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from the spotted leopard-skin sus-
pended near Osiris, i. 235.
Nebris and the leopard-skin dress of
priests in Egypt, i. 291.
Nebuchadnezzar deprived Egypt of
its influence in Syria, i. 30).
Nechesia and the Leucos Portus, ii.
235, 237.

Necho lost all the conquests of Egypt
in Asia, i. 309.
Necklaces, ii. 339–340, 341.

and jewellery offered in the
temple, i. 260.

Nectanebo, i. 309.
Needles, ii. 344, 345.
Nef, or Nûm. See Nû.

Neith, i. 296, 298, 328. See Minerva.
Nelumbium not represented growing
in Egypt, i. 57.

-only represented by the Romans,
i. 57.

Nepenthes probably the Hasheesh (or
opium ?), ii. 35.

Netpe, i. 181, 256; ii. 396, 397. See

Netting needles, ii. 91, 95.

Nets of different kinds, i. 214.

enclosing part of the desert, i.214.
of flax string, ii. 95.

of very fine quality, ii. 80.
for birds, ii. 180-185.

for fishing. See Fishing-nets.
"Newest" things recommended in-
stead of the "best," ii. 289.
Nightshade used in Egypt for chap-
lets, ii. 33.

Nile, valley of the, has more arable
land than formerly, i. 306.

deposit the same throughout its
course from Abyssinia, ii. 19. See

water, fattening properties of
the, i. 293, 295, 322.

water red and green at the begin-
ning of the inundation, ii. 5.

water laid up in jars before it is
green, and error of Aristides, ii. 5.
Osiris the beneficent property
of the, i. 298.

white and Blue, properly
"Black," ii. 19, 20.

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fertilizing properties of the, ii.

Niloa, festival of the Nile, i. 282.
Nilometer of Elephantine, ii. 257.
Nilometers made, ii. 249.

daily rise according to the, ii.
52, 249.

Nilus, the god, of a blue and red
colour, ii. 5.

called "Hapi." See List of Wood-
cuts, 278.

Nimroud or Nineveh sculptures,i. 152;
ii. 263. See Nineveh.

weights brought by Mr. Layard
from, ii. 260.

Nineveh (Niniee), tribute from, i.

sculptures, cruelty of the Assy-
rians shown by the, i. 3, 410.

marbles not so old as some have
supposed, ii. 263.

ornaments, i. 152, 153.

ornaments late compared to those
of Egypt, ii. 290.

Nisroch, the head of a bird on a vase
like that of the god, i. 152.
Nitriotis. See Natron Lakes.
Nitrous top-dressing, on the land, ii.


Nofre (or Nofr), Atmoo, i. 256, 284,
285. See Nutar.
Nomarchs, ii. 230, 231.

Nomes of Egypt, furnishing soldiers,
i. 337.

-, thirty-six, afterwards fifty-three,
ii. 229.
Noreg, probably used of old, answer-
ing to the Hebrew moreg, ii. 47.

like the Roman tribulum, ii. 48.
Notaries, public, ii. 165.

or public scribes punished for
fraud, ii. 214, 217.

Nû, Nûm, Noub, Nef, Neph, or Kneph
(Chnuphis), the god, i. 271, 327,

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Obelisks, removed to Europe, ii. 311.
Offerings of various kinds, i. 323.

to different Gods at various
periods of the year, i. 263.

most common, i. 263.

of flowers, fruits, ointment, i.

of emblems, jewels, i. 260.

for the dead, ii. 362.

Og, King of Bashan, iron bedstead of,

i. 72.

Oils, ii. 23, 24, 27, 29, 30, 32.
Ointment. See Anointing.

offering of, i. 259, 260.

on heads of guests, i. 77, 78.
to anoint the statue of a God, i.

of various kinds, i. 259; ii. 23,
24, 27, 32.


found in jars in the tombs, i.

pots of different materials for
holding, i. 155, 157.

sagdas, or psagdæ, i. 259; ii. 342.
Olive, i. 57; ii. 24, 28.

soldiers carried a twig of, at
the sacrifice of thanks for victory,
i. 279.

Ombos (Ombite nome), i. 242.
Onions, i. 168, 169.

offered and eaten, i. 323, 324.
-, a particular mode of presenting,
i. 324; ii. 357.

error respecting, i. 168.

of Egypt of excellent flavour, i.

stories respecting, i. 169.
Orchard, i. 37-39.

Ornaments worn by women, ii. 336-

Ornan, threshing instruments of, ii.
46, 47.

O'Sioót, or O'sioût, (formerly Lycopo-
lis,) wolf mummies at, i. 228.
Osirei, King. See Sethi.

Osiris, loss of, Osiris found, i. 287,

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Osiris, history of, the great mystery,
i. 298.

the abstract idea of good, or
goodness, i. 330; ii. 356.

before 18th dynasty only kings
called after death, ii. 323.

after that time all good men
called, ii. 357, 367, 380.

souls of good men returned to,
ii. 329, 357.

remarkable and peculiar cha-
racter of, i. 331.

