou wilt live a few hours less than were allotted to me, thou wilt have learned long before thy last day arrives lessons similar to those I have learned. Thy first day's existence will have taught that proverbs wise in the olden time are infallible no longer. It was said at that time, "A soft Yule makes a green churchyard," yet my Yule was soft, and deaths thou wilt find unusually few; moreover, methinks thou wilt bear witness that that other old saw, "Under water, famine; under snow, bread," is not a verity. Yet privations will happen in thy days, and thou wilt find that Death's scythe, like that of the gardener, will not spare the flowers that are mingled with the grass. Mown down were many flowers in my days, but thou wilt bear witness, as I do, that other flowers clustered round the bereaved spots, and that here, as in all other "The great point to be impressed on our young friends is events of thy days, there is beneficent compensation. Thou wilt have multitudes of complaints from masters just this-that, thanks to day schools for the young, and night against their servitors, and from servitors against their schools and classes for the youth of both sexes, the time is masters, but thou wilt bear record that a gentle word fast coming when such instruction and far greater knowledge and a lapse of a few of thy days were like a soft bandage will cease to be a distinction. Many who pride themselves on on a fresh wound. In my days were grievous complaints such distinction now, and act as if they thought that a little that there were no fruits in the land, and hard thoughts in the head would make amends for a good deal of slackness were towards the gardeners; but in thy days it will be in the hands, will find that they must alter very much if they scholar,' ,' will soon cease to be urged by first-class labourers, appreciated that they cannot rule the seasons, though mean to retain their position. The saddening plea, I am no who, as a consequence of the want of the rudiments of educathey may shelter from them, and thou mayst be remembered as "the year of more glass." In days long gone tion, felt themselves compelled to vegetate as it were in their a gardener was known to be capable of hieroglyphic book-native village, when otherwise they might have lived in comkeeping only-he made an O for a cheese, and put a dot in the centre for a grindstone. Those were the days when pruning was done only during the moon's decrease, and sowing at her full; but thou wilt see, as I have seen, the creations of gardeners literary and scienced, titled and among England's magnates-men who know the reason why of every operation-men who, like one in my days, would not have a weed pulled up without a Such men have raised England's gardening to the superlative; and it was no exaggeration when the man of many travels observed, "England has naturally the greenest grass, but her exotic fruits and flowers are more delicious than in their native homes." Thou wilt observe that the best bookmen are the best toolmen, for books are evening companions that preserve men from Teach the that most enervating of habits-drinking. young of your days to be guarded in acquiring habits, for truly has a wise man written, "Principles are but another name for habits. Principles are words, but the habits are the things themselves, benefactors or tyrants according Among those habits, then, as they are good or evil." encourage that of reading, but let the choice of books be like that of associates-let the choice be confined to the best. Labour and study are not only compatible, but mutually assistant. Robert Dick toiled as a baker, yet his herbarium was a model; Linnæus laboured at the lapstone, yet he rendered himself the regenerator of
fort in other places in their own land, and enjoyed much greater remuneration still for their labour in other lands. Hundreds of gardeners have told what a drawback it was, in the case of many good painstaking labourers, that they could not read a tally. It is a cheering prospect that this drawback will soon be remedied. We may well rejoice that in this free the whole of the population will be placed on an equality as land of ours all men are equal in the eye of the law. Erelong to the great educational starting point, and that is all the individual enterprise to obtain all that otherwise may be education the country ought to secure, leaving to private and desired.
No. 614.-VOL. XXIV., NEW SERIES.
"Education has received far more prominent attention in 1872 than in any time preceding. The how in the matter is not yet thoroughly decided, but the people as a whole have gone hand in hand with the Government in determining that the rising race shall not be reared in ignorance. Reading, writing, and arithmetic shall be taught to all that are capable of learning. Possessed of these, as with a key, to unlock the storehouses of knowledge, the humblest labourer, if thoroughly sures that science and philosophy can bring. resolved, may by application and self-denial enjoy all the plea
'Rejoicing in the equality possessed and in that which will soon be here, yet it is not the equality which is keenly contended for by some at the present day-namely, that men engaged in the same labour and the same trade and occupation shall be paid equally. Facts and natural laws will be too much for all combinations in this direction; and the effort for grow up alike in stature, in physical strength, in mental vigour, unnatural levelling will only succeed when men and women pride themselves on their education make sure that the prized and intellectual endowments. Meanwhile let those who now laurels do not drop from their brow.' They will not long stand alone and distinct in this matter.
