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we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house'? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction'? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot'? Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power.

7. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God, who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone : it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged." Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston ! The war is inevitable: and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come!

8. It is vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, peace! but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps froin the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle'? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have'? Is life so dear, or peace go sweet', as to be purchased at the price of chains' and slavery'? Forbid it, Almighty God. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!




1. What's hallow'd ground'? Has earth a clod

Its Maker meant not should be trod
By man, the image of his God,
Unscourged by Superstition's

Erect and free

To how the knee?


2. That's hallow'd ground, where, mourn's and miss'd,

The lips repose our love has kiss'd;
But where's their memory's mansion? Is't

Yon churchyard's bowers' ?
No! in ourselves their souls exist,

A part of ours.
3. What hallows ground where heroes sleep'?

'Tis not the sculptured piles you heap! In dews that heavens far distant weep,

Their turf may bloom ; Or genii twine beneath the deep

Their coral tomb.
4. But strew his ashes to the wind

Whose sword or voice has served mankind,
And is he dead, whose glorious mind

Lifts thine on high'?
To live in hearts we leave behind

Is not to die.
5. Is't death to fall for freedom's right?

He's dead alone that lacks her light!
And murder sullies in Heaven's sight

The sword he draws:
What can alone ennoble fight?

A noble cause !
6. Give that! and welcome war to brace

Her drums! and rend heaven's reeking space!
The colors painted face to face,

The charging cheer,
Though death's pale horse led on the chase,

Shall still be dear!
7. And place our trophies where men kneel
To Heaven! but Heaven rebukes


zeal! The cause of truth and human weal,

O God above!
Transfer it from the sword's appeal,


and love!
8. Peace, love! the cherubim that join

Their spread wings o'er Devotion's shrine;
Prayers sound in vain and temples shine

Where they are not:
The heart alone can make divine

Religion's spot.

9. To incantations dost thou trust'?

And pompous rites in domes august'?
See moldering stones and metal's rust

Belie the vaunt,
That man can bless one pile of dust

With chime or chant.
10. Fair stars ! are not your beings pure'?

Can sin, can death, your worlds obscure' ?
Else why so swell the thoughts at your

Aspect above?
Ye must be Heaven's that make us sure

Of heavenly love!
11. And in your harmony sublime

I read the doom of distant time;
That man's regenerate soul from crime

Shall yet be drawn,
And reason on his mortal clime

Immortal dawn.
12. What's hallow'd ground ? 'Tis what gives birth

To sacred thoughts in souls of worth !
Peace! independence ! truth! go forth

Earth's compass round;
And your high-priesthood shall make earth

All hallow'd ground.




1. A GENTLEMAN, Mr. Chairman, speaking of Cæsar's benevolent disposition, and of the reluctance with which he entered into the civil war, observes, “How long did he pause upon the brink of the Rubicon !” How came he to the brink of that river'? How dared he cross it? Shall private men respect the boundaries of private property', and shall a man pay no respect to the boundaries of his country's rights'? How dared he cross that river'? 2. Oh! but he paused upon the

He should have


perished on the brink, ere he had crossed it! Why did he Bause'? Why does a man's heart palpitate when he is on the point of committing some unlawful deed'? Why does the very murderer, his victim sleeping before him, and his glaring eye taking the measure of the blow, strike wide of the mortal part'? Because of conscience'! 'Twas that made Cæsar pause upon the banks of the Rubicon.

3. Compassion'! What compassion'? The compassion of an assassin, that feels a momentary shudder as his weapon begins to cut! Cæsar paused upon the brink of the Rubicon! What was the Rubicon'? The boundary of Cæsar's province! From what did it separate his province? From his country! Was that country a desert'? No'; it was cultivated and fertile', rich and populous'! Its sons were men of genius, spirit, and generosity! Its daughters were lovely, susceptible, and chaste! Friendship was its inhabitant! Love was its inhabitant! Domestic affection was its inhabitant! Liberty was its inhabitant ! All bounded by the stream of the Rubicon !

4. What was Cæsar, that stood upon the brink of that stream'? A traitor', bringing war and pestilence into the heart of that country'! No wonder that he paused; no wonder if, his imagination wrought upon by his conscience, he had beheld blood instead of water, and heard groans instead of murmurs ! No wonder if some gorgon horror had turned him into stone upon the spot! But no! he cried, “The die is cast!” He plunged ! he crossed! and Rome was free no more!




1. Is then the dreadful measure of your cruelty not yet complete'? Battle! Gracious Heaven! against whom? Against a king, in whose mild bosom your atrocious injuries, even yet, have not excited hate, but who, insulted or victorious, still sues for peace. Against a people who never wronged the living being their Creator formed; a people who, children of innocence! received you as cherished guests, with eager hospitality and confiding kindness. Generously and freely did they share with you their comforts', their treasures', and their homes': you repaid them by fraud', oppression', and dishonor'.

2. These eyes have witnessed all I speak : as gods you were received'; as fiends you have acted'. Pizarro', hear me'! Hear me, chieftains'! And thou', All-powerful! whose thunder can shiver into sand the adamantine rock, whose lightnings can pierce to the core of the riven and quaking earth, oh, let thy power give effect to thy servant's words, as thy Spirit gives courage to his will! Do not, I implore you, chieftains', countrymen', do not, I implore you, renew the foul barbarities your insatiate avarice has inflicted on this wretched, unoffending race !

3. But hush', my sighs' ! fall not, ye drops of useless sorrow'! heart-breaking anguish', choke not my utterance'! All I entreat is, send me once more to those you call your enemies. Oh, let me be the messenger of penitence from you; I shall return with blessings and peace from them. Elvira', you weep! Alas! does this dreadful crisis move no heart but thine'? Time flies; words are unavailing; the chieftains declare for instant battle.

4. U God'! thou hast anointed me thy servant, not to curse, but to bless, my countrymen: yet now my blessing on their force were blasphemy against thy goodness. No! I curse your purpose, homicides! I curse the bond of blood by which you are united. May fell division, infamy, and rout defeat your projects and rebuke your hopes! On you, and on your children, be the peril of the innocent blood which shall be shed this day! I leave you, and forever! No longer shall these aged eyes be seared by the horrors they have witnessed. In caves, in forests, will I hide myself; with tigers and with savage beasts will I commune; and when at length we meet again before the blessed tribunal of that Deity whose mild doctrines and whose mercies ye have this day renounced, then shall ye feel the agony and grief of soul which tear the bosom of your accuser now.

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