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P. Tomb at Sakkara, arched with stone, of the time of Psammitichus, or Psamatik, II., whose name occurs on the roof to the left, and in other places.

CHAPTER X.

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TOMBS

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FUNERAL PRO

FUNERAL RITES OFFERINGS TO THE DEAD
CESSIONS-TRIALS OF THE DEAD-SACRED LAKE - BURIAL — EMBALMING
SARCOPHAGI-PAPYRI, &c.

THE great care of the Egyptians was directed to their condition after death; that last state towards which their present life was only the pilgrimage; and they were taught to consider their abode here merely as an "inn" upon the road. They looked forward to being received into the company of that Being, who represented the Divine Goodness, if pronounced worthy at the great judgment

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day; and the privilege of being called by his name was the fulfilment of all their wishes. Every one was then the same; all were equally noble ;" there was no distinction of rank beyond the tomb; and though their actions might be remembered on earth with gratitude and esteem, no king or conqueror was greater than the humblest man after death; nor were any honours given to them as heroes. And if ceremonies were performed to the deceased, they were not in honour of a man translated to the order of the gods, but of that particular portion of the divine essence which constituted the soul of each individual, and returned to the Deity after death. Every one, therefore, whose virtuous life entitled him to admission into the regions of the blessed, was supposed to be again united to the Deity, of whom he was an emanation; and, with the emblem of Thmei, purporting that he was judged or justified, he received the holy name of Osiris. His body was so bound up as to resemble the mysterious ruler of Amenti or Hades; it bore some of the emblems peculiar to him; and the beard, of a form which belonged exclusively to the gods, was given to the deceased in token of his having assumed the character of that deity. (See above, p. 329.)

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483. Services performed to the dead by one of the family. Here it is a son. The principal part of the offering consists of onions. (See Vol. i., p. 324.)

Thebes.

Offerings were also made to the god Osiris himself, after the burial, in the name of the deceased; and certain services or liturgies were performed for him by the priests, at the expense of the family; their number depending upon their means, or the respect they were inclined to pay to the memory of their parent. If the sons or relations were of the priestly order, they had the

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484. The members of the family present when the services were performed.

Thebes.

privilege of officiating on these occasions; and the members of the family had permission, and were perhaps frequently expected,

to be present, whether the services were performed by strangers, or by relations of the deceased. The ceremonies consisted of a sacrifice, similar to those offered in the temples, vowed for the deceased to one or more gods (as Osiris, Anubis, and others connected with Amenti): incense and libation were also presented; and a prayer was sometimes read, the relations and friends being present as mourners. They even joined their 485. A woman embracing, and weep- prayers to those of the priest; and, ing before, her husband's mummy. embracing the mummied body, and bathing its feet with their tears, they uttered those expressions of

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Thebes.

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Tomb at Thebes..

Conveying the mummies on a sledge to the closet in which they were kept, after the services had been performed to them. The priest
(fig. 8) is pouring oil (?) over them. On the altar are three vases of oil, cakes, a basket of grapes, and some other things (which were indistinct
from being much defaced). Below are two glass bottles of wine. Even in this serious subject the Egyptian artists could not refrain from
their love of caricature; and one of the mummies (fig. 4) is falling down upon the priest, who supports it with his hands.

grief, and praises of the deceased, which were dictated by their feelings on so melancholy an occasion.

The priest who officiated at the burial service was selected from the grade of Pontiffs who wore the leopard skin; but various other rites were performed by one of the minor priests to the mummies previous to their being lowered into the pit of the tomb, as well as after that ceremony. Indeed they continued to be administered at intervals, as long as the family paid for their performance; and it is possible that upon the cessation of this payment, or after a stipulated time, the priests had the right of transferring the tomb to another family, which the inscriptions. within them show to have been done, even though belonging to members of the priestly order.

When the mummies remained in the house, or in the chamber of the sepulchre, they were kept in moveable wooden closets, with folding doors, out of which they were taken by the minor functionaries to a small altar, before which the priest officiated. The closet and the mummy were placed on a sledge, in order to facilitate their movement from one place to another; and the

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latter was drawn with ropes

to the altar, and taken back by the same means when the ceremony was over. On these occasions, as in the prayers for the dead, they made the usual offerings of incense and libation, with cakes, flowers, and fruit; and even anointed the mummy, oil or ointment being poured

487. Pouring oil (?) over a mummy. The priest (fig. 1) has a napkin on his shoulder. Fig. 2 holds a over its head.* Sometimes papyrus. The mode of placing the napkin is remarkable, being the same as now adopted in the East several priests attended. by servants while guests are washing their hands before meals. Tomb at Thebes. One carried a napkin over after the anointing of the mummy;

his shoulder, to be used

another brought a papyrus roll containing a prayer, or the usual

*Woodcuts 486, 487.

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