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76-Blue Stockings. R. C. C.-We think you we call grammar, mathematics, philosophy, &c., take a wrong view of the matter, and judge the into the intellects of our children, but to intellectual character of females too severely. strengthen all their faculties, to give them comThe extreme opposite of a Blue is not a scien- mand of their own bodies and souls, that they tific or literary professor, but a well-educated may, as life opens before them, be able to em. gentlewoman. Such there are, and happily not ploy their powers for useful ends. Frequently a few, contributing their part to the direct, and at sixteen, the girl's education is often constill more to the indirect, education of the sidered finished. At the very age, when, if a women and of the men of England. Nor must right system of physical and mental discipline injustice be done to the general results of female had been pursued, she would have been preeducation. Many advantages ladies possess in pared with a strong mind, in a strong body, to their natural aptitudes; many from the favour- commence serious study, her education is proable circumstances of their domestic life; many, nounced finished, and she willingly lays aside even, from that preponderance of modern and her tasks to enter society more fully than was cotemporary literature in their reading, to possible during the period of schooling. Hencowhich reference has been made. Judging from forth pleasure is the chief object; for the plads conversation of the intellectual condition of the that perhaps were formed, on leaving school, sexes, one would say that women contribute in for reading and study, are never executed ; the general more largely to its interest, so far as mind is not prepared to exert its powers alone. that depends, not on the material, but on the The knowledge already acquired has no connecpoint of view, on the feeling, on the mode of tion with her present life — her social nature expression.

needs companionship; and the temptations of 77-Medical Advice. T.-In answer to your society are too strong to be long resisted. own and other communications on this subject, 79-Affectation. G. M. W.-Perhaps the folwe profess our unwillingness to offer advice, lowing remarks may reclaim your friend from being too deeply impressed with the importance the absurd practices in which she appears to of such cases.

The family physician is alone indulge. We may go farther than yourself, able to determine these points.

and call such conduct hypocritical. The certain however, safely recommend the following direc- test of affectation in any individual, is the looktions, for attaining habitual good health to all ing, speaking, moving, or acting in any way our friends. For a clear complexion, Rise

different when in the presence of others, early; use pienty of fresh water; observe the especially those whose opinion we regard and strictest moderation in diet; and take plenty whose approbation we desire, from what we of exercise in the open air. The same plan should do in solitude, or in the presence of will be found beneficial in other respects. those only whom we disregard, or who we think Those who regularly pursue it, generally possess cannot injure or benefit us. The motive for coral lips, white teeth, and pure breath. To resisting affectation is, that it is both unsuccess. give brilliancy to the eyes. Shut them early ful and sinful. It always involves a degree of at night, and open them early in the morning ; hypocrisy, which is exceedingly offensive in the let the mind be constantly intent on the acquisi- sight of God, which is generally detected even tion of useful knowledge, or on the exercise by men, and which, when detected, exposes of benevolent feeling. This will scarcely ever its subject to contempt which could never have fail to impart to the eyes an intelligent and been excited by the mere absence of any quality amiable expression. To preserve the forehead or possession, as it is by the false assumption from wrinkles. Cultivate contentment, calm. of what is not real. The best cure for affectaness, and beniguity of spirit; and never, on any tion is the cultivation, on principle, of every account, indulge a murmuring, a resentful, good, virtuous, and amiable habit and feeling, or a malevolent feeling by a constant ad- not for the sake of being approved or admired, herence to the above simple rules, many females but because it is right in itself, and without have preserved their attractions even to the age considering what people will think of it. Thus of fourscore years and upwards.

a real character will be formed instead of 78—Real object of Education. M. C.-We

a part being assumed, and admiration and love should recommend you not to overlook the will be spontaneously bestowed where they are physical treatment of your children, amidst tạe really deserved. Artificial manners are easily various intellectual studies you propose for seen through; and the result of such observathem. The object of education is not to pour a tions, however accomplished and beautiful the certain amount of technical knowledge which object may be, is contempt for such littleness.

