Page images
PDF
EPUB

101-Perfumes. S.-Perfumes are not altogether to be forbidden; but they should never be so strong, or in such quantities, as to excite attention.

108-Musical Tuition. F. B. E.-If your ob

102-Etiquette of the Dinner-table. C. R.-To press your guests to take more than they have inclination for, is antiquated and rude. This does not, however, prevent your recommending particular dishes to their attention. Everything|ject is to learn music as a profession, you cannot like compulsion is quite exploded. do better than make application at the Academy of Music in Tenterden-street, Hanover-square. All branches of music are taught in the academy. The particular branch for which the students enter is at their choice; should that choice be harmony, harp, or piano, the male students will be required to learn, in addition, any orchestral instrument the Committee may require; and all the students will receive instruction in harmony. The terms are, for instudents, 50 guineas per annum, which includes, besides tuition, board and lodging in the academy; entrance 10 guincas. Out students, 30 guineas per annum; entrance 5 guineas.

109-Parties. Z.-Your enjoyment of a party depends far less on what you find there, than on what you carry with you. The vain, the ambitious, the designing, will be full of anxiety when they go, and of disappointment when they return. A short triumph will be followed by a deep mortification, and the selfishness of their aims defeats itself. If you go to see, and to hear, and to make the best of whatever occurs, with a disposition to admire all that is beautiful, and to sympathize in the pleasures of others, you can hardly fail to spend the time pleasantly. The less you think of yourself and your claims to attention, the better. If you are much attended to, receive it modestly, and consider it as a happy accident; if you are little noticed, use your leisure in observing others.

110-Revival of Faded Flowers. G. S.-Roses, and other flowers of delicate colours (if at all faded), regain their hues by exposure for a moment to the vapour arising from burning sulphur. At first sight this method may appear a bad one, since the sulphuric acid which is formed in this case, has the property of destroying vegetable colours; but a clever French writer, M. Dumeril, has proved that the red petals of plants regain their colours with brilliance and permanence when they are touched by this acid. Of course, it is necessary to proceed with caution. Another mode of preserving the colours of flowers to which recourse may be had, is to plunge the flower for some moments into spirits of wine, and when withdrawn it will be found to have regained its natural brilliance of colour, which it will not again lose.

103-Odours of Flowers Inflammable. M.The odorous matter of flowers is inflammable, and arises from an essential oil. When growing in the dark, their odour is diminished, but restored in the light: and it is strongest in sunny climates. The fraxinella takes fire in hot evenings, by burying a candle near its root.

104-Breach of Ceremony. S.-The various ceremonies observed in refined society are very useful in settling little points, on which there might otherwise be much doubt and perplexity; but they should never be so strenuously insisted upon as to make an accidental omission of them a ground of resentment, and an apology should always be accepted in their place.

105-Healthy Apartments. X. Y. Z.-The most healthful as well as comfortable sitting apartments are those which enjoy a pure and free circulation of air in summer, and the cheerful rays of the sun in winter; proper size and height are also requisite to constitute a wholesome apartment,-for low rooms are detrimental to health, particularly when inhabited by large families, or when the air is carefully excluded by close doors, shutters, curtains, &c.

should the regularity and exactness with which the daily work is done, be suffered to pass unnoticed, whilst the slightest omission is talked of and made of great importance. Think how you would like to do the same things, in the very same way, every day in the year, and allow for its irksomeness to them.

106-Cure of the Nails. A. B.-The method of preventing the livid appearance of the nail, is to put round it, and the top of the finger, a linen rag done over with an ointment made of manna, oil of olives, and wax, prepared in this manner:-Take an ounce of fine Calabrian manna, the cleanest, whitest, and most transparent you can get; melt it in a little pot over the fire, with an ounce of white wax, and as much pure oil of olives; keep this ointment in a box for the use above mentioned, and apply it fresh to the finger every third day. This is a sovereign remedy, not only for preventing the paleness of the nail, but likewise for curing it.