-, eye of, i. 244, 257; ii. 127, 367,
386, 391.

sceptres of, i. 257, 266; ii. 381.
chamber of, at Philæ, i. 257.
they beat themselves in honour

of, i. 264.

or Bacchus, i. 286. See Bacchus.
and Anubis, rites of, i. 129. See

rites of, i. 129, 279, 301.
and the Nile, i. 298. See Nile.
invented the pipe, i. 127.
the Great, Deity of the future
state, i. 331.

mummies in form of, ii. 383, 385.
small figures of the dead, in the
form of, ii. 367, 400.

wooden figure of, brought to
table, i. 186, 187.

allegories connected with the
land of Egypt, and, i. 300; ii. 53.
Osirtasen I., i. 204, 307.

the original Sesostris, i. 307.
Osirtasens, fashionable dogs in the
reigns of the, i. 231.

Ostrich feathers and eggs, i. 224.
caught for its eggs and plumes,
ii. 54.

Ottomans, i. 58, 67.

Oxen for sacrifice not necessarily free
from black spots, i. 290.

clean, belonged to Epaphus, or
Apis, i. 290.

Oxyrhinchus, city of, i. 307.

fish, i. 254; ii. 191.

Paamylia, i. 286.

Painted walls and panels, i. 19–21.
houses and temples, ii. 2.0, 291,

Painters, and carvers in stone, dis-
tinct from sculptors, ii. 56.
Painting before sculpture, ii. 281.
and sculpture, origin of, ii. 270,

See Greek.

Painting, oldest in Egypt and Greece,
ii. 277, 272.

on panel in Egypt, ii. 277.

in fresco, not in Egypt, ii. 278.
Palace. See Pavilion.

Palimpsests, ii. 99.

Palanquins, i. 73, 75; ii. 119.
Pallaces, Pullacides, Pellices Jovis, i,
96, 133, 317.

Palm, or date tree, split, and used for
roofing, i. 18.
Palm-tree, i. 39, 55-57.

used for various purposes, parts
of the, i. 56.


miscalled "of the desert," i. 55,

requires water to enable it to
grow, i. 168.

a great gift to the people, i. 168.
branch type of a year, i. 256.

the Dom, or Theban, i. 56, 57.
See Dóm tree.

formerly said to be sterile in
Lower Egypt, ii. 36.
Palm- wine, i. 55.

of the Oasis called Lowbgeh, i. 55.
used in the embalming process,
ii. 383, 385.

Panegyries, or assemblies, i. 280.
Panels, houses with painted, i. 19–21.
walls with, i. 28, 29.

Pantheism, i. 328.

Pantomime, Italian, i. 101.
Paper, earliest substitutes for, ii. 100.
when first made from linen rags,
ii. 101.

of cotton and silk, ii. 101.

in Arabic called "leaf," ii. 100.
leaves used for, ii. 100.
very old in China, ii. 101.

when first used in England, ii.
Papremis, or Mars, fête of, i. 209, 298.
Papyrus or byblus plant, ii. 26, 29,
95, 96.

used for making punts, baskets,
&c, a more common kind, ii. 95, 96.
of different kinds, ii. 96.
early use of the, ii. 98.

or book, i. 274.

eaten, i. 168; ii. 3.
garlands, i. 57, 81.
punts, i. 236; ii. 5.

punt a security against croco-
diles, i. 236.

and another water plant, em-
blems of Upper and Lower Egypt,
i. 257.

Papyrus not now in Egypt, ii. 97, 100.
grows only in Sicily and Syria,
ii. 97, 100.

prophecy fulfilled respecting the,
ii. 100.

its name perpetuated in " pa-
per," ii. 100.

modern paper made from the,
ii. 97.

or paper, when found very
brittle, ii. 96.

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mode of making, ii. 96-98.
different qualities of, ii. 98.

of fine quality, ii. 96.

Pliny wrong in supposing, not
used before the time of Alexander,
ii. 98.

breadth of sheets of, ii. 98.

continued in use till time of
Charlemagne, ii. 98.

—, monopoly of, resold, the original
writing erased, ii. 99.

substitutes for, of pottery,
board, &c., ii. 98-100.

Parchment, invention of, ii. 98, 99.
excellent Arab, ii. 100.

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Parks and covers,

Parlour, i. 11.

Party. See Guests.

37, 215.

Pasht, Bubastis, Diana, i. 296.
Passport system in Egypt, ii. 200, 201.
Paste kneaded by the hands, and the
feet, i. 174, 177.

Pastry, i. 174, 177.

Pavilion and palace of the King,

i. 22.

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the great navigators of old, ii.

doubled the Cape of Good Hope,
ii. 133.

traded in tin, ii. 133. See Tin.
exchanged manufactures for tin,
ii. 136.

went to Britain for tin, ii. 134,


commercial jealousy of the, ii.

trade of the, ii. 133-136. See
Spain, and Gold."
Phoenix, bird, apparently the Benno,
i. 252.

