The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630-1754
In this original study of the Portuguese Empire in the East, the Estado da India, George Souza looks in detail at the activities of Macao. His aim is to enquire into the nature of Portuguese society in China and the South China Sea and explain why the political and economic activities of the Portuguese crown did not inhibit the growth of local entrepreneurial trade. He also examines the nature of Portuguese maritime trade in Asia and analyses the focal role of Macao as an adjunct to the Canton market. The operations of Portuguese private merchants, the so-called 'country traders', are described and tellingly assessed in the wider context of the economic development of China and Southeast Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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Maritime trade in Asia
the Estado da India and Macao
Population personalities and communal power
Country traders and Crown monopoly
Merchants and markets
Country traders and the search for markets
Macao and the Estado da India
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activities administrators Ajuda annual archival Asia Asian Banjarmasin Bantam Batavia C. R. Boxer caixas Canton capitao-geral cargoes Casa da Misericordia casados Ch'ing officials Chinese junks Chinese merchants cloves Cochinchina commercial commodities customs duties Dutch economic eighteenth century established Estado da India finance fols foreign trade gold imports Indian Ocean indigenous Indonesian archipelago Japanese Jesuits late Lesser Sunda islands Lisbon Macao Macao's country traders Macassar Macau Malabar coast Malacca maritime trade Mataram Ming officials Moluccas monopoly Ning-po Palembang participation pepper Philippines picols political ports Portugal Portuguese and Chinese Portuguese at Macao Portuguese country traders Portuguese Crown Portuguese from Macao Portuguese merchants Portuguese shipping Portuguese society Portuguese trade profit Province of Japan purchased raw silk revenue sandalwood Santa Casa Senado da Camara seventeenth century Siam South China Sea Spanish Sultan supplies taels Timor Tonkin traders at Macao traders from Macao Viceroy VOC's