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5 And the meat offering shall be an ephah | oil, to temper with the fine flour; a meat for a ram, and the meat offering for the offering continually by a perpetual ordilambs 'as he shall be able to give, and an nance unto the Lord. hin of oil to an ephah.
15 Thus shall they prepare the lamb, and 6 And in the day of the new moon it shall the meat offering, and the oil, every mornbe a young bullock without blemish, and six ing for a continual burnt offering. Jambs, and a ram: they shall be without 16 Thus saith the Lord God; If the blemish.
prince give a gift unto any of his sons, the 7 And he shall prepare a meat offering, inheritance thereof shall be his sons', it an ephah for a bullock, and an ephah for shall be their possession by inheritance. a ram, and for the lambs according as his 17 But if he give a gift of his inheritance hand shall attain unto, and an hin of oil to to one of his servants, then it shall be his an ephah.
to the year of liberty; after it shall return 8 And when the prince shall enter, he to the prince: but his inheritance shall be shall go in by the way of the porch of that his sons' for them. gate, and he shall go forth by the way thereof. 18 Moreover the prince shall not take of
9 ? But when the people of the land shall the people's inheritance by oppression, to come before the Lord in the solemn feasts, thrust them out of their possession; but he he that entereth in by the way of the north shall give his sons inheritance out of his own gate to worship shall go out by the way of possession : that my people be not scattered the south gate; and he that entereth by the every man from his possession. way of the south gate shall go forth by the 19 | After he brought me through the way of the north gate: he shall not return entry, which was at the side of the gate, into by the way of the gate whereby he came in, the holy chambers of the priests, which looked but shall
toward the north: and, behold, there was a 10 And the prince in the midst of them, place on the two sides westward. when they go in, shall go in; and when they 20 Then said he unto me, This is the go forth, shall go forth.
place where the priests shall boil the tres11 And in the feasts and in the solemni- pass offering and the sin offering, where they ties the meat offering shall be an ephah shall bake the meat offering; that they bear to a bullock, and an ephah to a ram, and to them not out into the utter court, to sanctify the lambs as he is able to give, and an hin the people. of oil to an ephah.
21 Then he brought me forth into the 12 Now when the prince shall prepare a
utter court, and caused me to pass by the voluntary burnt offering or peace offerings four corners of the court; and, behold, 'in voluntarily unto the LORD, one shall then every corner of the court there was a court. open him the gate that looketh toward the 2:2 In the four corners of the court there east, and he shall prepare his burnt offering were courts 'joined of forty cubits long and and his peace offerings, as he did on the thirty broad: these four 'corners were of one sabbath day: then he shall go forth; and after his going forth one shall shut the gate. 23 And there was a row of building round
13 Thou shalt_daily prepare a burnt about in them, round about them four, and offering unto the LORD of a lamb 'of the it was made with boiling places under the first year without blemish : thou shalt
rows round about. pare it 'every morning.
24 Then said he unto me, These are the 14 And thou shalt prepare a meat offer- places of them that boil, where the ministers ing for it every morning, the sixth part of of the house shall boil the sacrifice of the an ephah, and the third part of an hin of people. 1 H-h, the gift of his hand.
1b. some of his ye:r. 3 Heb murning by morning. Hleb, a court in a corner of a court, and a court in a corner of a court. 5 Or, made with chimnies.
6 Heb. cornered. Verse 3. “ The people of the land shall vorship at the door of this gulm, "'-We have met with a very curious engraving in the · Antiquités d'Herculanum,' after an ancient painting found at Portici, representing the Egyptian worship of Isis. This we have copied ; for while some allege that the forms of the Hebrew worship resembled, essentially, those of the Egyptians, and others contend that their forms were designedly made as different as possible from those of Egypt, it is an advantage to ascertain the truth from the unexceptionable testimony of an ancient painting.
That there are some resemblances is certain ; aad most of these applied not merely to the worship of the Egyptians, but to that of other nations also. And when we quietly consider the subject, while we can see very clearly why observances and ceremonies liable to misconception or abuse, should be altered or omitted, there does not appear any reason why the forms which the general conseat of mankind had considered suitably to mark their reverence or adora
tion, should be changed to something else which had not previously been known. Bowing the knee is a ceremony; but the Hebrews were not forbidden to bow the knee. so that they did not bow it to Baal.
