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141-Manual Labour. S. J.-By no means The pitiless spider is weaving their doom, can we call manual labour low, nor associate with Then, ladybird ! ladybird ! fly away home! it the idea of meanness, and think that an intelli- Hark! hark! to thy children's bewailing !" gent people must scorn it. Once let cultivated

144-Filtered Water. W.-The clearest and men plough, and dig, and follow the common

best water loses nothing of its goodness by est labours, and ploughing, and digging, and

filteration, but rather improves; no house, trades, will cease to be mean. It is the inan

therefore, should be without a filtering founwho determines the dignity of the occupation, not the occupation which measures the dignity taking out the head of a cask, setting it up

tain. A very economical one may be made by of the man. Physicians and surgeons perform right, and at a distance of about one-third from operations less cleanly than fall to the lot of

the bottom putting in a shelf or partition, most mechanics. We have seen a distinguished chemist covered with dust like a labourer. pierced with small holes; the shelf is then to be

covered with a layer of clean, small pebbles, Still these men were not degraded. Their intelligence gave dignity to their work; and so

over which a quantity of fresh charcoal, made our labourers, once educated, will give dignity and fine sand should be laid to the depth of an

from wood or bones,—the latter is preferable; to their toils.

142-Female Society. W. E. H.-By all inch, and then covered with another layer of means mix as often as you can with refined pebbles; over this should be placed another female society. A dignified, social intercourse

shelf, pierced with holes, to prevent the water

which runs or is poured in, from disturbing the with intelligent female society has a happy effect upon the character. It tends to soften prepared bed of charcoal, and sand, and pebbles.

At the bottom of the cask a cock is to be placed, down asperities, promote cheerfulness, retine

to draw off the water as it is wanted. If it the feelings, and to save a young man from vicious company. It should be more reserved

is intended to use rain-water, a pipe should than we generally allow with our own sex, but

communicate from the reservoir to the top of

the cask, and in that case the top is to be never more trifling. It is a mistake into which some young men fall, to suppose that females

fitted in, leaving only an opening for the pipe,

and sufficient vont. are incapable of being entertained by any other than the most light and trifling conversation. 145-Children's Playthings. M. J. J.--Play. They are usually quite as capable, and as much things that children make for themselves are disposed, to converse sensibly, as our own sex- a great deal better than those which are sometimes more so. Depend upon it, they will bought for them. They employ them a much soon mark you as either very silly or very imper- longer time, they exercise ingenuity, and they tinent, and perhaps both, if all your conversation really please them more. A little girl had with them is of a light and frothy character. better fashion her cups and saucers of acorns,

143-Children's Song to the Lady-bird. M.- than to have a set of earthern ones supplied. “What is the origin of the nursery rhyme of A boy takes ten times more pleasure in a little *Ladybird ! Ladybird ! fly away home,

wooden cart he has pegged together, than he Your house is on fire, your children will roam ?

would in a painted and gilded carriage bonght It is very difficult to trace the origin of many of

from the toy-shop; and we do not believe any

expensive rocking-horse ever gave so much our popular customs and songs, but there is an evident affinity to most of them in foreign coun

satisfaction, as we have seen a child in the countries. In this particular case, variations of this try take with a cocoa-nut husk, which he had

bridled and placed on four sticks. There is a familiar song are said to belong to the vernacular literature of Germany, Denmark, and peculiar satisfaction in inventing things for

one's self. No matter though the construction Sweden, Two verses of the German version,

be clumsy and awkward; it employs time according to Taylor, are as follows:

(which is a great object in childhood), and the “Ladybird ! ladybird ! pretty one! stay, pleasure the invention gives is the first im

Come sit on my finger, so happy and gay; pulse to ingenuity and skill. For this reason With me shall no mischief betide thee,

the making of little boats and mechanical toys No harm would I do thee, no foeman is near should not be discouraged; and when any

I only would gaze on thy beauties so dear, difficulty occurs above the powers of a child, Those beautiful winglets beside thee.

assistance should be cheerfully given. If the “Ladybird ! ladybird ! fly away home! parents are able to explain the principles on

Thy house is on fire, thy children will roam ! which machines are constructed, the advantage List ! list ! to their cry and bewailing!

will be tenfold.

