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THE

EDINBURGH ENCYCLOPÆDIA;

CONDUCTED BY

DAVID BREWSTER, LL. D.

F. R. S. LOND. AND EDIN. AND M. R. I. A.

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF PARIS, AND OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF
PRUSSIA ; MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES; OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF SCIENCES OF DENMARK; OF
THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF GOTTINGEN, AND OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MODENA; HONORARY ASSOCIATE OF THE
ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF LYONS; ASSOCIATE OF THE SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS; MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF THE AN-
TIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND; OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, AND OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; OF THE
AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, OF THE
HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW YORK; OF THE LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF UTRECHT; OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL
SOCIETY OF CAMBRIDGE ; OF THE LITERARY AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY OF PERTH; OF THE NORTHERN INSTITUTION, AND OF
THE ROYAL MEDICAL AND PHYSICAL SOCIETIES OF EDINBURGH; OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA; OP
THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF NATURAL HISTORY OF BERLIN; OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF FRANKFORT; OF THE
PHILOSOPHICAL AND LITERARY SOCIETY OF LEEDS, OF THE ROYAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CORNWALL, AND OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL
SOCIETY OF YORK.

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

GENTLEMEN EMINENT IN SCIENCE AND LITERATURE.

IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES.

VOLUME X V I.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED FOR WILLIAM BLACKWOOD;
AND JOHN WAUGH, EDINBURGH; JOHN MURRAY; BALDWIN & CRADOCK;
J. M. RICHARDSON, LONDON; AND THE OTHER PROPRIETORS.

M.DCCC.XXX.

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