The resemblances we see here are :—that sacrifice and worship are not performed in the sanctuary, but in the court before it, where the altar also appears to occupy nearly the same position as it did in the court before the Hebrew temple. The altar, moreover, is provided with a horns.” Other analogies are, that the worshippers are in a standing posture, with one exception ; that they are all barefooted ; and that one man is blowing a trumpet precisely similar to that which the Levites blew at the Hebrew sacrifices.
The differences are more considerable than the analogies. The temple is in a grove-a thing forbidden in Scripture : every individual is bareheaded, whereas the Jews never worshipped but with covered heads: the man who blows the trumpet is sitting, whereas it is a received maxim among the Jewish doctors that no one could sit in the temple courts, escepting only the king. for the time being, of the house of David. The most important difference, however, is the presence of the congregation on each side of the altar, ranged in lines between it and the sanctuary. This is evidently a mixed congregation, including even women ; but among the Hebrews the congregation was not admitted at all into the court immediately before the sanctuary, which was appropriated solely to the priests and Levites ; and moreover the women did not assemble in the same outer court as the men, but had a separate one of their own. So different indeed were the practices in this matter, that we see in the present example that one of the three most conspicuous of the officiating personages (those upon the steps ) is a female, a priestess of Isis. Among the Hebrews also, the space between the porch and the altar was accounted, after the sanctuary itself, the most holy part of the mountain of the Lord's house, and hence, when an act of worship commenced, ali persons entitled to be in this court, withdrew from that part, and ranged themselves below the altar. The present cut exhibits exactly the opposite custom. These observations, suggested by the engraving we now give, will serve to point out some of the more remarkable of the agreements and ditierences found in the external forms of worship among the Hebrews as compared with those of their heathen neighbours. It is more than probable, that when the Jews fell into idolatry, they worshipped some of their idols after the fashion shown in the cut, and particularly “ the queen of heaven" and the idols borrowed from Egypt.
came down from under from the right
side of the house, at the south side of the | The vision of the holy waters. 6 The virtue of altar.
them. 13 The borders of the land. 22 The division of it by lot.
2 Then brought he me out of the way of
the gate northward, and led me about the AFTERWARD he brought me again unto the way without unto the utter gate by the way door of the house; and, behold, waters is that looketh eastward : and, behold, there sued out from under the threshold of the ran out waters on the right side. house eastward : for the forefront of the 3 And when the man that had the line in house stood toward the east, and the waters his hand went forth eastward, he measured
a thousand cubits, and he brought me shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof 'for through the waters; the 'waters were to the ''medicine. ancles.
13 | Thus saith the Lord God; This 4 Again he measured a thousand, and shall be the border, whereby ye shall inherit brought me through the waters; the waters the land according to the twelve tribes of were to the knees. Again he measured a Israel: Joseph shall have two portions. thousand, and brought me through; the 14 And ye shall inherit it, one as well as waters were to the loins.
another: concerning the which I " 19lifted up 5 Afterward he measured a thousand; mine hand to give it unto your fathers : and and it was a river that I could not pass this land shall fall unto you for inheritance. over: for the waters were risen, 'waters to 15 And this shall be the border of the swim in, a river that could not be passed land toward the north side, from the great over.
way of Hethlon, as men go to Ze6. And he said unto me, Son of man, dad; hast thou seen this? Then he brought me, 16 Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is and caused me to return to the brink of the between the border of Damascus and the river.
border of Hamath; "Hazar-hatticon, which 7 Now when I had returned, behold, at is by the coast of Hauran. the 'bank of the river were very many trees 17 And the border from the sea shall be on the one side and on the other.
Hazar-enan, the border of Damascus, and 8 Then said he unto me, These waters the north northward, and the border of Haissue out toward the east country, and go math. And this is the north side down into the desert, and
into the sea : 18 And the east side ye shall measure which being brought forth into the sea, the from Hauran, and from Damascus, and waters shall be healed.
from Gilead, and from the land of Israel by 9 And it shall come to pass, that every Jordan, from the border unto the east sea. thing that liveth, which moveth, whitherso- And this is the east side. ever the @rivers shall come, shall live: and 19 And the south side southward, from there shall be a very great multitude of fish, | Tamar even to the waters of østrife in Kabecause these waters shall come thither : for desh, the 'river to the great sea. And this they shall be healed; and every thing shall is the south side 18southward. live whither the river cometh.
