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bees, carry them to a distance, and then and eat them. A swallow once slipped its let them fly; each takes the straight line foot into the noose of a cord, and by entowards the nest or hive, and by observing deavouring to escape, drew the knot tight, these lines the hive may be found, in the so that he could not get away. He raised direction where they cross each other. a most piteous cry, which drew a large Sometimes bees stray away and build flock of swallows around him. When their hives in the trunks of hollow trees. they perceived his condition, each one There was a large tree cut down in a struck the cord with his beak till it was certain place, and near the root a great broken, and their companion was freed. many layers of honey were found ; the When two goats meet on a narrow ledge bees had probably deposited their honey of rock over a precipice, and see that in it for many years. Bees are indus- there is no room to pass each other, after trious insects, and will not permit any stopping a moment, one crouches down, drones—those bees which will not work- i and permits the other to walk gently over to live with them, but they all assist each his back; then each one continues his other.

journey along the narrow and dangerous The spider and many other insects path. Certainly they show a more acexhibit a kind of singular instinct. If commodating spirit than some men do. you touch a spider with your finger, he There was a certain cat, which frewill run away as swiftly as he can; but if quently went into a closet, the door or he finds that he cannot run in any direc- which was fastened by a common iron tion, he draws his feet together, and lies latch. When the door was closed, and perfectly motionless, feigning to be dead; she wished to come out, she mounted on and if he be even torn by pins, he will not the bench of the window, which was near show the slightest degree of suffering. the door, and with her paw lifted the Ants generally make their nests on the latch, and came out. This she did for ground; but in Siam they build them on many years. Another cat, which lived trees, because that country is often flooded with a friend of mine, was accustomed to with water, and people are obliged to come to the kitchen door every morning, build their houses on long poles.

at precisely five o'clock, open the door There are some birds that always move with her paw, and come into the house. to a warm climate as soon as winter ap- Dogs possess a remarkable degree of proaches. They go at a particular time, instinct, sagacity, or understanding. In and return again at a particular season. Switzerland there are high mountains, the When birds have liberty to do as they tops of which are always covered by snow. please, they always build their nests of the Sometimes the snow falls from them sudsame material—the same mud and straw, / denly, in such large masses that houses and and in the same spot, year after year.

travellers are buried. At the convent Sometimes they wholly change their mode among the mountains, called the St. Berof building, especially in those countries nard, the monks keep a particular kind where snakes abound. The bird hangs its of dog that they send out after a snownest on the branch of the tree, and makes storm, in search of travellers, whom they the opening to it at the bottom, so that frequently dig out of large banks of snow, should the snake crawl up the tree to the and save their lives. limb, it could not get into the nest to take There are hunting dogs in Mexico, eggs.

There is a certain bird that has which assist in catching and killing deer.

to catch grasshoppers, and The weight of the deer is generally six fasten them to the twigs of trees where times as great as their own, so that if the little birds were accustomed to come. they should attack them in front they Why do you think she did this ? for she might be killed, or have their backs never eats them herself. The reason was broken. Instead of this they attack them this : her instinct taught her that little at the side, or at the back, and when the birds were fond of grasshoppers ; and as deer starts to run, the dog throws him she was very fond of little birds, she put over. Some dogs will take a basket, and them there for a bait to decoy and bring go every day to market to get their dinner. them to that place, so that she might catch! They can always find their master by

the been seen

suer.

smelling his tracks along the ground, on the side of the land, and one leading to even if he is at a great distance; and, if the water, so that they can either go ashore possible, will never leave him.

or swim in the water. They plaster their Many interesting anecdotes are related cabins with a strong cement of mud, using by different writers about the sagacity of their flat tails to smooth it. Their houses the elephant. When tamed, it becomes are very strongly built, and can resist the most gentle and obedient of all strong winds, and currents in the streams. animals. It can be taught kneel, to Sometimes they have paths under the have a chariot or any load put on its back, ground, where they can retreat when any which it carries easily. They sometimes danger approaches. exhibit shame and ambition. They were The ostrich is the tallest and swiftest of formerly used to assist in launching ships. all animals. When it is chased it throws A certain one was employed to take a stones and gravel with its feet at its purlarge vessel into the water, but it was too heavy for him.