"The second topic worthy of serious consideration is the effort being made to better the condition of labourers-by migration and emigration if other means should fail; and we do rejoice that the subject has hitherto been conducted, with a few exceptions, with great good sense, good feeling and
No. 1266.-VOL. XLIX., OLD SERIFS.
courtesy. One of the most encouraging aspects is, that labourers that had received no education themselves are extra anxious that this blessing should be secured for their offspring. For ages to come may this land of ours remain great, glorious, and free. A doubt has arisen when it is recorded that the bulk of men and women who have left us for our colonies and other lands have been those distinguished for their readiness and activity of hand, their persevering industry, and their extra intelligence. No country could long maintain its pre-eminence if thus yearly deprived of the manliest, the sturdiest, and the most intelligent of its population; yet hope revives with the efforts making for social and mental improvement that there will be plenty of men left, hard-handed, keen-headed, and tenderhearted, to support the still growing honours of old England.
If knowledge will ere long cease to be such a distinction as now, let no young man lean too much upon it. It is true that in all labour there is profit.' It is also true that for the greatest brain-work there will be the greatest reward-the very highest wages-if such work is in demand. For want of that demand some of our greatest scientific men, besides the pleasure derived from their investigations, had little reward, though famed when in their graves. There is no discouraging intended to the greatest attainments in knowledge, when the Book of books says, 'Rather let him labour with his hand the thing that is good.' Our learned professions, our scientific men, our merchants with their myriads of book-keepers and clerks, do great things, but there would be little to act upon but for the produce of the hands, as these hands are directed by intelligence. There is a craving for the 'genteel' in these days, and a sort of looking down on hard manual labour; yet the gentility must pay for A high authority states it, and ere long even more than now. that for one man that is wanted in our colonies to act as clerk or book-keeper, there are thirty-nine left to starve, unless they throw their genteel notions to the winds, and labour with their hands. It requires no seer's vision to foretell that more than ever the most comfortable and happy people will be those who can develope and direct activity of the hand with expanded intelligence.
entered very little into such inquiries, they might be content with a less scientific gardener for a time. And as for the workmen, what would be the use of standing out, so long as there were so many that could dig and mow ready to take their position?
"More is usually effected by frankness and courtesy, forming, as it were, of themselves a board of arbitration to settle all difficulties, than by menace. In all cases where there are more men wanting employment than can find it, strikes will be a mistake; and when the numbers of workmen are reduced in a locality so that workmen shall be eagerly sought after, then strikes will not be needed, for wages will rise as a matter of
"Finally. Waving all reference to those who do not require to labour with their hands, but who may be extra workers with the brain, let all workers with the hand bring all possible heart and intelligence to bear on their work, and have good definite objects in their working if they wish their labour to be a source of elevated pleasure. One good object is to work so as to have the means of honest living. None but the very poor, the young, the aged, the extra unfortunate, and the afflicted ought to be dependant on others, and thus be subjects of anxious care. The most accomplished may have great reverses, but it more manly and dignified, for a time at least, to use a spade, a barrow, an axe, or a hammer, than to pester acquaintances When a taunt of untidiness was and friends to get some cosy place for them in which their hands may scarcely be soiled. thrown at an old Scotchwoman she pithily replied, It is good dirt that water can remove.' Nothing need be said of dishonesty, falsehood, and deceit, but let it be remembered a vast of water would be required to clear out the ingrained stains from cringing Again, work for a comfortable home, bearing in mind that its comfort will more depend upon its fitness and cosiness than on its extended size or grand appearance, and will depend more on the union of hearts, and a concentration of the liberal and the prudent as respects all good aims and aspirations, than upon fine furniture and flashy accomplishments. Again, work for the glorious privilege of being independent, using the last word in its very limited sense, as laying aside something, and making some provision in the days of youth and health for the changes that must be expected. Otherwise we have no idea of independence, for in society the highest and the lowliest have interwoven between them the bonds of mutual dependance."