20 The west side also shall be the great 10 And it shall come to pass, that the sea from the border, till a man come over fishers shall stand upon it from En-gedi against Hamath. This is the west side. even unto En-eglaim; they shall be a place 21 So shall ye divide this land unto you to spread forth nets ; their fish shall be ac- according to the tribes of Israel. cording to their kinds, as the fish of the 22 | And it shall come to pass, that ye great sea, exceeding many.
shall divide it by lot for an inheritance unto 11 But the miry places thereof and the you, and to the strangers that sojourn among marishes thereof "shall not be healed; they you, which shall beget children among you: shall be given to salt.
and they shall be unto you as born in the 12 And by the river upon the bank there country among the children of Israel; they of, on this side and on that side, shall grow shall have inheritance with you among the all trees for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, tribes of Israel. neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed : 23 And it shall come to pass, that in what it shall bring forth 'new fruit according to tribe the stranger sojourneth, there shall ye his months, because their waters they issued give him his inheritance, saith the Lord out of the sanctuary: and the fruit thereof God. 1 Heb. waters of the ankles. 9 Heb. waters of swimming.
5 Or, plain.
9 Ori principal. 10 Or, for bruises and sores. 13 Gen. 27. 7, and 17.8, and 26. 3, and 28. 13. 14 Or, the middle rillage. 13 Heb. from between.
17 Or, calley. Verse 1. “Behold, walers issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward."-Whatever be thought of the description contained in these chapters, as a whole, it is generally admitted that the account contained in this chapter of the waters issuing from the temple, deepening and widening as they went, blessing the land through which they passed, and healing the sea of death to which they came, must be figuratively understood. And, thus understood. most commentators seem inclined to apply the allegory to the spread and the blessings of the Christian faith. It is indeed impossible to understand the account literally: yet it is certain that this figurative description is founded upon circumstances proper to the place and country, and which are applied and sustained with great felicity in this very beautiful parable.
7 Or, and that which shall not be healed.
3 Heb. lip.
* Rev. 29. 2. 8 Heh, shall come up.
18 Or, toward Teman.
6 Heb. tiro rivers.
11 Rev. 22.2.
14 Or, swore.
It must be evident that a great quantity of water must have been required for the service of the temple. How this supply was obtained appears from the Rabbinical writers, and still more distinctly from Aristeas, whose book was written while the second temple stood, and whose account we give as quoted by Lightfoot (* Prospect of the Temple,' ch. xxiii.): "There was a continual supply of water, as if there had been an abundant fountain underneath. And there were wonderful and inexpressible receptacles under ground, as appeared five furlongs space about the temple; each one of which had divers pipes, by which waters came in on every side; all these were of lead, under ground, and much earth laid upon them. And there were many vents on the pavement, not to be seen at all but to those that served ; so that in a trice, and easily, all the blood of the sacrifices could be washed away, though it were never so much. And I will tell you how I came to know of these under-ground receptacles: they brought me out more than four furlongs space out of the city, and one bade me stoop down at a certain place, and listen what a noise the meeting of the waters made.” From this it seems that the waters were collected from many neighbouring sources; but the Rabbins inform us that the principal supply was derived from the fountain of Etam. It appears that these streams, after having passed under the temple and filled its cisterns, went out on the east side, and there uniting with each other, and with the waters of Siloam, Kidron, and other streams, that seem to have been more numerous and abundant about Jerusalem in ancient times than at present—the whole formed a considerable body of water, augmented by other streams as it passed, till it ultimately fell into the Dead Sea. In this climate, we may be sure that this stream, in proportion to its extent, fertilized the land through which it passed, and was lined with shrubs and bushes, if not trees also ; supplying the comparison or statement in verse 7. We are not to suppose that this stream had any considerable effect in healing" the waters of the Dead Sea, for even the stream of the Jordan has not; but as the stream of living water did enter the salt and bitter waters of the Dead Sea, the figurative acconnt, which follows, of the blessed effects of the fresh stream upon the waters of death, is most naturally and beautifully applied. The Sea is supposed thus to receive that healing which it did and does still require: and the reader who has perused the accounts of this Sea (our own, under Gen.
xix. 25., for instance) will not fail to observe how remarkably the healing effects are stated, so as to convey distinct intimations of the peculiarities by which that lake was distinguished from others; such as that it should abound in fish-intimating that it naturally did not ; that, in consequence, fishers should frequent all its shores, which never happened in the natural state of the lake ; and that its banks should be lined with trees of nourishment and health, of which it was naturally destitute.