107-Servants. G. E.-Your question is a singular one. If you sufficiently consider the trials incident to a life of service, and judge of the feelings of others by your own, you will see abundant reason why you should be prompt to praise and slow to blame. Any extra service, any little attention that you receive, should be courteously and heartily acknowledged; nor

111-Process of Boiling. R.-In Liebig's Chemistry of Human Food, we are told that boiling flesh slowly effects a chemical change in its composition; and, according to the length of time employed in boiling, and the amount of water used, there takes place a more or less perfect separation of the soluble from the insoluble constituents of flesh the water or soup in which the flesh has been boiled containing the soluble matter, and the bouilli or meat from which the soup was made, consisting chiefly of fibrous, insoluble matter, nearly useless as nourishing food. Thus, it is obvious, that when the water in which meat has been boiled slowly is thrown away, by far the greater part of the soluble or nutritious matter is wasted. A very different mode of cooking should be adopted, when it is wished to eat the meat.

112--Canary Birds. W. I.-The following are the best rules for obtaining and preserving good singers. The most essential is to choose from among the young that which promises a fine tone, and to seclude it from all other birds, that it may learn and remember nothing bad. The same precaution is necessary during the first and second moulting: for, being likely to re-learn its song, it would introduce into it with equal ease foreign parts. It must be observed whether the bird likes to sing alone, or in company with others, for there are some which appear to have such whims, liking to hear only themselves, and which pout for whole years if they are not humoured on this point. Others sing faintly, and display their powers only when they can try their strength against a rival. It is very important to distribute regularly to singing-birds the simple allowance of fresh food which is intended for the day. By this means they will sing every day equally, because they will eat uniformly, and not pick the best one day and be obliged to put up with the refuse the next.

113-Housekeeping. J. R. D.-In page 14, Appendix, Vol. 3, New Series, our fair correspondent will find that her questions have been answered. The subject is so important to young housekeepers that we will add the following directions from the experienced pen of Mrs. Copley:-"The young housekeeper should commence book-keeping on the very day she quits the house of her father to enter that of her husband. Indeed, it will be greatly to her advantage, if she has been already initiated into it under the direction of a judicious mother, not merely to keep her own private accounts, of personal expenses, but also the housekeeping accounts, so as to be familiar with the value of every article of consumption, the quantity required in proportion to the size of the family,

and the proportion to be observed of daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual expense. In such case she ought, however, to commence all her arrangements on a smaller scale than those to which she has been accustomed at home. Perhaps there the family was larger, or its resources more abundant, or at least more settled. Those who would wish to be at a future period of life as their parents are now, must begin as they began, and remember that it is much easier to advance in expense than to retreat. An egg less in the pudding, and a bit of butter less in the pie-crust, and a dish less on the table than the young lady was accustomed to at her father's house, will make a pleasing difference in the weekly and yearly aspect of her account-book, and be no ways inconsistent with either health, comfort, or respectability of appearance.

[ocr errors]

114-Degeneracy of Bodily Strength. G.-We agree with you that our physical powers are overcome in the present day by an overfondness for luxurious living, and a certain lounging, listless inactivity, which has a weakening influence both on mind and body. When we read in the chronicles of past ages, the many feats recorded of physical power,-of a body that knew neither weakness nor fatigue, an iron strength of endurance and action-it seems to us like the echo of a distant age with which we have nothing to do. We cannot realise the strength of the beautiful Cymburga, wife of the stalwart Duke Ernest of Austria, who could crack nuts with her fingers, and drive a nail into a wall with her hand, as far as others with a hammer. When we hear of the lofty Brinhilda, whe bound her offending lover with her girdle, and slung him to a beam of the ceiling, we do not recognise that the myth which represents the wild strong life of that distant age, has a lesson for us, and we should ponder the question whether in our days we have not lost much stout virtue, with the failure of our bodily powers. The breakfast feats of good Queen Bess and her maids, on rounds of beef and mugs of ale, seem incredible in our poor dyspeptic days. What would not our delicate ladies and gentlemen give for that vigorous life, which could spring out of bed at five o'clock, full of energetic activity, digest and enjoy plain substantial fare, and pursue every occupation of the day, with the power of robust health? We could hardly sit at the breakfast - table of the old Earl of Northumberland, of whom we read, My Lord and Lady have for breakfast, at seven o'clock, a quart of beer, as much wine, two pieces of salt fish, six red herrings, four white ones, and a dish of sprats!"