When his master saw Oysters throw water out of their shells that he was incapable to perform his task, when they are attacked, as if to vent their he said, “ Take away the lazy beast, and spite against their enemy. bring another.” The creature heard this, A certain pony would open the latch of and made another effort, but broke his the stable door, and raise the lid of the skull, and died on the spot.

corn-crib, which he learned to do himAn artist in France wished to paint the self. elephant with his trunk raised in the air, Monkeys possess a high degree of inand his mouth open. So a boy was stinct, and resemble man more than any employed to throw fruit into his mouth, other animal. The teeth and paws are to keep him in this position, but, as he very much like our teeth, hands, and feet. frequently deceived him, he at last becaine In their wild state they live in the woods, angry, and one day took some dirty water on the trees, and feed on fruits, leaves, and in his trunk, and threw it all over the insects. They live together in companies, painter's picture, as if he knew that this and never go alone when they wish to rob was the most effectual way by which he an orchard, or find their food. It seems could vent his spite.

as if they laid regular plans; for, as has A child that could not walk was left to been remarked, part of them stand to the care of an elephant; as soon as the watch the approach of enemies, and part child crawled to the extent of the ele- enter the field. They form a straigh phant's chain, he would quietly lift it with | line, reaching from those within, to some his trunk, and replace it in the spot where place beyond which is a retreat for them. it was first left. They formerly went to When they are all arranged in due the battle-field with the Burmans to help order, those in the orchard, near the them carry on their war. When an extra task | trees, throw the fruit to those outside was to be performed, some favourite dainty as fast as they can gather it. These was held out to the elephant before the pass it over to those nearest to them till time ; and he, as if aware that his success the fruit is all nicely lodged in their hut would be rewarded, made double exertions or retreat. If the one who acts as sentinel to earn it, and please his master.

perceives any one coming, he makes a loud The beaver is also a very remarkable noise, and they all run away; yet, even animal. In countries where they abound, then, they will take some fruit under each they gather together in large companies, of their arms or fore-paws, and also in and in the summer make excursions into their mouths. They are mischievous ani. the woods to choose the trees they wish to mals, and annoy travellers exceedingly by use in building their huts. They select a throwing stones and sticks at them; and spot in a lake or river, and then gnaw down they will frequently follow them for some the trees; and they always gnaw them in | distance, when they are passing through such a manner that the trees will fall into the woods, by leaping from tree to tree. the river. They build their houses large They are capable of forming strong enough to contain from fifteen to thirty attachments even with other animals, and beavers. Each cabin has two doors-one then exhibit mildness, affection, and do.

a

cility. Monkeys and orang-outangs can be

BREEDING OF SILKWORMS IN taught to do almost anything that we can.

GERMANY. They ride on ponies, feed themselves with spoon, and

appear to understand what is The breeding of silkworms is becomsaid to them. The great naturalist, ing an important branch of industry in Buffon, speaks of one ourang-outang which Germany; and it is so in the northern as would present his hand when any one came well as in the southern parts, though the to see him, and would walk along with general impression is that silkworms can. great composure. He would sit down not thrive in a northern temperature at the table, unsold his napkin, wipe his The first attempts to establish this branch lips, and use a spoon or a fork to convey of industry in the north were made by the food to his mouth. When he was French Protestant refugees in the district asked to drink tea, he took a cup and of Wurzburg, in 1594, and they were ensaucer, placed them on the table, put in couraged by the Prussian sovereigns. the sugar, poured out the tea, and allowed In about the middle of the seventeenth it to cool before he drank it; all of which century, the ramparts of Peiz and the he performed by the signs or orders of his environs of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, were inaster. Another would, by signs, make planted with mulberry trees, and in the the servant understand what he desired; if following century Frederick the Great his wishes were not granted, he would caused plantations to be made at Cæpnik, bite him and throw him down. When he Potsdam, and in the immediate vicinity of Was sick he was bled, and ever afterward, Berlin. when at all unwell, would hold out his Since 1821, the production of silk has arm to be bled, just as if he understood become considerable, not only in Prussia, that he had been relieved by such an but in the other states of the Zollverein ; operation before. They sometimes carry the annual production is at present several water from the river in pitchers placed thousand pounds. In quality it is reon their heads. Frequently when the markably white, and finer than that in the pitchers are not taken off, they fall and southern countries: and Berlin manubreak, at which the ourang-outang moans facturers say that if enough of it could be greatly. I might tell you many more obtained, they would not apply to the prointeresting facts and anecdotes about the ducers of Lombardy, habits of animals. We find they seen