11. “ The miry places... and the marishes... shall be given to salt.”—See the note on 2 Kings xiv. 7.
16. “ Hauran.”—This name occurs only here and in verse 18; and denotes a district to the south of Damascus. and east of the half tribe of Manasseh and the tribe of Gad, beyond Jordan. Its extent seems to have varied at different times. Col. Leake supposes that it was of inconsiderable extent in the time of the Jews, but enlarged its boundaries under the Greeks and Romans, who modified its name to Auranitis. It has been still further increased since that time, and the district which now bears the name includes not only Auranitis but Ituræa also, together with the greater part of Bashan, or Batanæa, and Trachonitis ; extending, in its greatest length, from about twenty miles to the south of Damascus to a little below Bozra.
Very little was known of this tract of country till the ample accounts which have been furnished by Burckhardt and Buckingham, in their respective Travels.'' As it is but slightly mentioned in Scripture, we may content ourselves with a reference to the descriptions which these travellers supply; although some further notice of this territory may be taken under Luke iii. I, where the ancient districts which form the most considerable portion of the modern Hauras are particularly mentioned
11 'It shall be for the priests that are 1, 23 The portions of the twelve tribes, 8 of the sanc
sanctified of the sons of Zadok; which have tury, 15 of the city and suburbs, 21 and of the kept my 'charge, which went not astray prince. 30 The dimensions and gates of the when the children of Israel went astray, as city.
the Levites went astray. Now these are the names of the tribes. From 12 And this oblation of the land that is the north end to the coast of the way of offered shall be unto them a thing most holy Hethlon, as one goeth to Hamath, Hazar- by the border of the Levites. enan, the border of Damascus northward, to 13 And over against the border of the the coast of Hamath; for these are his sides priests the Levites shall have five and twenty east and west ; 'a portion for Dan.
thousand in length, and ten thousand in 2 And by the border of Dan, from the breadth : all the length shall be five and east side unto the west side, a portion for twenty thousand, and the breadth ten thouAsher.
sand. 3 And by the border of Asher, from the 14 And they shall not sell of it, neither east side even unto the west side, a portion exchange, nor alienate the firstfruits of the for Naphtali.
land: for it is holy unto the Lord. 4 And by the border of Naphtali, from 15 | And the five thousand, that are left the east side unto the west side, a portion in the breadth over against the five and for Manasseh.
twenty thousand, shall be a profane place 5 And by the border of Manasseh, from for the city, for dwelling, and for suburbs: the east side unto the west side, a portion and the city shall be in the midst thereof. for Ephraim.
16 And these shall be the measures 6 Ånd by the border of Ephraim, from the thereof; the north side four thousand and east side even unto the west side, a portion five hundred, and the south side four thoufor Reuben.
sand and five hundred, and on the east side 7 And by the border of Reuben, from the four thousand and five hundred, and the cast side even unto the west side, a portion west side four thousand and five hundred. for Judah.
17 And the suburbs of the city shall be 8 | And by the border of Judah, from toward the north two hundred and fifty, and the east side unto the west side, shall be the toward the south two hundred and fifty, offering which ye shall offer of five and and toward the east two hundred and fifty, twenty thousand reeds in breadth, and in and toward the west two hundred and fifty. length as one of the other parts, from the 18 And the residue in length over against east side unto the west side, and the sanc- the oblation of the holy portion shall he ten tuary shall be in the midst of it.
thousand castward, and ten thousand west9 The oblation that ye shall offer unto ward: and it shall be over against the obthe Lord shall be of five and twenty thou- lation of the holy portion; and the increase sand in length, and of ten thousand in thereof shall be for food unto them that breadth.
serve the city. 10 And for them, even for the priests, 19 And they that serve the city shall shall be this holy oblation; toward the north serve it out of all the tribes of Israel. five and twenty thousand in length, and 20 All the oblation shall be five and twenty toward the west ten thousand in breadth, thousand by five and twenty thousand: ye and toward the east ten thousand in breadth, shall offer the holy oblation foursquare, with and toward the south five and twenty thou- the possession of the city. sand in length: and the sanctuary of the 21 | And the residue shall be for the LORD shall be in the midst thereof.
prince, on the one side and on the other of 1 Heb.one portion. * Or, The sanctified portion shall be for the priests. * Or, ward, or, ordinance,