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

115-Safest Drink. M.-Pure cold water is, beyond question, both at meals and at all other times, the safest drink. The water should be perfectly pure, fresh, and cold. The colder the better,-only take the less.

116-Street Etiquette. H. P.-In meeting in the street, it is considered etiquette for the lady first to bow to the gentleman-not the gentleman to the lady, unless the acquaintance is both intimate and of long standing.

117-Potatoe Flour. M. H.-One method of detecting this is by specific gravity. Thus, a vessel which can contain one pound of wheatflour will contain a pound and a half of potatostarch; hence, the amount of adulteration may be estimated, to a certain extent.

118. -Sea-weeds. T.-The frond is a term which, when applied to a sea-weed, signifies every part of the plant, excepting the root; and occasionally the stem, if well developed, and distinct from the other portions of the plant, is not included under the term.

119-Solitary Meals. J. S. C.-You should endeavour to avoid dining alone. Agreeable company and conversation at table helps to promote digestion. A meal taken in solitude, especially if the mind is in an unsocial or oppressed mood, will not do you half the good that it would if taken in a cheerful and social manner.

120-College of Surgeons. H. I.-No person under twenty-two years of age can be admitted a member of the College of Surgeons. The candidate for admission is required to produce to the court of examiners satisfactory evidence of his anatomical and chirurgical education, according to certain regulations, of which a copy may at any time be obtained on application at the College of Surgeons, in Lincoln's Inn Fields.

no favours to solicit, but the moment you ask them for aid they will treat you accordingly.

123-Governesses. A. Z.-You had better stipulate that the mother shall never interfere so as to find fault with any of your arrangements before the children. A sensible mother will not require cither of these points to be made a subject of stipulation. She will know that to find fault in their presence, will be to risk the respect due to the governess from her pupils, though she has most undoubtedly every right in private to ask an explanation of what may have puzzled or displeased her, and on such occasions you will owe to her the utmost confidence.

124-Early Care of Children. S. W. E.None of the artificial means of teaching children to walk can be recommended; the leadingstrings occasion all the weight to be thrown upon the chest, while the go-cart, though less objectionable, forces a child to continue on its feet too long at a time. It is a good plan to encourage walking, by placing the chairs and tables at convenient distances for the child to support itself by; it then sits down on the floor, when fatigued, and, in raising itself again, acquires power in the right way. Leading by one hand ought not to be resorted to until there is enough of strength and firmness to walk upright, otherwise the child is dragged along, swinging upon one arm, with the weight of the whole body sustained by one side only. Lifting a child by both arms is dangerous, for it strains the ligaments, and often occasions injury to the collar bones; besides which, it gives pain. A child ought to be lifted by placing the hands round the waist. A child of a year old will raise itself by its arms, but it never prolongs or forces the effort to the production of pain: the only danger arises from a fall against the furniture.

125-Female Associates. G.-You can always

121 - Advantage of Rain-water. G. Not only is rain-water the best for making tea, &c., but it is useful in culinary operations. The be-judge better of a person's character by her lief, that it is unwholesome for this purpose, is incorrect. The softer water is, the more adapted it is to all domestic uses, if we except that one which has been so much insisted on of late,-its use as an habitual potation; even this is not an exception, so much on account of its unwholesomeness, as its insipidity.

122-Independence in Business. W. B.-De pend as much as possible upon your own resources. A small, snug business, done principally upon your own means, is better than a large business done upon a hired capital. Make it a prominent point to be independent. It is dangerous to depend much upon the assistance of relatives and friends; there are many such who will treat you kindly, as long as you have

manner of talking with others, than by what she addresses directly to you, and by what she says of others, than by what she says to them. A conversation like this ought to put you on your guard against any intimacy with a girl capable of it. The vivacity of youthful feelings is such, that it often hurries girls into intimacies, which soon after prove uncongenial and burdensome. You mistake an accidental agreement for a real sympathy, one agreeable interview for an insight into the whole character; and thus, by judging too hastily, you judge wrongly. Far be it from us to recommend a suspicious character: would rather see a young heart deceived again and again, than see it nourishing suspicion as a

we

of character, after hesitating and debating, till the poor trader's patience is almost exhausted, will beg him to send the article to her house, for her to examine it there; and, after giving him all this trouble, she will refuse to purchase it, without any scruple or apology. Some think they have a right to exchange articles at the place where they were bought; whereas that privilege should be asked as a favour, only by a good customer,-and then but rarely.