From Berlin and Potsdam the cultiva. almost to possess the intellect of human tion of mulberry trees gradually extended beings. This appearance of intelligence to Silesia and Hanover. It is school. has been called, by nearly all physiolo- masters who chiefly occupy themselves gists, instinct ; and wonderful indeed is with it one of their body having in the this gift of the beneficent Creator. eighteenth century commenced it as

means of adding to his income; and

some of these persons now gain from 20 WARMTH OF Fur.-It is commonly to 80 thalers (75f. to 3008) annually. thought that warmth would be best ob- Several of the German governments entained by wearing fur with the hair ( courage the production of silk by grantinwards, and that the practice of wearing ing premiuns, and causing societies o it outwards has been adopted from its patronage to be formed. ornamental richness. Such, however, is A short time ago, the Minister of Com110t the case; for fur garments have been merce recommended that the sides of all Cound by experience to be much warmer the railways should be planted with mul. in cold weather when worn with the hair berry trees; the king of Wurtemburg has outwards, than when it is turned inwards. caused the French translation of the Hence the disadvantage of lining cloaks Chinese treatise on the breeding of silkand gloves with fur. The above is alleged worms to be translated into German, and as a proof that we are kept warm by our to be extensively circulated; at Dresden, clothing, not so much by confining the Mr. de Carlowitz, one of the ministers, Sieat of our bodies, as by repelling those has published a work on the subject; frigorific rays which tend to cool us. . and at Munich, the Queen, the Royal

a

Princesses, and the principal ladies of the aristocracy, patronise societies for encou

THE DUTIES OF EDUCATED

WOMEN. raging it.

In the Grand Duchy of Baden, the The education of women, like that of roads and sides of the railways have been men, should tend to prepare them for planted with mulberry trees; and in the their duties; the difference of their emvillage of St. Ilgen, near Heidelberg, the ployments will of course render their stubreeding of worms has been carried on, dies different. It is the duty of a woman during the last twelve years, on an exten- to educate her children, the boys until sive scale. Austria, on its part, is sparing a certain age, and girls until they are no pains to increase its production, which married. How much wisdom is requisite already amounts to about 100,000,000f. to manage the mind and disposition of annually-one-half coming from Lombardy each child, so as to guide their intellects, alone.

manage their humours, to anticipate the On the military frontier of Turkey, a effects of their growing passions, and to garden of mulberry trees has been esta- rectify their errors! How much prudence blished in every village, and the military should a mother have in order to maintain colonists are encouraged to extend the her authority over them, without losing cultivation.

their friendship and their confidence! At Prague, the fosses of the fortifica- Surely the mother of a family ought to tions have been planted with mulberry possess a religious, mature, firm mind, trees, and orders have been given that acquainted with the human heart. St. such trees shall also be planted by the Paul attaches such importance to the side of all the railways in the monarchy. education of children, that he says, it is by

"mothers the souls of children are saved."

I shall not attempt to specify all that

they ought to know, in order to educate A FEMALE PHYSICIAN.—A correspond their children well. To do this, it would ent of a New York paper, writing from be necessary to enter into an entire dea village in the interior of the Union, tail of their studies ; but we must not says:-“A lady practitioner of medicine, omit the subject of economy. Women in in the same village, is in advance of the general are apt to neglect it, and think it recent movement, for she has been a pro- proper only for the lower classes; those fessor of the healing art for twenty years. women especially, who are brought up in She studied with her husband, who is a idleness and indolence, disdain the details physician of established repute, and com- of domestic life. It is nevertheless from menced practice under his auspices, having ignorance that the science of economy is her own set of patients. Their number despised. The polished Greeks and Rorapidly increased, in part owing to her mans took care to instruct themselves in success, and in part, it is supposed, that this art. That mind is of a low order her charges were rather more moderate which can only speak well, and cannot act than those of the doctor. He is above well; we often meet with women who utter feeling any jealousy, however, of the wise maxims, yet nevertheless are very rising reputation of his wife, and they frivolous in their conduct.-Fenelon.] continue to ride their respective rounds in attendance on the sick. The lady is A CHEERFUL PHILOSOPHY.-The folemployed chiefly by the suffering of her lowing truthful passage occurs in one own sex, and for children, and possesses of the Frederika Bremer books :-" There the entire confidence of all who know her. is much goodness in the world, although It is to be supposed that consultations at a superficial glance one is disposed to are held in difficult cases. Mrs. G. is doubt it. What is bad is noised abroad, a woman of admirable energy, and has is echoed back from side to side, and news. reared a large family of children, seeing papers and the social circles find much to to the concerns of her own household, say about it; whilst what is good goes at as well as attending to her professional best, like sunshine, quietly through the duties.

