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141-Manual Labour. S. J.-By no means can we call manual labour low, nor associate with it the idea of meanness, and think that an intelligent people must scorn it. Once let cultivated men plough, and dig, and follow the commonest labours, and ploughing, and digging, and trades, will cease to be mean. It is the man who determines the dignity of the occupation, not the occupation which measures the dignity of the man. Physicians and surgeons perform operations less cleanly than fall to the lot of most mechanics. We have seen a distinguished
chemist covered with dust like a labourer. Still these men were not degraded. Their intelligence gave dignity to their work; and so our labourers, once educated, will give dignity
to their toils.
142-Female Society. W. E. H.-By all means mix as often as you can with refined female society. A dignified, social intercourse
with intelligent female society has a happy effect upon the character. It tends to soften down asperities, promote cheerfulness, refine the feelings, and to save a young man from vicious company. It should be more reserved than we generally allow with our own sex, but never more trifling. It is a mistake into which some young men fall, to suppose that females are incapable of being entertained by any other than the most light and trifling conversation. They are usually quite as capable, and as much disposed, to converse sensibly, as our own sexsometimes more so. Depend upon it, they will soon mark you as either very silly or very impertinent, and perhaps both, if all your conversation with them is of a light and frothy character.
143-Children's Song to the Lady-bird. M.— "What is the origin of the nursery rhyme of 'Ladybird! Ladybird! fly away home, Your house is on fire, your children will roam?" It is very difficult to trace the origin of many of our popular customs and songs, but there is an evident affinity to most of them in foreign countries. In this particular case, variations of this familiar song are said to belong to the vernacular literature of Germany, Denmark, and
Sweden, Two verses of the German version, according to Taylor, are as follows:
"Ladybird! ladybird! pretty one! stay, Come sit on my finger, so happy and gay; With me shall no mischief betide thee,
No harm would I do thee, no foeman is near I only would gaze on thy beauties so dear, Those beautiful winglets beside thee.
"Ladybird! ladybird! fly away home!
Thy house is on fire, thy children will roam! List! list! to their cry and bewailing!
The pitiless spider is weaving their doom, Then, ladybird! ladybird! fly away home! Hark! hark! to thy children's bewailing!"
144-Filtered Water. W.-The clearest and best water loses nothing of its goodness by filteration, but rather improves ; no house, therefore, should be without a filtering fountaking out the head of a cask, setting it uptain. A very economical one may be made by right, and at a distance of about one-third from the bottom putting in a shelf or partition, pierced with small holes; the shelf is then to be covered with a layer of clean, small pebbles, over which a quantity of fresh charcoal, made and fine sand should be laid to the depth of an from wood or bones,-the latter is preferable; inch, and then covered with another layer of pebbles; over this should be placed another shelf, pierced with holes, to prevent the water prepared bed of charcoal, and sand, and pebbles which runs or is poured in, from disturbing the At the bottom of the cask a cock is to be placed, to draw off the water as it is wanted. If it is intended to use rain-water, a pipe should communicate from the reservoir to the top of the cask, and in that case the top is to be fitted in, leaving only an opening for the pipe, and sufficient vent.
145-Children's Playthings. M. J. J.-Playthings that children make for themselves are a great deal better than those which are bought for them. They employ them a much longer time, they exercise ingenuity, and they really please them more. A little girl had better fashion her cups and saucers of acorns, than to have a set of earthern ones supplied. A boy takes ten times more pleasure in a little wooden cart he has pegged together, than he would in a painted and gilded carriage bought from the toy-shop; and we do not believe any expensive rocking-horse ever gave so much satisfaction, as we have seen a child in the country take with a cocoa-nut husk, which he had bridled and placed on four sticks. There is a peculiar satisfaction in inventing things for one's self. No matter though the construction be clumsy and awkward; it employs time (which is a great object in childhood), and the pleasure the invention gives is the first impulse to ingenuity and skill. For this reason the making of little boats and mechanical toys should not be discouraged; and when any difficulty occurs above the powers of a child, assistance should be cheerfully given. If the parents are able to explain the principles on which machines are constructed, the advantage will be tenfold.
