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use this instrument, it is first filled with This gas may be stored in Pepys' gaswater by closing the lower orifice () with holder, the same as oxygen. a large cork, and opening all the upper
THE PHANTASMAGORIA is exhibited in the ones (a b s.) Water is then poured into same manner as a magic lantern, but a prethe shallow pan (p) until it runs out at pared screen is placed between the spectas, which is then closed, and the remainder tors and the exhibitor, and instead of a of the air escapes through b; when it is round circle of light being thrown upon full, the cocks (a b) are shut; and the lower the screen, only the figures are observed. orifice being then opened, the water, sus- The peculiar effect is obtained by painttained by the pressure of the air, cannot ing a figure upon a slide and filling in the escape except as it is driven out by the surrounding parts with black paint, and entrance of the gas at (c), from which the also by having the lantern mounted upon water escapes as fast as the gas enters.
a framework or table furnished with wheels, When used, the gas-holder must stand so that the operator may be able to make over a tub, to catch the water which is the figures appear to advance and become driven out at (0.) The gas is obtained for large, or recede and diminish by altering the use by drawing it off from the orifice (s) to position of the table or framework, and the which the vulcanized India-rubber (h, Fig. focus. 7) is attached, that is connected with the The phantasmagoria screen is generally chamber of the blowpipe in the dissolving made of thin muslin, which has been view apparatus. In order to draw off the coated with virgin wax dissolved in turgas from the cylinder the cock (a) must be pentine, but sometimes it is only coated open and the pan (p) full of water; the tube with thin spirit varnish. In the former to which the cock is attached goes nearly case it may be rolled up without injury, to the bottom of the gas-holder, and the but in the latter case it requires to be kept pressure of the water in the pan forces out stretched upon a frame, and is very liable
gas through the orifice (s). To make hydrogen gas.- Procure a large
CHROMATROPES form a most pleasing wide-mouthed bottle, and fit a cork to it, exhibition for this season of the year parthen with a hot iron bore two holes in the ticularly; but they are always hailed with cork, one to receive the tube - funnel delight, and therefore may be useful as an through which the diluted sulphuric acid amusement at other seasons. or oil of vitriol (one part of acid to five parts of water) is poured into the bottle, and the other to receive the bent tube which delivers the gas as it is generated. Place some granulated zinc or zinc cuttings in the bottle, pour the diluted acid through the tube-funnel, and you will soon see an effervesence take place and the hydrogen gas escape from the mouth of the bent-tube ; while the first portions of Fig. 10.
Fig. 11. the
gas are escaping, we will prepare the caoutchouc-bag marked H Y D, Fig. 7, by removing the upper press-boards and weights, turning the stop-cock and attaching the vulcanized India-rubber tubing. As the gas that is now issuing from the tube is not mixed with atmospheric air we may safely collect it in the gas-bag; but had we done so at first, an explosion would have taken place as soon as a light | was applied to the impure gas. You see
Fig. 12. that the gas-bag is filling rapidly, and as soon as it is full we must proceed as we To paint the chromatropes, proceed in the did after the oxygen was procured. same manner as if you were doing magic
lantern slides, only each chromatrope requires to have two circular pieces of glass fitted in a frame and painted with some device such as Figs. 10, 11, 12, and 13. Any design constructed upon the same principle will answer well.
As a guide to the general colouring required, we think it advisable to describe Figs. 10 to 13 inclusive. Fig. 10 is painted with alternate crimson and bright yellow spirals; Fig. 11, alternate blue and red sections; Fig. 12, is painted with red spiral lines for the inner circle, and alternate yellow and blue for the outer circle; and Fig. 13 has alternate yellow and red spirals for the inner circle, and the top row of rhomboids are crimson and the lower row cobalt blue. All these form very pleasing designs when nicely executed.
To make a chromatrope slide.-Have a piece of wood constructed the same as Fig. 14, the grooves between the pieces of wood being for the string or catgut which is attached to the wheels at either end, to work in. The large wheels must contain the chromatrope designs, each being alike but reversed, so that when they are moved in contrary directions by means of the simple mechanical contrivance about to be described, the designs exhibited upon the screen are both surprising and beautiful. Each wheel has a groove at its edge in which a piece of catgut or string runs freely and passes along the grooves in the slides, the
string attached to the upper wheel passing along as far as the upper groove in the wheel, and the string belonging to the under wheel passes along the outer grooves to the under groove in the lesser wheel, which is screwed tight in its place by a nut underneath, so that when the large wheels are required to be changed, the nut is unscrewed and the wheel pushed towards the larger one, in order to slacken the strings; this is accomplished by making the pinion slide along a notch in the frame, thus:
Now when the handle of the lesser wheel (Fig. 14) is turned, the two large wheels revolve in contrary directions and cause a very pleasing appearance up the
The chromatropes are exhibited precisely in the same manner as a magic lantern slide; in fact this kind of slide takes its place, and may be dissolved precisely in the same manner as we directed at page 20.
