Unlocking the Brain: Volume 2: Consciousness
Neuroscience has made considerable progress in figuring out how the brain works. We know much about the molecular-genetic and biochemical underpinnings of sensory and motor functions. Recent neuroimaging work has opened the door to investigating the neural underpinnings of higher-order cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, and even free will. In these types of investigations, researchers apply specific stimuli to induce neural activity in the brain and look for the function in question. However, there may be more to the brain and its neuronal states than the changes in activity we induce by applying particular external stimuli. In Volume 2 of Unlocking the Brain, Georg Northoff addresses consciousness by hypothesizing about the relationship between particular neuronal mechanisms and the various phenomenal features of consciousness. Northoff puts consciousness in the context of the resting state of the brain thereby delivering a new point of view to the debate that permits very interesting insights into the nature of consciousness. Moreover, he describes and discusses detailed findings from different branches of neuroscience including single cell data, animal data, human imaging data, and psychiatric findings. This yields a unique and novel picture of the brain, and will have a major and lasting impact on neuroscientists working in neuroscience, psychiatry, and related fields.
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Brain and Its Intrinsic Features
Consciousness and Its Intrinsic Features
SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTINUITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS
SPATIOTEMPORAL UNITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS
SPATIOTEMPORAL ORGANIZATION AND CONSCIOUSNESS
SPATIOTEMPORAL QUALITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Keyholes in the Brains Door to Consciousness
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abnormal associated biophysically based subjectivity brain brain’s intrinsic activity brain’s neural activity Chapter characterized cognitive concept constitution continuity of neural cortex cortical degree of self-specificity degree of temporal described difference-based coding different discrete points directedness empirical enal encoded into neural environment environment–brain unity experience external contents exteroceptive exteroceptive stimuli extrinsic stimuli fMRI focus functional connectivity GABA global glutamate input insula integration internal interoceptive ketamine low-frequency fluctuations low-frequency oscillations midline regions natural statistics ness neural predisposition neurocognitive NEURONAL FINDINGS NEURONAL HYPOTHESIS neuronal mechanisms NEUROPHENOMENAL HYPOTHESIS neuroscience nomenal Northoff NREM one’s oscillations patients phenomenal features phenomenal level phenomenal unity point of view points in physical poral postulate predispose prefrontal cortex processing propose qualia rest–stimulus interaction resting state’s resting-state activity resting-state activity’s schizophrenia sciousness self-specific organization sparse coding spatial and temporal spatial continuity spatiotemporal structure specific statistically based stimuli stimulus-based coding stimulus-induced activity subcortical regions temporal continuity temporal differences tion