146-Letter Writing. H. M.-The more rational and elevated the topics are, on which you write, the less will you care for your letters being seen, or for paragraphs being read out of them; and where there is no need of any # secrecy, it is best not to bind your friend by promises, but to leave it to her discretion.
152-Anxiety acts injuriously upon the Body. H. M'C.-There is no doubt that mental distress and anxiety act injuriously upon the body, and tend to shorten life. We can scarcely have a better example of this than in medical men, who seldom live to a great age. But let us see what Dr. Caspar, of Berlin, says about the duration of life: "Taking 100 individuals in each class, the number who attained the age of 70 have been among divines, 42; agriculturists, 40; employés in high offices, 35; mercantile persons, 35; military men, 32; employés in lower offices, 32; advocates, 28; teachersprofessors, 27; medical men, 24."
153-Registration of Births. S. M.-It was your own fault that the registrar made a charge for registering the birth of your child. The Act requires that the father or mother of every child born in England (or, in case of the death, illness, absence, or inability of the father and mother, the occupier of the house in which they reside), shall, within forty-two days next after the day of such birth, give information to the registrar of the parish where the child was born, without the payment of any fee, providing it is done within forty-two days; but if it is neglected after that period, it can be registered within six months of the birth, by the payment of 7s. 6d. : after six months, it cannot be registered at all.
154-Public Baths and Washhouses. M. J. W. -We have explained in our papers upon the skin, in Vols. I. and II. of the New Series, but particularly at p. 111, of Vol II., that it is highly important the skin should be frequently cleansed, in order to remove the residue of the fluid poured out through its minute orifices. If this residue is not removed by some means, certain diseases are produced, or, at the least,
150-Snow before the Doors. P. M.-You acted unwisely in strewing salt over the snow
before your door, because you produced a mix-aggravated. The best method of cleansing the
ture colder than melting ice. To prove this, you have only to mix two parts of snow with one part of common salt, and plunge a thermometer into the vessel containing it. You will then find that the mercury sinks to 5°. Your best plan to adopt in future is to have the snow swept away from the pathway, and sprinkle the pavement well with sand, sifted ashes, or sawdust.
151-Proper Food, &c., for Macaws. J. B. -You will find that the best food for these birds is bread soaked in boiled milk, boiled potatoes, or other vegetables, and some fruits, particularly nuts. Do not give them salt meat or parsley; but occasionally a bone of fresh meat to pick, and a peppercorn, as a treat, are useful. They should not be kept in cages, but upon perches about four feet high, which are fixed in the centre of a stand, well supplied with sand. Keep them clean and warm.
skin is to wash it frequently,-not merely the face and hands, but the whole body; therefore it is desirable to bathe, or to use cold effusion frequently. There is no doubt that the erection of public baths and washhouses have been productive of much benefit to society at large, and particularly in lessening disease. The return for the quarter ending Midsummer, 1852, shows that there were 214,369 bathers, and 44,502 washers, at the six establishments in London, during the quarter; the receipts being £3,509 38. 11d.; being an increase of £1,443 78. 10d. over the preceding quarter of this year. The returns from Liverpool, Hull Bristol, Preston, Birmingham, and Maidstone, are equally encouraging, showing the desire there is for cleanliness among the great mass of the people, as well as the capability of these institutions when in active operation.
147-Domestic Duties. J.-No young woman is fit to be married till she has learned how to keep house. It is as much of an imposition for parents to put off their daughter for a wife before she has learned the domestic virtues, as it would be for a medical or a clerical body to put off upon the community a man for a doctor or a minister, who had not learned his profession.
148-Railways. J. F.- Railways made of wood were first used in Northumberland about the year 1663, and made of iron, at Whitehaven, in 1738. The first iron railroad was laid down at Coalbrook-dale in 1786. Steam power to convey coals on a railway was first employed by Blenkinsop, at Hunslet, near Leeds, and afterwards on the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
149-Flattery. T. W. C.-To bestow flattery upon a person to his face, betrays a want of delicacy; yet, not less so, rudely to rebuke his errors or mention his faults, and not have a tender regard for his feelings. It is not improper, and may sometimes be very kind to mention to an individual what yourself and others think of his conduct or performances, when it is for his interest or usefulness to know it. To express to a friend deserved approbation is generally proper.