30-Acidity of Fruits. J.-Fruits are more acid 85-Fashion. G. R.--We have several objecthe morning than in the evening, because the tions to publishing Parisian fashions, -want of n's rays decompose their carbonic acid, and

space may at once satisfy our correspondent ake them part with their oxygen, of whichi on this point. With regard to any specific rules ey do not gain a fresh supply until night. for dressing, we do not pretend to arbitrate in 81-Arithmetic. M. H. I. - The following such matters. Let a true sense of propriety, of orks will be found very useful :--Butler's the fitness of things, regulate all your habits of rithmetical Questions, Hind's Arithmetic, living and dressing, and it will produce such a te's Algebra, Colenso's Algebra, Thrower's beautiful harmony and consistency of character rithmetical Questions and Key, Simpson's, or as will throw a charm around you that all will otts, or Elrington's Euclid, Whewell's Me- feel, though few may comprehend. Always hanical Euclid, Martin's Natural Philosophy. consider well whether the articles of dress, 82--Clerkship in the Custom House. M.-The which you wish to purchase, are suited to your laries of the clerks in the Custom-house are age, your condition, your means; to the climate, various amounts; but it may be sufficient to to the particular use to which you mean to put ate as a general rule, that they begin at £80 them; and let the principles of good taste keep - £90 per annum, and that if a clerk should

you from the extremes of the fashion, and regu. lculate his future condition in the following late the form, so as to combine utility and inner, viz. that after ten years' service his beauty, whilst the known rules of harmony in Lary will be £150, after fifteen years £200, colours saves you from shocking the eye of the ter twenty years £250, and after thirty years artist by incongruous mixtures. 00, he will be tolerably near the truth.

86— Adulterated Confectionery. J. C. H.83-Nurses. M.-A light step, quick but Our correspondent has favoured us with a statentle movements, and a dexterous use of the ment which we trust will receive due attention inds, are pre-requisites in a good nurse; they from those to whom the management of chilem to be natural endowments, and to belong, dren is confided. As a general thing, children a great degree, to original temperament and are allowed to devour confectionery without let nformation ; but in this, as in other things, or hindrance. Some parents, who have got mething may be done by cultivation, where their eyes fairly open to the evils resulting from ature has not done the most. By observing indiscriminate indulgence in this practice, have e alert movements and nimble fingers of ex- interdicted the whole tribe of candies; but this ert persons you may improve your own, and class is not large. There are confectioneries roid at least that degree of clumsiness which that are, doubtless, as harmless as sugar: but as been described by saying of a person, “he the great mass of them are poisonous. It is a ses his hands as if all his fingers were thumbs, well-known fact that the greater part of the nd his thumbs legs of mutton.”

cheap lozenges is chiefly composed of plaster of 84Bible for the Young. T. M._You cannot Paris, Derbyshire spar, terra alba, and stucco. 00 early teach your child the sublime truths of These are used in the following proportions Christianity. We would recommend a syste- according to price : say, to every 50lbs. of sugar, Eatic and careful study of the Bible, satisfied, 4lbs. of plaster, at 18. 4d. per lb.; to 50lbs. of om personal experience, that this book, more sugar,

8lbs. of plaster, at ls. 2d. per ib. ; to an any other, is of itself able to arouse and 50lbs. of sugar, 12lbs. of plaster, at 1s. per lb.; rigorate the intellect Whether it be consi- to 50lbs. of sugar, 20lbs. of plaster, at 10d. red as unfolding the philosophy of human per lb.; to 40lbs. of sugar, 30lbs. of plaster, at ture or the course of human events; whether 8d. or 6fd. per lb., according to the quantities be adopted as a book for the young child, or ordered; and to deceive the public the above is the wisest statesman; whether it be re- smoothed over and finished with potato starch rded as calling into exercise the reasoning and burnt shells finely powdered. =wers, or as nourishing and chastening the fire 87-Canaries. R. There has been some imagination, it stands unrivalled in its influ- mismanagement on your part. No sooner can ce upon the intellectual character:

the young canaries eat alone, which happens on This Book, this holy Book, in every line the thirteenth or fourteenth day, and sometimes Mark'd with the seal of high divinity,

even before they leave the nest, than the males On every leaf bedew'd with drops of love begin to warble and some females also, but in a Divine, and with th' eternal heraldry

less connected manner, which serves to point And signature of God Almighty stamp'd them out. As these pretty birds are so docile From first to last."