"Get rid of the baneful idea which has blasted the life prospects of many a young man, that there is anything vulgar or degrading in even the humblest manual labour. A man may well be degraded when he labours merely as a matter of routine, without heart, or mind, or thought in his work, becoming what the late Joseph Knight would have called 'a mere six-o'clock and looking-ever-at-the-clock man.' But the humblest kind of labour faithfully and intelligently performed will ever exalt and ennoble the workman. The greatest and most spotless Who ever trod our earth probably worked as a mechanic before entering on His divine mission, and it is certain that the Jews in ancient times, and still, whatever their wealth and whatever the education they could give to their children, wisely took care that all should be so instructed in some kind of manual labour as to be able under any reverse to earn a living. Bring heart and mind to bear on work, and that will make the work a source of happiness and enjoyment to the worker. Providence diffuses happiness more equally than is generally imagined, and the greatest share falls not to the man who has inherited wealth
and does not need to labour much with the hands, but happiness comes almost unasked to the man who works 'faithfully with mind, and heart, and hands. How differently our poor crossingsweepers do their work! One sweeper will be all activity when he sees a promising crosser coming towards his muddy pathway. Another prides himself in having his crossing clean, crosser or no crosser. Doing the humblest work thoroughly is the best preparation, and security too, for getting better work to do. The young gardener who throws in mind and heart in attending to furnaces, so as to secure just the heat wanted and when wanted, and with the least waste of fuel, will most likely occupy a different position afterwards, when compared with the man who does such work as a mere work of routine, and feels that he is a sort of do-drudgery in attending to such things.
Such is the testimony of one of the best-informed, most right-hearted of the men who have now passed to live in your days-the head gardener of Putteridgebury; and those who adopt him as their model during your time will have ample cause to acknowledge that you were to them A HAPPY NEW YEAR.
"So far about work and working; but what about the returns? Everything is dearer than in former years, and there has been little or no increase of wages. Ought not gardeners and under gardeners, and garden labourers to combine to obtain better terms? Don't,' is the wisest reply. Men have the right so to combine, but it would be folly until the men that are able to dig, to mow, and sweep are greatly diminished in numbers. Let the stokers of the London gas houses furnish an example. They, no doubt, looked on themselves as skilled workmen, and as such thought they had the ball at their feet, but fresh stokers were obtained in a very short time. It is true it is easier to find fifty men that can dig than one man who, from his acquaintance with vegetable physiology, and his knowledge of geography and climatal relations, knows how best to nurture every esteemed foreign plant, and also the right treatment in all diversified circumstances for flowers and fruits. Such a man with employers who valued such attainments might easily make an alteration in terms if the wish were courteously expressed. But even to such employers, and especially to those who
Suttons' RedA VOICE from Staffordshire on the merits of " skinned Flourball may not be uninteresting to some readers of the Journal. I plant many different kinds, but the Flourball has, last year especially (1872), proved itself far the best both in quality and quantity. The yield was very good, the tubers large throughout, and the crop almost entirely free from disease, which, considering the extraordinarily wet and unfavourable season, must speak volumes in its favour. In the boiling they have proved themselves well worthy of the name they bear, and they are also of excellent flavour. When reading the remarks of "W. B.," I could not help wishing I had been the lucky recipient of his two bushels. They were grown in a field of light land with a gravelly subsoil.-W. G. W.
I HAVE been a Potato-grower for twenty years, and for many years, say eight or ten, have adopted the plan, not of cutting off, but drawing out (roots and all) the tops of Potatoes as soon as the haulm manifested unmistakeable symptoms of being diseased. Last year (1872) my Ashtops and Lapstones treated in this way have scarcely had a bad Potato among them, while my neighbours have lost nearly every tuber. I did not take mine up till October-slightly too late, for the Brussels Sprouts, which I planted when the tops were removed, had become inconveniently large, and were in the way.
Of course Potatoes treated in this way should be planted as early as possible, and previously sprouted, so as to be as nearly as possible mature when the disease comes, otherwise the produce, though good, is small.-GEO. F. WADE, St. Lawrence Vicarage, York.
I HAVE grown Suttons' Red-skinned Flourball on light ground with a chalky subsoil, and I had an excellent crop, far above that of any other kind, and very few tubers were diseased.
With us they are when cooked good in flavour, white, and E. Copland being in the chair. There were present Dr. King, mealy.-R. S.
Professor of Botany, University of Calcutta, and Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden there; Professor Tattle, Instructor in Microscopy, and late Professor of Marine Zoology, Harvard University; Judge Scudder, of the Superior Court, Boston, U.S.A.; Baron O. Prost, well known at Nice, and as having successfully introduced various exotic plants and shrubs from foreign countries; and several other floral friends. Numerous suggestions were made as to the best mode of proceeding during the present season, and it was agreed that regular meetings should be held the coming spring for the purpose of investigating the flora of Nice, and naming and giving information respecting such plants as may be brought by those who may wish to know more of them.
The Chairman produced a large collection of dried specimens arranged according to their families, and also some beautiful coloured drawings of many of the wild flowers of the A very interesting discussion neighbourhood, by a lady. followed as to the Ferns, wild flowers, and cultivated plants of the country; and a rare specimen of Saxifraga florulenta, found only on the mountains of Nice, and which has excited much interest in the botanical world, was produced for inspection. Dr. King handsomely offered to send to Baron Prost choice seeds and plants from India for introduction into Nice. Important results may therefore, perhaps, follow from these meetings.