155-Plaster Casts of Leaves and Flowers. S. C. G.-The af, as early as convenient after being gathered, is to be laid on fine-grained moist sand, in a perfectly natural position, with that surface uppermost which is to form the cast, and to be banked up by sand, in order that may be perfectly supported. It is then, by 19J means of a broad camel-hair brush, to be br covered over with a thin coating of wax and Burgundy pitch, rendered fluid by heat. The leaf is now to be removed from the sand, and dipped in cold water,-the wax becomes hard, and sufficiently tough to allow the leaf to be ripped off, without altering its form. This being done, the wax mould is placed in moist sand, and banked up as the leaf itself was previously; it is then covered with plaster of Paris, made thin, due care being taken that the plaster be nicely pressed into all the interstices of the mould, by means of a camel-hair brush. As soon as the plaster has set, the warmth thus produced softens the wax, which, in consequence of the moisture of the plaster, is prevented from adhering to it, and with a little dexterity it may be rolled up, parting completely from the cast, without injuring it in the least. Casts obtained in the manner thus described are very perfect, possessing a high relief, and form excellent models, either for the draughtsman or for the moulder of architectural ornaments.
156-Vegetarianism. L. P.-If you wish to adopt a vegetable diet, do so by all means, but as you have asked our advice we give it. Although we have little hope of making you think as we do, because you say that you "are determined to do as you please," we can only add that we trust what you do will please. It is now placed beyond doubt that man was designed to live on a mixed diet, experience proves and anatomy establishes it as a fact. We are not carnivorous or herbivorous, but omnivorous; that is to say, we do not live wholly upon flesh or vegetables, but devour both kinds. It is found that the most perfect physical development, and greatest amount of intellect, is found among those races that adopt a mixed diet, and there is no question that a considerable variety of food is absolutely necessary for the preservation of health and life. Mrs. Swisshelm thus concludes an article in the Pittsburgh Advertiser, which is written against the practice of vegetarianism. "As for not 'making walking sepulchres of themselves,' it is what not one of them can avoid. Every one of them has swallowed a hecatomb of living creatures, and the difference between them and beefeaters is, that they prefer to gulp their prey
alive and whole, while the others have theirs killed and dressed. Fruit, vegetables, and water teem with animal life, and the more of these one eats and drinks, the more happy families he consigns to a living tomb. Then he swal lows whole nations without deriving the benefit he might from eating a thousandth part of a single animal of another class."
157-The Cost of Gas, compared with Oil and Candles. J. S.-If you consider the quantity and quality of the light afforded, there can be no doubt that gas is the cheapest method of illumination yet discovered. If you have been accustomed to two ordinary candles, you must not expect that a gas-pendant will consume gas that will actually cost less than the two candles; on the contrary, the proper way to estimate the expense is to consider,-first, the amount of light necessary for your room,-secondly, the quantity of light furnished by your pendant,thirdly, original cost, and the wear and tear of apparatus,-versus, candlesticks, grease dropped about the house, accidents from sparks or the neglected snuff from candles. If gas shoul escape from the pendant, or pipes, it is soon discovered by the disagreeable odour. All that is required is to open the door and windows of the room, to prevent any danger of an explosion. Another advantage attending the use of gas is, that the quantity of light can always be regu lated; it may be reduced to a degree less than a rushlight, and raised to a degree equal to twenty-five wax candles. We imagine that you have not used proper burners. The following Table will enable any person to decide upon the burner they require, as it gives the number of wax candles, of six to the pound, each is equal to in intensity:
Fish-tail (No. 4)
Large double cone
5 feet 7 feet 10 feet per hr. per hr.
The large or full-sized fish-tail burner is suited for open situations, being more economical than the bat-wing,-the former consuming 7 feet per hour, and the latter 11 or 12 feet per hour, when the cock is turned on fully. The best burner we are acquainted with is "Biddell's Patent Self-regulating Burner," it is economical for small shops, and well adapted for any place.
158-The Difference between the Price of Wheat | do, or say, or think; and, unl you cultivate er Quarter and per Barrel. S. T. E.-To find it and exercise it, upon all casions and tohe difference, multiply the price per quarter wards all persons, it will never be a part of y 7, and divide by 12; the result will give the yourself. mount per barrel. Thus, 568. per quarter ultiplied by,7, and divided by 12, gives 32s. 8d. er barrel.