as to neglect entirely their natural song, and

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imitate the harmony of our instruments, it is imply an ignorance of the claims of society, necessary immediately to separate from his when I venture to hint at the probability of this companions, and from every other bird, the being one of the peculiar temptations against young one which is to be instructed, by putting which women in general would do wisely to be him aside in a cage, which is at first to be on their guard, especially against acquiring a covered with a piece of linen, and afterwards habit of visiting, as a means of escape from the with a darker cover. The air which is to be dulness and monotony of their own firesides. taught should be performed five or six times a It needs but little acquaintance with domestic day, especially in the evening and morning, - duty to know that there must be something either by whistling, or on a flageolet, or bird- wrong in the house of that woman who is organ; he will acquire it, more or less readily, always leaving it; although, on the other hand, in from two to six months, according to his few persons would recommend exclusive conabilities and memory; if his separation from finement to the same narrow sphere of thought the other birds is delayed beyond the fourteenth and action in which we exist at home. It is day, he will retain some part of his father's good to go out into society sometimes, in order song, which he will always intermingle with his that we might returu with the greater relish; acquired air, and consequently never perform but a still more extensive amount of good is deit perfectly.

rived from what we may learn in mixed society, 88-Housekeeping. E. E.—Different persons

and sometimes even from the humblest indiwill pursue different plans; but it is perhaps as

viduals we meet with there." simple and efficient al plan as can be adopted to 90-Pouring out Tea and coffee. 1. C.-There keep a day-book, and a cash-book, or ledger. It is more to be learned about pouring out tea is earnestly to be desired that every female in- and coffee than most young ladies are willing trusted with the charge of housekeeping should

to believe. If those decoctions are made at the have a stated sum for the purpose, whether an

table, which is by far the best way, they require nual, quarterly, or weekly. If weekly, she should cxperience, judgment, and exactness; if they take into consideration the stated or occasional are brought on the table ready made, it still payments to which she is liable,-such as rent, requires judgment so to apportion them that taxes, servants' wages, coals, clothes, medical at- they shall prove sufficient in quantity for the tendance, &c., and reserve from each week's family party, and that the elder members shall money a sufficient proportion towards meeting have the stronger cups.

We have often seen them. If she receives her money quarterly or an- persons pour out tea, who, not being at all nually, she should so limit those larger expenses, aware that the first cup is the weakest, and that as to reserve the needful store for current ex- the tea grows stronger as you proceed, have penses for as many weeks as will elapse before her bestowed the poorest cup upon the greatest next receipt. If her supplies are necessarily of stranger, and given the strongest to a very a more irregular character, resulting from the young member of the family, who would have profits of a retail trade or the remuneration of

been better without any. Where several cups uncertain occupations, a double degree of cau- of equal strength are wanted, you should pour tion and regularity will be necessary to set one

a little into each, and then go back, inverting season over against another, and reserve from the order as you fill them up, and then the the abundance of a brisk and prosperous week strength will be apportioned properly. You the means of comfort and support during the

should learn every one's taste in the matter dull and scanty period that may succeed it. For of sugar and cream too, in order to suit them want of such management, plenty is often con

in that respect. Delicacy and neatness may sumed in prodigality, and subsequent distress

be shown in the manner of handling and rinsing and destitution ensue.

the cups, of helping persons to sugar, and using 89-Morning Calls. S. F. C.—There are cer- the cream-pot without letting the cream rum tain conventional rules of society, which should

down from the lip. There are a thousand little be adhered to by all those who seek refinement niceties which will occur to you, if you give and the pleasures of social intercourse. Perhaps due attention to the business, and resolve to the following extract from “The Wives of En- do it with a thrift of a good housekeeper and gland,” by Mrs. Ellis, will answer the inquiry of the ease and dignity of a refined lady. When our correspondent:~"Visiting and receiving you have once acquired good habits in this visits being regarded by some married women department, it will require less attention, and as amongst the most important avocations of you will always do it in the best way without life, it might possibly, to such individuals, thinking much about it.