world."

THE GARDENER.

the water : though if there be none, the

ditch must be large enough to take it. If First OPERATIONS IN A GARDEN.*

one corner happen to be the lowest, or the Whether a man undertakes to make a new place where it must run off, there may be garden, or to restore an old one, the first one main drain from the highest point to thing he should attend to is the drainage the lowest, and other drains at proper

of the ground. He must not persuade distances, to communicate with it; and e himself that because his ground lies high, however unwilling we may feel to under

or on a good slope, it is therefore dry, take such a job on entering a concern, it for in some places the springs may be is a fact easily demonstrated, that onefound at the top, or high up the side of half the gardens which are said to be worn a hill, and the ground may be, a large out or unproductive, require nothing but portion of the year, a complete swamp: draining, dressing, and trenching two spits It is always better to employ a man used deep, turning the bottom soil to the top, to to the work than to do this ourselves, as make them all that can be desired. The he will in an instant see which is the

reason why a drain must be two feet six best part of the garden whereat to get rid | inches to three feet deep is because, in all of the water that may drain from the land, I ordinary trenching, the ground is turned and in what direction the drains had better | up eighteen inches and disturbed another be made. If, however, a man be deter- six by loosening the bottom. If, as is mined to drain it himself, in most cases, sometimes the case, the soil is not good but not in all, the lowest part of the ground below the first eight or ten inches, trenchwill be the best place at which to carry offing' will do mischief.

In such cases, the water, and the drains may be dug a though trenching may be recommended accordingly, that they may relieve every as a general operation, it must not be part of the ground. There are many ways done. In like manner, although we reof draining; some use drain tiles, which commend draining, there

are circumare laid at the bottom, and go into one stances under which it can do no good; another ; others, stones or faggots. How- but these are exceptions, and the owner ever, where drainage is of the most import will soon find them out if they exist. ance, it is easiest managed, that is in stiff Generally speaking, if it had not been clayey land. A trench must be dug with | already done, draining and trenching are a trenching spade, two feet six inches to the first and best operations in a new or three feet deep, narrow at the bottom; this neglected garden. should have eight inches deep of large stones (if they can be had) at the bottom; FLOWERS NOT

IN CHARACTER.-- As but if they cannot be had, use the clip- fruit trees do not adjust themselves to pings of hedges or faggots, and cover in bearing until the root and the head have with the soil. With regard to the direc- settled down into a sort of mutual agreetion of the trenches, that must depend on ment as to demand and supply, so also circumstances; they must have a fall, flowers never come to the proper charachowever slight. If the ground be level, or ters until the root and the plant, after you must get rid of the water at a higher being disturbed in their proportions by instead of the lower part of the ground, removal, recover their relative positions. the trench must be deeper as it approaches For example, let us take a half-rooted offthe place where the water is to run off. If set of auricula, throwing up a bloom, it it happen that one end or one side of the will be found no more like the proper chaground is bounded by a ditch, it may be racter than any other sort. Or take the sufficient to run three or four trenches weakly struck cutting of a pansy, and you across the ground into such ditch ; or if will, perhaps, see a flower no more like the there be none, it may be necessary to make original than a cabbage is like a potato ; one ; but, if possible, get some outlet for

or take the premature blossoms of the

dahlia, and you would not kuow what it * From an excellent little work, which we was meant for, even if it condescended to recommend to our readers, entitled "Gardening for the Million," published by Houlston and

come double at all, which is more than it Stoneman, London.

will always.

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