THE ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY'S
A FEW notes at South Kensington. Not the least interesting of the meetings held in the Council-room of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1872 was that on December 4th. It was the last of the season, and the large attendance of visitors showed how these useful gatherings are appreciated. We cannot set aside the large exhibitions with their scores of vanloads of plants and hundreds of dishes of tempting fruits; but to those on the out-look for new plants, flowers, and fruits -to the enthusiastic gardener, botanist, and pomologist-these social gatherings are a great boon. To the Fellows residing in the neighbourhood they must be a source of never-failing enjoyment.
As the meeting in question was the last of a series of most
5. Madame Rothschild
S. Madame Victor Verdier
9. Edouard Morren 10. Marie Baumann
12. Charles Lefebvre
Then, who could fail to be in raptures with the lovely Orchids, welcome at all seasons, but doubly so in dull December? The thanks of all lovers of beautiful flowers are due to those who risk the injury of their precious gems at such a season. The rare and beautiful garden 'hybrid, Cattleya exoniensis, was there to be admired by all but possessed by few, its price placing it beyond the reach of all save those of ample fortunes. Not so the handsome Lycaste Skinneri; it can be purchased for a mere trifle, and is one of the easiest grown of Orchids. It will thrive in a hot or a cool house, and flower abundantly in either. Its richly-coloured flowers continue a long time in perfection, and are peculiarly attractive. It flowers during the winter and spring months. The Pleiones, or Indian Crocuses, were represented by P. Reichenbachiana, a very distinct species, producing two flowers on a spike; the sepals and petals are mottled with rosy lilac, the lip white spotted with violet purple. These beautiful Orchids lose their leaves after finishing their growth, and the flowers are produced just before the new leaves appear, but they have a charming effect when grouped with Maidenhair or other Ferns. Barkeria Skinneri is another useful plant for winter; its graceful spikes of rosy purple flowers have a charming effect.-J. D.
CHARLES LAWSON ROSE.
I AM surprised that in the lists of Roses mentioned of late as superior kinds, the very beautiful summer Rose Charles Lawson has no place. There is nothing to equal this when in a good situation; and none here, although there is a great choice, can be compared with it or is more admired. A plant was turned out of a pot a few years since, placed against a south-east wall, and now covers a space of more than 18 feet wide and 12 feet high. No matter what the weather may be, this Rose tree is a perfect picture-one mass of flowers in different stages of bloom, and very fragrant.-M. D.
ELECTION OF ROSES.-No. 3.
Mr. J. PARSONS, Frome.
34. Prince Camille de Rohan
THE FERNS AND WILD FLOWERS OF NICE. A PRELIMINARY meeting of ladies and gentlemen interested in this subject was lately held at the Hotel Royal, Nice, Mr.
1. Maréchal Niel
3. Marquise de Castellane
4. Alfred Colomb
13. Gloire de Dijon
15. Céline Forestier
16. Miss Ingram
17. Madame Hector Jacquin
18. Anna de Diesbach
20. Pierre Notting
22. Comtesse de Chabrillant
23. Comtesse d'Oxford
25. Princess Mary of Cambridge
28. Souvenir de la Malmaison
30. François Lacharme
4. Charles Lefebvre
5. John Hopper
8. Maréchal Vaillant
10. Maurice Bernardin
35. Coupe d'Hebé
36. Mons. Woolfield
37. Paul Ricaut
38. Charles Lawson
39. Madame Creyton
40. Madame Bosanquet
28. Louise Van Houtte
29. Madame Boutin
30. Madame Victor Verdier
31. Marquise de Castellane
41. Madame Vidot
42. Madame Clémence Joigneaux
43. Madame Fillion
46. Lord Macaulay
47. Gloire de Vitry
48. Rev. H. II. Dombrain
49. Lancii (Moss)
50. Madame Zoutman!
Mr. P. GRUBB, Warminster.
33. Dr. Andry
84. Elie Morel
10. Madame Margottin
12. Marie Sisley
35. Vicomte Vigier
36. Jean Cherpin
37. Madame Charles Verdier
38. Thyra Hammerick
39. Souvenir de la Malmaison
40. Leopold I.
41. Princess Mary of Cambridge
42. Boule de Neige
43. Duchess of Sutherland
44. Pierre Notting
45. Madame Fillion
49. Marquise de Mortemart
50. Louise Peyronny