128-Earliest Intellectual Education of Chil dren. C. S.-In reply to our correspondent, and to similar inquiries from others, we cannot do better than quote the words of Mrs. Barwell, on this important subject:-"Cultivate, by exer cise, the five senses of seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, tasting. Teach the child to observe forms, sizes, weights, colours, arrangements and numbers. Practise all a child's knowing faculties on objects,-feathers, shells, ribbons, buttons, pictures of animals, &c. Practise distinct articulation. If at four years of age a child has any defect, it ought to be systematically taught to pronounce correctly. Let a child put its toy to another than the intended use, if it does not destroy it; this exercises invention. Encourage construction, and furnish the materials, leaving ingenuity to work. Accustom the child to find its own amusement. It is the most unprofitable slavery to be constantly finding amusement for it. Remember that children love stories,-the simpler the better; and delight to have them told again and again. Always give them a moral turn and character. Be sparing of the marvellous, exclude the terrible and horrible, and utterly proscribe all ghost and witch stories. E. H. M.-Most willingly Accustom children to reptiles, insects, &c.; and do we offer, at your request, a few comments on prevent the foolish fear of those creatures that terrible word to husbands and brothers, which is often found in adults, and leads to the shopping. Your remarks are perfectly just, that constant and most unnecessary destruction of politeness is very essential to the right transac- them. Induce a child to give attention, by pretion of that great business of woman's life, shop-senting objects, and giving narratives which ping. The variety afforded by the shops of a interest it. Do not repeat that it must give city renders people difficult to please; and the attention. Avoid employing female servants as latitude they take in examining and asking the nurses who possess coarse habits and sentiprice of goods, which they have no thought of ments, or whose mode of speaking is coarse or buying, is so trying to the patience of those indelicate. No difference need at first be made who attend upon them, that nothing but the between the rearing and training of male and most perfect courtesy of demeanour can recon- female infants. Allow female children, as they cile them to it. Some persons behave, in shop-grow up, to amuse themselves with dolls, and in

127-Shopping.

ping, as if no one had any rights, or any feelings, but the purchasers; as if the sellers of goods were mere automatons, put behind the counter to do their bidding; they keep them waiting, whilst they talk of other things, with a friend; they call for various goods, ask the price and try to cheapen them, without any real intention of buying. A lady who wants decision

a similar manner encourage and regulate the amusements of boys." Many of these observa tions may appear trivial, but in most cases they form the basis of character in after life. It is highly important that we set a value on some apparent trifles, especially in the rearing of chil dren; for it is by these means their attention is directed to more serious objects.

|

habit of the mind; but we would have you make it a rule never to pledge yourself to any intimacy, until you have taken time to consider your first impressions, and to distinguish between the charm that really belongs to a new acquaintance, and that which was thrown over your first interview by accidental circumstances and associations.

126-Smoking. J. S. W.-By all means divest yourself of this habit, for there can be no question that its effects on health are pernicious. Dr. Prout, in his work on stomach diseases, says, "Tobacco is confessedly one of the most virulent poisons in nature. Yet such is the fascinating influence of this noxious weed, that mankind resort to it in every form they can devise, to ensure its stupifying and pernicious agency. Tobacco disorders the assimilating functions in general, but particularly, as I believe, the assimilation of the saccharine principle. I have never, indeed, been able to trace the development of oxalic acid to the use of tobacco; but that some analogous, and equally poisonous principle (probably of an acid nature), is generated in certain individuals by its abuse, is evident from their cachetic looks, and from the dark, and often greenishyellow tint of the blood. The severe and peculiar dyspeptic symptoms sometimes produced by inveterate snuff-taking are well known; and I have more than once seen such cases terminate fatally with malignant disease of the stomach and liver. Great smokers, also, especially those who employ short pipes and cigars, are said to be liable to cancerous affections of the lips."