MAGIC DANCES.-This is a most amusing recreation for holiday time, and has astonished people almost as much as the phantasmagoria. It is founded upon the principle that the shadow of an object becomes multiplied as we multiply the number of lights. The manner of proceeding is very simple:
Make a screen of tissue-paper very neatly gummed at the edges, or use a phantasmagoria screen; but, in either case, the medium or screen must be large enough
to reach across the room, and the edges should be concealed by a curtain, or something else, so as to prevent the spectators peeping behind it; about two feet behind
the medium construct the magic curtain, The magic figures may represent monwhich should be fixed in the open space of keys or dogs, dancing round a man playa doorway, as shown in the following ing. the violin; witches dancing round figure.
their cauldron, which is boiling over a fire To the slides of the doorway A B C and in the centre; fairies, or anything that the floor D, fix the magic curtain—which fancy may suggest. Each figure is painted should be made of canvass painted black upon glass, in the same manner as a magic on both sides, or thick brown paper, or lantern slide, then framed and hung up to grocer's thick blue paper pasted upon an a nail placed in the button, in the centre old sheet,-fasten the battens a, b, c, d, e, f of each hole; therefore if we have five holes between the door-posts, each batten being in the magic curtain we shall want four dogs about 14 inch in width; then cut out five or or monkeys and one man playing the violin ; more holes (0 0 0 0 0) in the magic curtain, four witches and one cauldron, &c. Someimmediately under the battens, as in Fig. times the magic figures are merely cut out 15. Each of these holes is to be provided of cardboard and fastened in the holes of the with a flap of millboard which is attached magic curtain by means of pins, but in to the magic curtain by a hinge below, as any case the cauldron or man must occupy shown in Fig. 16, where the upper hole the centre holes and the other figures be () is seen closed, the middle hole has the arranged behind the remaining holes. Of flap (p) partially lowered, and the lower course any increase in the number of aperhole has the flap hanging quite down, the tures in the magic curtain will require an same as when the figures are
increase in the number of figures, and vice being exhibited. It is necessary to have these flaps
To exhibit the dances procure about two inches wider than
person to assist you, and arrange certain the holes, so as to exclude
signals before commencing: for example, the light behind, and when
when you point with your finger to the the holes, which vary in size,
left, he must move in that direction; if according to the room, are
you point to the curtain, the lights musi closed, the flaps are fastened
be advanced; if over your shoulder, he up by a button of this shape :
must recede, and so on. At a given sigfastened to the P
nal, let all the lights be extinguished in button above,
the room where the spectators are assemthe button being placed at
bled. Light four tapers, not mounted upon the side of the hole, not in
sticks, and hold them all together in your the centre. The next things you have to hand; and then lower the centre flap of prepare are the magic lights, and the sticks the curtain ; and immediately this is done, to hold them.
a boiling cauldron will be seen upon the To make the magic lights, procure two transparent screen ; lower another flap, coiled wax tapers, untwist them, and cut and then a witch will appear suddenly. each taper into six equal parts ; place a Now give your assistants two of the wax piece of cotton wick in the centre of the tapers, and there will be two witches six pieces of taper, and twist them well and two cauldrons ; then take a candle in together so as to make them firm. Cut each hand, and direct your assistant to do the seven-wick taper into pieces about three the same, and there will be four witches inches long, trim the wicks and moisten and four cauldrons; move to the right or them with turpentine.
left, and the figures will move ; raise, and To prepare the sticks, get a piece of deal depress the lights, advance and recede ; batten, an inch wide, cut it into pieces three then reverse your operations, and there feet long, and nail these to a handle. To will only be one cauldron and one witch. cach arm of these sticks fasten a piece of Now get one of the sticks with three cantin coiled round to receive the candles, or dles, and light them successively. As you drive nails through the ends and stick the do this, the witches will re-appear; give tapers upon them.
your assistant two tapers together, and as It now only remains to make the figures; there will be five lights burning, there will we shall then be able to exhibit.
be five witches and five cauldrons; ad
vance, and lower another flap, and then | THE OLD AND THE NEW YEAR. another, until they are all open; then blow out your lights one by one until only one
It was the last evening in the cold and remains; and let your assistant then close cheerless month of December, and the up all the flaps one after the other, the winter king had asserted and established his cauldron being the last. Let the lights in claims in the most despotic manner, the room where the spectators are be re-binding in icy chains every streamlet and placed, and you can then change the fountain, and crushing under his feet figures for some monkeys. Proceed the nature's fairest works. The stars looked same as with the witches, and you will down from their high dwelling-place, like astonish the people with the sudden change sentinels upon the outposts of Heaven, and the grotesque movements of the ani- keeping watch and ward, lest something mals, particularly when you have five less true and bright than they themselves figures of them shown upon the screen, were, should enter within its holy preas in the following figure.
cincts; and the wind howled sadly around, breathing a requiem for the glories which had followed each other in brief succession during the past year, seeming to tell, in plaintive tones, that they were gone, for ever gone!