91-Salary of a Governess. J. M.-s re- late has become general, and, with such, lunspects the salary of a governess, she never cheon becomes a necessary meal. It should be receives too much ; she has not merely clothing | taken about five hours after breakfast, and to buy, as we generally understand the term, though called by another name it may be conbut she cannot clothe herself economically; she sidered a light dinner, taken to allay the cannot mend, turn, dye, as even can be done for cravings of nature, but not entirely to destroy her pupils : she has no time for mending, and the appetite. her clothes are consequently put away half- 95-Rewards to Servants. J. I.-By all means worn. The lady may wear a faded bonnet, or a adopt the plan you propose. When servants soiled dress, but the governess must be always have spent a reasonable time in your service, weil dressed, But, setting aside this considera- and behaved commendably, you ought to prefer tion, and granted that a governess receives a them, if it is in your power, or to recommend salary amply sufficient for her personal expenses, them to a better provision. It is an excellent let us remember there are her utensils of busi- plan to give them a trifling increase of wages, or ness, books to purchase, &c.

an annual present. The hope of this keeps 92-Difficult Music. J. R.-It is a great alive attention and gratitude, and is the proper mistake to suppose that the best music is the support of industry. Like a parent you should most difficult of execution. The very reverse, keep in view their establishment in some way generally speaking, is the case. Music of a high that may preserve their old age from indigence; order certainly demands high gifts and attain- and to this end you should endeavour to inspire ments on the part of the performer. But the them with care to lay up part of their wages, gifts of nature may be possessed by the amateur and constantly discourage them from expending as well as by the professor; and the attain- their money in frivolous articles of dress, and ments of art may be the result of moderate other vanities. Whenever servants begin to study and application. A young lady possessed place money in the savings' bank, the desire of of a sweet and tunable voice, a good ear, intel- increasing their hoard grows upon them, and ligence, and feeling, may cultivate music in its this desire you should encourage by all means; grandest and most beautiful forms, and may above all things endeavour to persuade them render its practice a source of the purest enjoy- to make a commencement, if it is only with a ment, not only to herself but to her domestic single pound. and social circle.

96-Want of Punctuality. T.--If the habit 93-Mental Qualifications of Woman. W. E. is confirmed in your young friend, we are afraid -History, philosophy, political economy, logic, that all reasoning against it will be useless. criticism, and all the higher and more strength. Young ladies, who are not punctual, think it a ening branches of knowledge, should be studied sufficient excuse to say they could not be ready

The neglect of these studies by sooner, because they had to mend a glove, or them has much to do with that helplessness put on new strings to a cap, or to get something which either really disables them from forming out of their trunk after they had fastened it their own opinions on things about them, or down; but all such excuses are wholly inadmis. makes them afraid to express those opinions sible. Our determination to be true to our engage

by women.

And the same erroneous theory ment should be so absolute as to make us proof female training, which would confine women vide against all such contingencies, by beginning to particular classes of books, or subjects of our operations so early as to leave us time for study, lies at the root of that moulding of accidents, or time to spare. The unpunctual their habits which makes them frequently so never allow themselves time enough, and the deplorably helpless in even the simplest busi- only way to cure themselves of this fault in ness of life.

judgment, is to begin by allowing themselves 94- Luncheon. C.--This meal is admissible double the portion they think they shall need; only when either the interval between the and if, when entirely ready, they have any time breakfast and dinner is very prolonged, or when left, to use it in the best way they can. Nothe quantity of food taken at breakfast is thing wears more on the spirits of those who very small. The lower classes, as well as the are the heads of the party, than want of puncchildren of the higher classes, dine early, tuality in the younger members of it. We and thus with them luncheon is unnecessary, have known the whole pleasure of a day marred, and accordingly is not usually taken. Not by the fault of one. This sad habit occasions so, however, with adults of the middling constant disquietude in a household, and is very and higher classes ; with them, either from often prejudicial in the highest degree to the business or other eauses, the practice of dining young person who may regard it as merely trivial.

when formed.