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146-Letter Writing. H. M.-The more 152-Anxiety acts injuriously upon the Body. rational and elevated the topics are, on which H. M'C. There is no doubt that mental dis you write, the less will you care for your letters tress and anxiety act injuriously upon the body, being seen, or for paragraphs being road out of and tend to shorten life. We can scarcely have them; and where there is no need of any a better example of this than in medical men, secrecy, it is best not to bind your friend by who seldom live to a great age. But let us see promises, but to leave it to her discretion. what Dr. Caspar, of Berlin, says about the

147-Domestic Duties. J.No young woman duration of life: “Taking 100 individuals in is fit to be married till she has learned how each class, the number who attained the age of to keep house. It is as much of an imposition 70 have been among divines, 42; agriculturfor parents to put off their daughter for a wife ists, 40; employés in high offices, 35; mercanbefore she has learned the domestic virtues, as tile persons, 35; military men, 32; employés it would be for a medical or a clerical body to in lower offices, 32; advocates, 28; teachers put off upon the community & man for a doctor professors, 27; medical men, 24." or a minister, who had not learned his pro- 153-Registration of Births. S. M.-It was fession.

your own fault that the registrar made a charge 148-Railways. J. F. - Railways made of for registering the birth of your child. The Act wood were first used in Northumberland requires that the father or mother of every child about the year 1663, and made of iron, at born in England (or, in case of the death, illness, Whitehaven, in 1738. The first iron railroad absence, or inability of the father and mother, was laid down at Coalbrook -dale in 1786. the occupier of the house in which they reside), Steam power to convey coals on a railway was shall, within forty-two days next after the day first employed by Blenkinsop, at Hunslet, near of such birth, give information to the registrar Leeds, and afterwards on the Stockton and of the parish where the child was born, without Darlington Railway.

the payment of any fee, providing it is done 149-Flattery. T. W. C.-To bestow flattery within forty-two days; but if it is neglected upon a person to his face, betrays a want of after that period, it can be registered within six delicacy; yet, not less so, rudely to rebuke his months of the birth, by the payment of 78. 6d. : errors or mention his faults, and not have a after six months, it cannot be registered at all. tender regard for his feelings. It is not im- 154Public Baths and Washhouses. M. J. W. proper, and may sometimes be very kind to -We have explained in our papers upon the mention to an individual what yourself and skin, in Vols. I. and II. of the New Series, but others think of his conduct or performances, particularly at p. 111, of Vol II., that it is highly when it is for his interest or usefulness to know important the skin should be frequently it. To express to a friend deserved approbation cleansed, in order to remove the residue of the is generally proper.

fluid poured out through its minute orifices. 150-Snow before the Doors. P. M.-You If this residue is not removed by some means, acted unwisely in strewing salt over the snow certain diseases are produced, or, at the least, before your door, because you produced a mix- aggravated. The best method of cleansing the ture colder than melting ice. To prove this, you skin is to wash it frequently,-not merely the have only to mix two parts of snow with one face and hands, but the whole body; therefore part of common salt, and plunge a thermometer it is desirable to bathe, or to use cold effusion into the vessel containing it. You will then find frequently. There is no doubt that the erection that the mercury sinks to 5o. Your best plan to of public baths and washhouses have been proadopt in future is to have the snow swept away ductive of much benefit to society at large, and from the pathway, and sprinkle the pavement particularly in lessening disease. The return for well with sand, sifted ashes, or sawdust.

the quarter ending Midsummer, 1852, shows that 151-Proper Food, &c., for Macaws. J. B. there were 214,369 bathers, and 44,502 washers, -You will find that the best food for these at the six establishments in London, during birds is bread soaked in boiled milk, boiled the quarter; the receipts being £3,509 38. 11d.; potatoes, or other vegetables, and some fruits, being an increase of £1,443 78. 10d. over the preparticularly nuts. Do not give them salt meat ceding quarter of this year. The returns from or parsley; but occasionally a bone of fresh meat Liverpool, Hull Bristol, Preston, Birmingham, to pick, and a peppercorn, as a treat, are useful. and Maidstone, are equally encouraging, showThey should not be kept in cages, but upon ing the desire there is for cleanliness among the perches about four feet high, which are fixed in great mass of the people, as well as the capathe centre of a stand, well supplied with sand. bility of these institutions when in active operaKeep them clean and warm.

tion.

