The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630-1754
In this original study of the Portuguese Empire in the East, the Estado da India, George Souza looks in detail at the activities of Macao. His aim is to enquire into the nature of Portuguese society in China and the South China Sea and explain why the political and economic activities of the Portuguese crown did not inhibit the growth of local entrepreneurial trade. He also examines the nature of Portuguese maritime trade in Asia and analyses the focal role of Macao as an adjunct to the Canton market. The operations of Portuguese private merchants, the so-called 'country traders', are described and tellingly assessed in the wider context of the economic development of China and Southeast Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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the Estado da India and Macao
Population personalities and communal power
Country traders and Crown monopoly
South China 3
Merchants and markets
Western Indonesian Archipelago
Country traders and the search for markets
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activities administrators amount annual arrived Asia Asian attempt Batavia Boxer caixas Canton capital cargoes carried century Ch'ing Chinese coast collection commodities Company continued Crown customs duties demand direct Dutch early East economic efforts eighteenth century English established Estado da India Europe European exported finance fols forces foreign gold imports increased indigenous Indonesian interest involved islands Japan Japanese Jesuits junks late Lisbon losses Macao Macao's country traders Macassar maintained major Malacca Manila maritime trade merchants Ming officials participation pepper period Philippines picols political ports Portuguese country traders Portuguese shipping Portuguese trade position production profit purchased quantities raw silk received records region relations reports result Senado da Camara seventeenth century silk silver society sold sources South China Sea Spanish successful Sultan supplies Table taels Timor Tonkin VOC's voyage World