97Hortus Siccus. B. G.–The best way of to appear richer than you really are, or else the . forming a Hortus Siccus (which, to those who piece of economy in question is not necessary, are earnest in the pursuit of botany, is a very and therefore it is that you are ashamed of it. essential matter) is to procure five or six quires | It is very possible to manage, by a prudent and of proper botanical paper, which may be pur- judicious arrangement, to spread a charm over chased at some stationer's in London, also a even the most plain and homely establishment. quire or two of white soft paper, for the more The elegant and accomplished Lady Mary Wortdelicate flowers, and two strong well-seasoned ley Montague, who figured in the fashionable as boards of the same size as the paper; the well as in the literary circles of her time, has weight employed for pressure may be bricks, said that “the most minute details of househeavy books or pieces of lead kept for the pur- hold economy become elegant and refined, when pose. These materials form a good press, but they are ennobled by sentiment;" and they are the cushion of a chair or sofa, in constant use, truly ennobled when we do them, either from 3 answers the purpose as a temporary conveni- sense of duty, or consideration for a parent, or ence. A proper botanical press is of course the love to a husband. “To furnish a room," con best. Plants for drying are better gathered in tinues this lady, “is no longer a common-place the middle of the day than either morning or affair, shared with upholsterers and cabinetevening, when they are wet with dew; and, if makers; it is decorating the place where I am possible, they should not be put into water be- to meet a friend or lover. To order dinner is fore being submitted to the press, as they by not merely arranging a meal with my cook, it is that means imbibe much moisture, and do not preparing refreshment for him whom I love. retain the colour so well. Those must be These necessary occupations, viewed in this light selected for drying which have some flowers ex- by a person capable of strong attachment, are panded, others gone to seed, and some of the so many pleasures, and afford her far more delower leaves should always be preserved, and light than the games and shuws which constialso the root of small.

tute the amusements of the world.” 98-Enigmas and Riddles. E. B.We have 100—Light Reading. E. S.-You cannot do received a long letter against the introduction better than seek the advice of those who can reof “pastime" matter into the Family Friend. commend to you suitable works for reading. We must beg leave to differ with many of the There is much pernicious trash circulated under arguments urged by our fair correspondent, attractive titles ; consisting of highly wrought especially that which treats of the frequent loss fictitious narratives, calculated to pollute and of good-humour by young persons engaged in poison the youthful mind with scenes of levity this amusement. Those who feel disposed to and folly, with expressions at least bordering treat such matters with contempt, should read on profanity, by inculcating sentiments of con. Mrs. Barbauld's paper on Riddles, as the high tempt of everything sober and serious, exciting authorities she quotes in their favour may impatience of parental control and religious reconcile them to this sort of play of the mind. restraints, encouraging extravagant and unIn order to enjoy this sport, a few rules of po- governed passions, and giving false views and liteness should be attended to, like the follow- expectations of life and society. If a young ing. Be as willing to puzzle over a riddle as to person once imbibe a taste for this kind of readgive one out. If you are previously acquainted ing, the ordinary duties of life will become irkwith the solution of a riddle, do not tell it; but some, and its pleasures insipid. The mind will let the person who gave it out have that privi- be excited with desires after the false splendour lege. If you do not know it, and do not like to and sentimental softness of the novel heroine. puzzle over it, do pot insist on being told what The simplicity and frankness of youth will be it is before the rest of the company. If you lost amidst plots and contrivances for carrying have no readiness in guessing charades, &c., you on some imprudent acquaintance and eluding can amuse yourself with their ingenuity, when parental vigilance. Love will be regarded as the they are explained, and not feel mortified at great business of human life ; and even vice, your ill success, and then try to hide it, by by its decorations and disguises, will lose half speaking contemptuously of the pastime. its deformity, and will double its dangerous at

99-Home Economy. 8.-Whatever economy tractions. At any rate, time, feeling, and proit is right for you to practise, you should never perty will be unprofitably expended ; a sort of be ashamed of. If at any time you find your- unreal existence will be carried on; and a state self trying to conceal your thrift, you had better of listlessness and discontent induced, which pause and examine your motives; for either you will disqualify for the duties and enjoyments of are possessed of that absurd weakness, a desire domestic life.

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