159-Chrisin or Chrisom. L. L. W.- Chrisin as anciently used in religious services and as a confection of oil and sweet balsam, concrated by the bishop, and used in baptism, conrmation, extreme unction &c. The Chrisom hrismale) was the facecloth or piece of linen laid er the child's head when it was baptized, and ence, in old bills of mortality, such children-biting a piece out, grinding it with the teeth,
164-Eating Wine-glasses. D. O'N.-It is true that wine-glasses have been eaten by person and even tumblers. We witnessed the latt absurdity ourselves, upon one occasion, al the person who performed the ridiculous and dangerous feat, was a young officer in the army. In "Southey's Common Place Book," first series, p. 577, is the following passage. "There was a mad fashion among riotous drinkers about 1792, of eating the wine-glass,
and actually swallowing it; the enjoyment being to see how an aspirant cut his mouth! I never saw this, but R. L. had done it. Mortimer, the artist did it, and is said never to have recovered from the consequences."-R. S.
died in the month, were called Chrisoms. 160-An IO U. A. S. M.-Although there e no date and stamp to an IOU, it is legal and nding; but it is better to have a date to prent mistakes. The usual method of making it it is thus:-"Mr. Hulme, IO U £10, James rown." In some instances, the object for hich the money was lent is inserted, after the nount, thus:-"for money advanced upon my ate," or "for rent paid on my account,"-but is is not necessary.
165-Advantages arising from the Cultivation of the Sunflower. H. B.-A correspondent in an agricultural publication states, that the oil obtained from the seed of the sunflower will produce gas-light at one-fourth the labour, onefourth the cost, and in half the time necessary to obtain a corresponding supply from coal, with the additional and decided advantage of being wholly free from any nauseous effluvia or smell, affording a light far surpassing in brilliancy that obtained from coal, and emitting less heat by 100 degrees than coal gas. He considers it preferable to any foreign oil for culinary and domestic purposes, and recommends the cultivation of the flower as the means of affording a profitable employment to the increasing population of the British empire.
161-Persons Exempt from serving on Juries. .T. S.-The persons exempted from this duty e peers, judges, clergy, priests, preachers, rristers, doctors of law, advocates of the vil law, attorneys, officers of courts, coroners, yscians, surgeons, apothecaries, officers of e army and navy, pilots, household servants the Queen, officers of customs and excise, eriffs' officers, high constables, and parish erks, persons exempt by virtue of prescription, arter, grant, or writ.
162-The Corsned. A. F.-Corsned, in the xon means Ordeal Bread (Panis Conjuratus), the Saxons had a superstitious way of culpating themselves, by taking a piece of ead and eating it with solemn oaths and ecrations, that it might stick in their throats d kill them, if they were guilty. This bread is called the corsned, and as it is not mentioned many books, it is not surprising that you ere unable to discover its meaning. The cusm is retained in some places even now, espelly in parts of Kent. 163-Good Breeding. E. G. B.-If you wish be a well-bred lady, you must carry your od manners everywhere with you. It is not thing that can be laid aside and put on at easure. True politeness is uniform disinrestedness in trifles, accompanied by the calm If-possession which belongs to a noble simicity of purpose; and this must be the effect a Christian spirit running through all you
166-Greenwich Observatory. N.-The Royal Observatory at Greenwich was built in 1675. It may be seen by obtaining leave from the Lords of the Admiralty; but it must be obvious to any person that it is absolutely necessary to prohibit idlers lounging about this establishment, at all times The instruments are firstrate, but the building is badly contrived for the purposes to which it is applied. The observatory at Cambridge is much larger and better. The salaries of the various officers at Greenwich observatory are as follows:- the AstronomerRoyal, £800, per annum; the first Assistant to ditto, £400; the second Assistant, £250; the third Assistant, £200; fourth, sixth, and seventh Assistants, each £100; and the fifth Assistant £120. The Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope receives a salary of £600 per annum, and the Superintendent of the "Nautical Almanack, £500."
Hell holds it dear, yet precious 'tis in heaven,
Nor yet is mortal, though within the heart-