X

155-Plaster Casts of Leaves and Flowers. alive and whole, while the others have theirs 8. C. G.–The 1 af, as early as convenient after killed and dressed. Fruit, vegetables, and water being gathered, is to be laid on fine-grained | toem with animal life, and the more of these moist sand, in a perfectly natural position, with one eats and drinks, the more happy families that surface uppermost which is to form the he consigns to a living tomb. Then he swal. cast, and to be banked up by sand, in order that lows whole nations without deriving the benefit

may be perfectly supported. It is then, by he might from eating a thousandth part of a means of a broad camel-hair brush, to be single animal of another class.” covered over with a thin coating of wax and 157-The Cost of Gas, compared with Oil and Burguudy pitch, rendered fluid by heat. The Candles. J. S.--If you consider the quantity leaf is now to be removed from the sand, and and quality of the light afforded, there can be dipped in cold water,--the wax becomes hard, no doubt that gas is the cheapest method of illuand sufficiently tough to allow the leaf to be mination yet discovered. If you have been ripped off, without altering its form. This being accustomed to two ordinary candles, you must done, the wax mould is placed in moist sand, not expect that a gas-pendant will consume gas and banked up as the leaf itself was previ. that will actually cost less than the two candles; ously; it is then covered with plaster of Paris, on the contrary, the proper way to estimate the made thin, due care being taken that the expense is to consider,-first, the amount of plaster be nicely pressed into all the interstices light necessary for your room,-secondly, the of the mould, by means of a camel-hair brush. quantity of light furnished by your pendant,As soon as the plaster has set, the warmth thus thirdly, original cost, and the wear and tear of produced softens the wax, which, in conse- apparatus, -versus, candlesticks, grease droppedi quence of the moisture of the plaster, is pre- about the house, accidents from sparks or the vented from adhering to it, and with a little neglected snuff from candles. If gas sheli dexterity it may be rolled up, parting com- escape from the pendant, or pipes, it is soon aspletely from the cast, without injuring it in the covered by the disagreeable odour. All that is least. Casts obtained in the manner thus required is to open the door and windows of the described are very perfect, possessing a high re- room, to prevent any danger of an explosior, lief, and form excellent models, either for the Another advantage attending the use of gas is, draughtsman or for the moulder of architectu- that the quantity of light can always be regu. ral ornaments.

lated ;-it may be reduced to a degree less than 156 - Vegetarianism. L. P.-If you wish to a rushlight, and raised to a degree equal to adopt a vegetable diet, do so by all means, but twenty-five wax candles. We imagine that you as you have asked our advice we give it. have not used proper burners. The following Although we have little hope of making you

Table will enable any person to decide upon think as we do, because you say that you “are burner they require, as it gives the number of determined to do as you please," we can only wax candles, of six to the pound, each is equal add that we trust what you do will please. to in intensity : It is now placed beyond doubt that man was

5 feet 7 feet 10 feet designed to live on a mixed diet, experience

per hr. per hr. proves and anatomy establishes it as a fact.

Binner's burner

15

25 We are not carnivorous or herbivorous, but

Argand (15 holes): 13

19 omnivorous; that is to say, we do not live Shadowless (badly wholly upon flesh or vegetables, but devour drilled)

13

19 both kinds. It is found that the most perfect Double cone

13

20

10 Bat-wing

13 physical development, and greatest amount of

Fish-tail (No. 4)

10

13 intellect, is found among those races that adopt Natura! .

8 a mixed diet, and there is no question that a Universal

7 16 considerable variety of food is absolutely neces

Large double cone

| 18 sary for the preservation of health and life. The large or full-sized fish-tail burner is suited Mrs. Swisshelm thus concludes an article in the for open situations, being more economical than Pittsburgh Advertiser, which is written against the bat-wing, -the former consuming 7 feet the practice of vegetarianism. “As for not ‘mak- per hour, and the latter 11 or 12 feet per hour, ing walking sepulchres of themselves,' it is what when the cock is turned on fully. The best not one of them can avoid. Every one of them burner we are acquainted with is “Biddell's has swallowed a hecatomb of living creatures, Patent Self-regulating Burner," it is economical and the difference between them and beef- for small shops, and well adapted for any eaters is, that they prefer to gulp their prey place.

the

per hr.

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158-The Difference between the Price of Wheat | do, or say, or think; and, unl you cultivate er Quarter and per Barrel. S. T. E.To find it and exercise it, upon all asions and tone difference, multiply the price per quarter wards all persons, it will never be a part of y 7, and divide by 12; the result will give the yourself. mount per barrel. Thus, 568. per quarter 164-Eating Wine-glasses. D. O'N.-It is true Tultiplied by.7, and divided by 12, gives 328. 8d. that wine-glasses have been eaten by person er barrel.