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

130-Hortus Siccus. B. G.-Our remarks on the formation of an Herbarium have called forth several inquiries as to the best work for ascertaining the class and order to which each specimen belongs. Hooker's British Flora is a very valuable assistant to the collector.

131-Christian Names. T. E.-Christian names are so called from their having originally been given to converts at baptism, as substitutes for their former pagan appellatives, many of which were borrowed from the names of their gods, and therefore rejected as profane.

132-Magnolias. B. R.-Near London these trees thrive well. At White Knights and Claremont, and at several places in Kent and Essex, they nave been planted with great sucThe varieties which have stood our climate the best, are the Magnolia acuminata, M. cordata, and M. conspicua. They require some care in the early stages of their growth.

cess.

133-Flour or Starch in Milk. M. C. J.-The simplest indication of the existence of flour or starch in milk, is that of small diaphanous clots, which may be seen on the sides of the vessel containing it, if it be transparent. Milk containing starch burns more readily on the bottom of the vessel in which it is boiled than pure milk. This is, however, an equivocal test.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

129-Stammering. S.-Stammering, with care, may be cured; or rather, when it is first threatened, it may be prevented by practising the child in letters or articulations where a peculiar defect appears.

138-Visits of Condolence. F. W.-Nothing but a quick perception of the feelings of others, and a ready sympathy with them, can regulate the thousand little proprieties that belong to visits of condolence and congratulation. There is one hint, however, as regards the former, which may perhaps be useful, and that is, not to touch upon the cause of affliction, unless the mourner leads the way to it; and if a painful effort is made to appear cheerful, and to keep aloof from the subject, do not make the slightest allusion that could increase this feeling.

139-Talking of Others. T.-It is very difficult, and requires all "the wisdom of the serpent and the harmlessness of the dove," to talk of people, without violating the laws of charity or of truth; it is therefore best to avoid it. By substituting books, and the vast variety of characters and opinions which they present, you give yourself and your companions ample scope for the expression of your thoughts and feelings, for the discussion of various questions, for sharpening each other's wits by collision of sentiment, correcting the judgment by comparison and discrimination, and strengthening the memory by repetition and quotation.

140-Newspapers. M. C. I.-It is not compre-pulsory to send newspapers by the post, but if so sent, they must be made up in covers open at the sides, and, if for foreign parts, must be posted within seven days of publication, have no marks or writing (other than the address, which may be written on the paper, as well as cover) thereon, or anything enclosed, which would sub

134-Gymnastics. T. -As sudden transitions are always bad, exercise should begin gently and should terminate in the same manner. The left hand and arm being commonly weaker than the right, they should be exercised until they become as strong. No exertion should be carried to excess, as that only exhausts and enfeebles the body. Therefore, whenever the gymnast feels tired, or falls behind his usual mark, he should leave off.

dation of the scale: Reaumur fixing his zero at 32° of Fahrenheit, and dividing the ranges between that point and the point of boiling water into 80°, while Fahrenheit takes a scale of 212 between his zero and the boiling point.

137-Iron-Moulds in Paper. W. C.-When paper is disfigured with iron-moulds, it may be restored by applying to the stained part a solution of sulphurate of potash, and afterwards a weak solution of oxalic acid. The sulphurate attracts from the iron part of its oxygen, and renders it soluble in the diluted acids. This is applicable to other substances; but care must be taken to place the oxalic acid in a safe place, and to mark the bottle containing it "poison."

135-Sea-weeds. E. M.-The mode of serving large sea-weeds which will not adhere to paper and require gumming, is thus: After well cleaning and pressing, brush the coarser kinds of Algæ over with spirits of turpentine, in which two or three small lumps of gummastic have been dissolved by shaking in a

warm place: two-thirds of a small phial is theject them to treble-letter postage. British newsproper proportion, and this will make the specimens retain a fresh appearance.

papers are forwarded from one part of the kingdom to another free. The paper may be written on, provided a penny stamp is affixed; if, however, such penny stamp be not paid, or the cover written on, then it will be charged at the rate of an unpaid letter, according to weight. These directions are imperative.

136-Thermometers. W. M. C.-Fahrenheit's thermometer is the one now in general use in this country, while that arranged by M. Reaumur is usually employed in France. The main difference between the two, consists in the gra

« PreviousContinue »