Phrah," the sun," changed into

Pharaoh, i. 310. See King.
Physician, origin of saying "a fool
or a, after forty," ii. 352.
Pig sacrificed to the moon, i. 286.
to Typho, i. 323.

paste figure of a, offered by poor
people, i. 337.

's flesh abhorred by the priests,
i. 322, 324.

treatment of, not kept in a sty,
i. 231.

eaten sometimes by the Egypti-
ans, i. 323.

turned into the fields, ii. 18, 19.
rarely found in the sculptures,
and never before the 18th dynasty
(woodcut), ii. 18.

Pillows, or head stools, of wood and
other materials, i. 63, 71, 335, 336.
Pins, ii. 344, 345.

Pipe, the Egyptian, very old, i. 127.
of reed and of straw, i. 127-129.
invented by Osiris, i. 127.
double, i. 128, 12л.

double, was among the sacred
instruments, i. 129.

double, of modern Egypt, or
Zummara, i. 128.

Pipes and flutes at first rude, i. 84.

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Pitch called "zift" or "sift," i. 397;
ii. 120, 259.

Plants of Egypt, i. 57, 167-169; ii.
20-22, 25, 26.

from Pliny, ii. 23, 24, 27-35.
sacred, i. 256.

brought as part of a foreign tri-
bute, i. 57, 395.

number of, in Egypt about 1300,
ii. 26.

producing oil. See Oils.
raised in ancient Egypt, ii. 26.
now grown before and after the
inundation, ii. 21, 22, 25.

wild and indigenous, of the
desert; few introduced into Egypt,

ii. 26.

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tree represented, i. 36.

the Rhodon (rose) that gave its
name to Rhodes, ii. 29.

Pompeii, red panels, and "reeds for
columns" painted at, i. 19-21.
Population of Egypt in old times, i.
304, 305.

of the world the same now as of
old, i. 305.

of Alexandria, i. 305.
Porcelain, or glass-porcelain, ii. 66,
70, 71.

of many colours, yellow put on
afterwards, and parts added to, ii.

Porches, i. 9.

Porcupine, i. 216, 225, 228, 246.
Porte, the Sublime, or "High Gate,"
ii. 202.

Potters, ii. 107, 108.

Potter's wheel, ii. 107.
Pottery, &c., used for writing upon,
ii. 99.

Coptic names for different
kinds of, ii. 107.

of modern Egypt has succeeded
to that of old time, ii. 107.

Egyptian, far inferior in taste

to that of Greece, ii. 109.

Poulterers, ii. 184, 185.
Poultry. See Cocks and hens.
Pounders, ii. 165, 166.

used stone mortars, ii. 165, 166.
Pount, Asiatic people of, i. 336.
Power of Egypt, i. 308, 418; ii. 263.
Precious stones imitated in glass, ii.
60, 63.

cut with the diamond, ii. 67.
metals formerly used, ii. 245.

-, amount of, in old times, ii. 247.
See Gold, Wealth.

Preserves, or covers, i. 37, 215.
Prevention of crime in youth a mo-
dern suggestion, ii. 215.

Priest, each, had one wife, i. 5; ii.

Priestesses, i. 316, 317. See Women,

Priesthood kept up their influence
partly by pomp and ceremonies, i.

Priests, worldly possessions of the,
i. 7.

the law was in the hands of the,
i. 311.

and military class had the highest
rank, i. 316.

of various grades, i. 316, 319.
of the King, i. 316.

dress of the, i. 333, 334.
dressed in fawn (or leopard)
skins, i. 291.

who wore the leopard-skin dress.
See Prophet.

chief, and the prophets called
"Sem," i. 270, 319. Se Prophet.
enjoyed great privileges, i. 319,
321, 325.

paid no taxes, but had public
allowance of food, &c., i. 319.


initiated into the mysteries, i.

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Priests abstained from pork, fish,
beans, &c., i. 322, 324, 325.
abstained from salt on certain
occasions, i. 324.

ablutions of the, i. 324.
fond of cleanliness, ii. 327.
left the people in ignorance, i.

raised their own class, and de-
graded the people, i. 325.

were moral, and set a good ex-
ample, i. 322, 325.

did not disregard social ties,
performed the duties of fathers and
husbands, i. 326.


governed the country well, i.

did not assume power over the
King as the Ethiopian pontiffs did,
i. 326.

system of the, not suited to all
times, and too unbending, i. 326.
slept on a wooden pillow, i. 335,


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Principles of nature, the vivifying
and producing, i. 332, 333.
Prisoners of war, i. 373, 416.

treatment of, i. 406, 410.
employment of, i. 416.
Private life gives an insight into cha-
racter, i. 5, 210.

Prizes for gymnastic exercises, cattle,
dresses, and skins, i. 210; ii. 52.
Procession of the ark of Sokari, i. 284,

at the King's coronation, i. 272,
Processions, order of, from Clemens,
i. 274.

Professions, only two, i. 311; ii. 1.
Prophet clad in the leopard-skin

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