and even tumblers. We witnessed the lat. 159-Chrisin or Chrisom. L. L. W.- Chrisin absurdity ourselves, upon one occasion, an i as anciently used in religious services and the person who performed the ridiculous and as a confection of oil and sweet balsam, con- dangerous feat, was a young officer in the crated by the bishop, and used in baptism, con- army. Iu “Southey's Common Place Book," rmation, extreme unction &c. The Chrisom first series, p. 577, is the following passage. frismale) was the faceclotn or piece of linen laid “There was a mad fashion among riotous er the child's head when it was baptized, and drinkers about 1792, of eating the wine-glass, ince, in old bills of mortality, such children -biting a piece out, grinding it with the teeth, died in the month, were called Chrisoms. and actually swallowing it; the enjoyment being 160-An I 0 U. A. S. M.--Although there to see how an aspirant cut his mouth! I never e no date and stamp to an 1 OU, it is legal and saw this, but R. L. had done it. Mortimer, the nding; but it is better to have a date to pre- artist did it, and is said never to have recovered int mistakes. The usual method of making it from the consequences.”-R. S. it is thus:-"Mr. Hulme, 10 U £10, James 165--Advantages arising from the Cultivation rown.' In some instances, the object for of the Sunflower. H. B.--A correspondent in an hich the money was lent is inserted, after the agricultural publication states, that the oil aount, thus :-“for money advanced upon my obtained from the seed of the sunflower will ate," or "for rent paid on my account,”—but produce gas-light at one-fourth the labour, oneis is not necessary.

fourth the cost, and in half the time necessary . 161-Persons Exempt from serving on Juries. to obtain a corresponding supply from coal, . T. S.-The persons exempted from this duty with the additional and decided advantage of e peers, judges, clergy, priests, preachers, being wholly free from any nauseous efluvia or rristers, doctors of law, advocates of the smell, affording a light far surpassing in vil law, attorneys, officers of courts, coroners, brilliancy that obtained from coal, and emitting wyscians, surgeons, apothecaries, officers of less heat by 100 degrees than coal gas. He e army and navy, pilots, household servants considers it preferable to any foreign oil for

the Queen, officers of customs and excise, culinary and domestic purposes, and recomeriffs' officers, high constables, and parish mends the cultivation of the flower as the erks, persons exempt by virtue of prescription, means of affording a profitable employment arter, grant, or writ.

to the increasing population of the British 162-The Corsned. A. F.-Corsned, in the empire. .xon means Ordeal Bread (Panis Conjuratus), 166-Greenwich Observatory. N.-The Royal : the Saxons had a superstitious way of | Observatory at Greenwich was built in 1675. It culpating themselves, by taking a piece of may be seen by obtaining leave from the Lords cad aud eating it with solemn oaths and of the Admiralty; but it must be obvious to ecrations, that it might stick in their throats any person that it is absolutely necessary to d kill them, if they were guilty. This bread prohibit idlers lounging about this establishis called the corsned, and as it is not mentioned ment, at all times The instruments are firstmany books, it is not surprising that you rate, but the building is badly contrived for the re unable to discover its meaning. The cus- purposes to which it is applied. The observam is retained in some places even now, espe- tory at Cambridge is much larger and better. ully in parts of Kent.

The salaries of the various officers at Greenwich 163-Good Breeding. E. G. B.-If you wish observatory are as follows:- the Astronomer

be a well-bred lady, you must carry your Royal, £800, per annum; the first Assistant od manners everywhere with you. It is not to ditto, £400; the second Assistant, £250 ; the thing that can be laid aside and put on at third Assistant, £200; fourth, sixth, and

True politeness is uniform disin- seventh Assistants, each £100; and the fifth restedness in trifles, accompanied by the calm Assistant £120. The Astronomer at the Cape of lf-possession which belongs to a noble sim- Good Hope receives a salary of £600 per annum, icity of purpose; and this must be the effect and the Superintendent of the “Nautical Almaa Christian spirit running through all you nack, £500.”

easure.

ENIGMAS.

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1.
Hell holds it dear, yet precious 'tis in heaven,
Light ne'er beheld it, nor to night is 't given;
In water, fire, and earth its force is found,
Yet 't will not live in air, nor in the ground;
And though each being breathes in it alone,
Yet both to soul and body 't is unknown;
In immortality it hath no part,
Nor yet is mortal, though within the heart-
The human heart enshrined-it loves to dwell,
Aye, and is found in every silent cell;
Without it what were health, or wealth, or fame?
Yet in the world it hath no part nor name.

Ans.--The letter E.

2.
A vulgar coin, of vulgar name,

I'm used in traffic every day:
But adding half to what I am,
Will half my value take away.

Ans.-A Pen

3.
From pole to pole I may extend,
The ball of earth may compreliend
Yet half of anything you see
Is just the same as half of me.

Ans.The

4.
If you can halve the wind and
And throw the nearest parts a
The rest will centre in my w
When distanced as the pole f
And sunder'd, as the sea fro
Farthest removed, are likes

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