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form one of the functions of nature, it is certain, that he there expired in a most tragical manner; a'vast effusion of blood, and part of his intestines accompanied the discharge of his excrements. Whether this awful event may be attributed to the unjustifiable zeal of his enemies, or to the immediate hand of Heaven for his impious insincerity in subscribing the Nicene creed, must be left to the decision of a future day.

The. Arian faction soon divided into two principal branches:

1. The Pure Arians, who held that the Son was not produced out of the substance of the Father, but created out of nothing."

2. Tbe Semi-Arians, who maintained “ that the Son was of a like substance with the Father, or similar to him in his essence, not by nature, but by a special privilege."

All the other various opinions of this sect may be considered only as subordinate to this general division, a detail of which would far exceed the limits of this work.

It may be necessary to observe, that the opinion of Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, the head of the sect of the Pneimatomacbians *, occasioned the second general council to be held at Constantinople, in the year 381. Macedonius had boldly denied the personality of the Holy Ghost, whom he considered « as a divine energy, diffused throughout the universe.” At this council, what had been left ambiguous or indeterminate at the council of Nice, was explicitly defined ; and the doctrine of three persons in one God established, as received by the generality of Christian churches to the present day.

Christianity was now the prevailing religion ; fostered under the imperial favour, multitudes every where assumed the sacred name; but the precious was mixed witb the vile; and many dangerous tumults arose in the church, by the restless disposition of too many of its unsanctified members.

In support of the sacred cause of truth several eminent characters particularly distinguished themselves. The chief of whom were

Eusebius Pampbilus, bishop of Cæsarea, the ecclesiastical writer.

Atbanasius, the patriarch of Alexandria, of whom it was said, Unus Athanasius contra totum orbem t..

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Yohn Chrysostom *, so surnamed, upon account of the richness of his eloquence. He was patriarch of Constantinople.

jerome, noted for his Latin copy of the Scriptures, corrected from the original vulgate.

The famous Augustin, bishop of Hippo, the splendour of whose name filled all the world.

To whom may be added, Basil, Cyril Epipbanius, tbe two Gregories, Hilary, Lactantius, and many others.



Free-Town, Sierra Leone, July 13, 1795.
I TAKE the opportunity of the first direct.communication

with England, to inquire after your health, and that of your good family. I am but just recovered from a severe fever, a sort of seasoning to the climate, which I escaped exactly three months, a longer time, as they tell me, than usual. It affects the spirits much, and leaves a weakness, which, I hope, will apologize for the shortness and incorrectness of this. I mean only to convince you of my wish to fulfil my promise in writing, and hope you will have the goodness to let me hear from you by every opportunity. The letter sent to the Sierra Leone House, Lawrence Poultney-lane, will be forwarded with the dispatches. We know very little of what is passing in Europe. Though newspapers are sent us, they are generally six weeks after date before we get them. Some of the series are lost. The natives of this part of Africa, though, from their intercourse with European slave-traders, we have reason to believe, the most addicted to drunkenness and other vices of any people on the continent, have, nevertheless, many virtues. We have not the least reason to doubt their honesty; and, when bober, they are mild anà inoffensive. They look on us as a superior race, and their king and chiefs do us service for the sake of very small presents we sometimes give them. Their religion seems to be very gross superstition. They believe in God, but that he is too good to hurt them. The

Chrysostom means golden-mouihid.

devil is the grand object of fear and adoration. There is a grove on a part of our land consecrated to him, and it was stipulated in the company's purchase, that those trees must not be cut down, as the king should perform a grand sacrifice there every year.

But his majesty not being very religious, he has been but once since we took possession, I was present some little time since at a very curious mode of trial. A man was accused of murder, committed about two years ago ; and the method of determining his guilt or innocence was, to seat him'in a rude kind of chair, and all the neighbouring chiefs, with many of their wives and children, formed a ring: Within this a 'cricle was made of rice fiower, and before the prisoner was laid a bag full of grigris or charms. He was asked if guilty or not? and answered in the negative. They then began to prepare the red water, which is made by pounding the bark of a tree, and then squeezing out the juice, which is mixed with water between a man's hands; it is then beat up into an appearance of soap suds. All this time the chiefs were making terrible long speeches, and invoking all the power of their spells, which lasted, near two hours. The prisoner then swallowed the astonishing quantity of twelve calabashes, which, I dare say, held a pint each, with very small interyals of time between. It made him sick, which was the only proof they admitted of his innocence. It has been known frequently to kill the culprit, and in that case his guilt is certain ; and his family, if he has any, are sold into slavery : Himself is added, if he survives, and is judged to have exhibited symptoms of criminality : If acquitted, his accuser is to pay the chief he belongs to the value of one slave.