On such a night did they, for whom the household fire glowed brightly, bless their happy, enviable lot, and sigh, as they remembered that hundreds were suffering -nay, were dying for want of a single spark of that genial element to impart
feeling and life to their rigid limbs. Fig. 17
Home's every comfort could not shut out
the haunting vision of that disconsolate When you have produced this effect, mother, who once hung over a dying turn yourself round, but not too suddenly, child amid dreary darkness, without one and the monkeys will trot round ; then ray of light to give back the features she move the light about, and turn round sud- had loved to gaze upon in other and denly. Now light another stick holding happier days. God help the poor when six lights and be sure to extinguish the the winter snows are upon the earth! lights you have, as the others are ignited. On such a night as this, the Old and Proceed as before, and thus by replacing | New Year met—both struggling for suprethe figures with others, and varying your macy, each unwilling to accord to the movements, much amusement may be other unlimited sway. afforded during the evening.
“I have been, and I am yet a monarch," said the Old Year ;
“one, too, whose
subjects are almost countless. You may VALUE OF Hair ON THE FACE AND not number the tongues which have sung Neck.--A writer in the Globe, who spent of my exploits; and the length of days nine years in Russia, where the frost is so which has been mine, has given me a excessive that the thermometer falls some knowledge and wisdom of which thou times (by our scale) to 35 degrees below knowest nothing. What! resign my zero, states that he never saw a common throne to thee, thou stripling! never!" Russian with any covering round his neck, and echo caught up the last word as it fell
, except that provided by Nature, which and “never” reverberated throughout the effectually protects his chin and the glands universe. of his throat. They travel in their sledges “ Truly,” replied the New Year, “thy at almost railroad speed, and are therefore deeds have rendered thee immortal, and exposed to the utmost severity of the frost, Time that bears all things down on his from which, thus protected they never vast bosom, shall transmit thy name to suffer any inconvenience.
generations yet to come; but now, thou
art old and enfeebled, and thy sceptre of Memory. There shalt thou be a motrembles in thy hand. Thy Spring and narch ; thy subjects as numerous as they Summer, nay, the Autumn of thy days now are, and with its placid moonlight are gone for ever, while mine are yet to and fadeless verdure around thy path, thou come. Would it not be wise, then, for shalt live for ever." thee to retire from the active scenes of life, Turning to the New Year, the angel giving the power to one whose strength bade him ascend the throne of nature, will be sufficient for the future, be it what giving him sage counsel and advice as
to his future course. A monarch's feel“Strength!” and the Old Year drew ings stole over him, and with a new lustre his form up to its loftiest height—"am in his eyes, and with the bright sunshine I not strong ? The blood may not of Hope streaming around him, he "went course through my veins as rapidly as on his way rejoicing." thine, but I tell thee, the current is deeper. A tranquil smile rested on the face of Strength! why this arm can boast sinews the Old Year, as he slowly tied on his and muscles that might, like the fancied sandals, equipping himself for his journey. lever of Archimedes, raise the world. He cast one long, lingering look behinil Look upon my eye-does it not tell that him, and then with his staff in his hand, the fire of my soul burns brightly still ? and with a cheerful soul and trusting heart, Ay, youth-tells it not that Time hath no departed. The blessed angel was at his power over such light—that he does not side, uttering words of love and comfort, quench it ? "
nor paused he until the land of Memory “* Thou art vain, Old Year. Pause one met his eyes, fairer than his wildest moment and look back-dost thou not imaginings had ever portrayed. remember when thou wert as I am now, in life's glowing spring-time, and when | THE BOY AND THE PANTHER.one like thee clung to his power, unwilling
A WILD WESTERN SCENE. to resign to thee thy rightful claims ? His course was over; he had been a king It was a fine morning in August, when during his appointed time, and according little Samuel Eaton, about seven years to the laws of succession thy hour of old, was making a dam in the brook that triumph drew near.
Go back to that ran before his father's door. He was an hour --rememberest thou not how un- only and beautiful child, and his mother reasonable thou deemedst thy predecessor ? | almost idolized him. There he was, with Now, tell me if thou wilt yet madly cling his trousers tucked up above his knees, to a sceptre which must pass from thee.” working like a beaver, his mother's eye A shade of sadness rested on the face gleaming out from beneath his sunburnt of the Old Year, for those moments passed hair, and with some of his father's strength in bright array before him. The guardian tugging at a large stone in the bed of the angel of the years marked the shadow, stream. and caught the sigh that escaped from his “ Samuel, you had better come in, troubled breast.
hadn't you ? " said Hannah, in a tone of "Why art thou sorrowful ?" said he. half-mother and half-mate. Ah,” he replied, “I feel that my “No," said Samuel..
A young aspirant presents An acorn came floating down the stream. his claims to my throne, and the truth The boy took it up, looked at it, was bursts upon me that they are equitable pleased, and “reckoned " in his mind and right. Alas! alas! must I pass away that there were more up the “gully,” and and be forgotten ? must the beauties and when his mother's back was turned off he glories that I have lavished upon the earth started for the acorns.
The gorge of the mountain into which "Be comforted,” said the angel, “be he was about to enter had been formed of good cheer! thou shalt have power (the work of many centuries) by the attriand life equal to thy successor; but it tion of the stream he had just been playshall be in a different realm. I will re- ing in ; and walking on a level, that move thee from the land of Hope to that bordered each side of the water, he boldly
glory is over.
vanish for ever?”