This curious scene took place near the town of Prince George, about two miles from us. His highness speaks English very well, having been in England. He lent us a canoe, and walked down to the water-side with us, and in the way he had sense enough to acknowledge that the chances were very much against the prisoner. We passed the evening before, to be ready, at the house of a vative chief, who received us very hospitably. The situation was delightful, by a point of land by the sea-side, and surrounded by mangrove, orange, and lime trees. It is true, they hare bour the musquetoes and sand-flies, and they made a delicious banquet on us all night.

all night. Our host went in state to the triai, acompanied by his wife and .many children. His body-guard consisted of three ragged fellows with musquets,


and as many with different kinds of swords. We crossed an arm of the sea, fourteen in a canoe ; any one of us could have overset it with very little trouble. The situation of this town is certainly delightful. On the banks of a very beautiful river, we have a distant in and prospect, the country behind us being very high; but the hills are covered with beautiful trees, and we have many streams of excellent water. With respect to health, I think it equal, if not superior, to any part of the coast; and as the country gets more cleared, I think it will improve in this respect. At present, we are but indifferently housed, the French having destroyed all the company's buildings. The miserable huts of the Nova Scotia settlers were our only refuge. I have ore now building, which, I hope, will keep out the rain ; which is more than I can say of my present inansion ; and it falls very heavy in what they call the wet season, which lasts about three months, from July to September inclu. sive, every year. The present has been hitherto uncommonly fine. With most respectful compliments to Mrs. and Miss Tooke, and best wishes to Thomas and William,

believe me,

Your's most truly,




HE Psalmist, speaking of the great Jehovah, says, Honour

and majesty are before him.* How grand is the description! Jebovab made the heavens. ver. 5. But he has not confined the manifestation of his glory to the skies; for, strength and beauty are in bis sanctuary. Upon earth, no less than in heaven, he discovers himself to be God, even the God of Salvation. Taking these words in their connection, they, manifest the glory of God, as displayed both to the church militant and triumphant.

In heaven they are favoured with a clear, unclouded, and everlasting display of God's bonour and majesty ; wbile, as the God of salvation, he communicates strength and beauty to bis people, here upon earth.

In heaven, while his perfections are unveiled, his purposes opened, his promises and designs accomplished, they behold Psalm xcvi. 6.

his honour and majesty. God is seen, is known, is loved, served, and enjoyed. They have full conviction that bonour and majesty are before bim.---But what mean these words ? and what evidence have we of this assertion ? ---Honour may respect the character of God; and majesty, the display of that glorious character, in the manifestation of his equal perfections.

If then bonour intend the equity, perfection, and glory of the Divine Character, it necessarily follows, that God cannot admit or effect any thing contrary to, or fail in any one thing that he undertakes for the honour of his character. Could this be the case, it must imply some weakness, versatility, or imperfection in his nature. It could not be for the honour of the Divine Character to do, or to permit any thing that was unworthy of himself. For instance, should be resolve to create a world, liis honour requires him to make all things very good; and if he determines to form reasonable creatures, to inhabit the world he has formed, they must be created in boliness, placed under his authority; and the la.v of that government must be holy, just, and good. If tliese creatures transgress, it is higlily reasonable that they be condemned, and punished, in a manner proportioned to the malignity of their offence, and to the glory and perfection of that government under which they were placed. This law, once transgressed, leaves no place for future repentance, or subsequent obedience to make up the breach. Even supposing mercy in God, and that mercy inclined to show favour to the criminal, not even the purpose of mercy can be effected until justice be satisfied. However, justice cannot be satisfied but through the interposition of a substitute; nor can any substitute be found equal to the undertaking, unless upon his own account he owes nothing; and who, while as man he suffers, as Mediator can convey righteousness and life. If God resolve to save șinners, the honour of his character must be maintained : His law must be magnified; his justice vindicated; guilt and condemnation be removed from the transgressor; righteousness imputed; and life imparted. But all this bonour is set before God, and his glorified church, in the person and work of that exalted Saviour, who, in the midst of the throne, appears 18 the Lamb that was slain. There the truth and beauty of the Apostle's remark appears in a light far more clear than to us: It became bim, for whom are all things, and by wbom ure all things, in bringing muny sons unto glory, to make the captuin of their salvution perfect through sufferings. The honour of God required that sin # Heb. i. 10.


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