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standing at the present time among the THE GARDENER.
most superb sorts; and although this be SAVE THE DEAD LEAVES.—If every the case, the anemone-taking into conhorticulturist would reflect for a moment sideration the varied colours they possess, on the nature of fallen leaves--which con- for there are numerous shades of blue, tain not only the vegetable matter, but from light tint to dark, also of scarlets the earthy salts, lime, potash, &c., needed and reds down to pale rose colour ; purfor the next season's growth—and that, ples to the same extent, claret and violet, too, exactly in the proportion required by &c., all of self colours; then follow the very tree and plant from which they white grounds, variously tipped, shaded, fall-nay, more, if they would consider or spotted, with the above colours in such that it is precisely in this way, by the a manner as to have the most pleasing decomposition of these very fallen leaves, effect-yet it is seldom you meet with that nature enriches the soil, year after them in the flower-gardens. How to year, in her great forests, it would scarcely account for this we are at a loss, for they be possible for such a reflecting horticul- are not difficult of cultivation. Ordinary turist to allow these leaves to be swept sandy soil flowers them very well, so that away by every wind that blows, and it has been tolerably well mamured;
and finally lost altogether. A wise horticul- | if not, manure can be added; old cowturist will diligently collect, from week to manure is best, but they do not dislike week, the leaves that fall under each tree, horse manure. The double varieties do and by digging them under the soil not produce seed in any quantity; the about the roots, where they will decay and semi-double and single seed freely, and enrich that soil, provide in the cheapest if a little care be bestowed in selecting manner the best possible food for that tree. a few of the best for colour and form as In certain vineyards in France, the vines seeders, you may expect to have some are kept in the highest condition by superior flowers among them. One thing simply burying at their roots every leaf is certain — that is, the variations of and branch that is pruned off such vines, shades will be almost as numerous as the or that falls from them at the end of the seed sown, and also, the forms of the
flowers will be equally diversified. For THE ANEMONE. - According to Lin- our own part, we admire alike the single næus, the anemone is a native of the and double, the principal feature being south-east of Europe. Voorhelm, how- the varied display of brilliant shades, ever, informs us in a treatise on the hya- which are more particularly to be admired cinth, that a French gentleman, M. Ba- coming as they do in the spring, when so chelier, introduced it into France from few flowers are to be seen. But this is not America in the last century; and by as- all: they may, by good management, be siduous attention to its cultivation, greatly flowered in the autumn. On the 10th of improved the species. It at length fell | November, 1852, we had the pleasure of into the hands of the Flemish and Dutch seeing some sixty or seventy blooms of florists, who made still further advances anemones, fully and beautifully grown. towards the perfection to which the present These flowers were the product of seeds numerous-named varieties have arrived. sown on the 21st of July, 1851 ; they The flower, from its gay and striking co- were principally single, but among them lours, soon became popular; and vast were several semi-doubles, most superbly numbers were imported into this country, striped and blotched. It is needless to which has continued up to the present say, that they were the admiration of all time, for they have maintained the supe- present. The anemone is far more hardy riority in the culture of this flower, al- than the ranunculus, and will bear more though our English gardeners have by no drought; moisture is, however, indispensmeans been backward in their exertions able to them, and must be supplied artito improve upon the productions of our ficially when nature does not afford it
. foreign neighbours; for, among the lists The brilliant colour of this beautiful of the select sorts will be found many flower must always render it a favourite of bearing English names, which take their the lover of plants.-Farmer's Journal.
FOR CHILDREN OF ALL AGES.
gen gas, and instead of using the fireOUTLINES OF POPULAR
pan, the far more convenient spirit-lamp SCIENCE
may now be employed. Neither will it be required to use a retort. A large test
tube, fitted up with a perforated cork, and (A SKETCH OF PROFESSOR FARADAY'S LECTURES TO CHILDREN-THIRD ARTICLE.)
a small bent tube, as represented in the
accompanying wood-cut, being quite suffiSINCERELY hoping that our young
cient. But stay.-readers have experienced no difficulty in
We have not yet following our previous descriptions, or in
described how the performing the experiments mentioned,
hole is to be bored we resume our pleasing task of making
through the cork in known some further properties of oxygen,
question. This may “the virtue of atmospheric air." Our
appear a very simple present report, we beg to say, before pro
operation to many, ceeding further, will chiefly consist of
but its performance details for conducting certain experiments requires peculiar treatment, which a novice -some very brilliant experiments; others, would not readily discover for himself. although not brilliant, yet extremely There are sold by philosophical instruinteresting.
ment makers, little tubes of brass, termed The Editor trusts that all his young cork-borers. They are in appearance philosophers will remember how oxygen very much like the brass ferules of a fishgas was made; how it was driven-forced ing-rod, and sharpened at one end to an out of the salt chlorate of potash by means edge by means of a file. By means of an of heat ; how we managed to avoid the instrument of this description, a hole, necessity of a furnace, by putting some clear, round, well defined, may be made lighted charcoal on a fire-shovel; and through a cork with the greatest facility ; finally, how the leading property of oxy- and when made, it may be slightly engen (at that time introduced by name), larged, if necessary, by means of what is was illustrated by means of an ignited called a rat's-tail file. Whenever a piece chip of wood. Perhaps it will be remem- of glass tube is required to be thrust bered also that the distillation of oxygen through a cork in the manner just degas from chlorate of potash, even with the scribed, the fitting must be quite accurate, aid of a strong charcoal fire, was no very else the junction will be useless. The easy operation. The oxygen came over slightest chink or crevice is sufficient to with some little difficulty, and the glass of permit the escape of gas. This absolute the retort became soft with the excess of accuracy can only be secured by careheat. Before proceeding with any further fully attending to certain little details, experiments on oxygen, Professor Fara- which we shall now proceed to explain. day required a further stock of the gas; Let not the young chemist think them and this he did not generate by the same trivial, or pass them over ; whether he is process as before,-namely, by heating in to succeed in his experiments or fail, will à retort, chlorate of potash alone, but mainly depend on his attention to, or a mixture of chlorate of potash and black negligence of details, such as these. oxide of manganese. By adopting this Having bored a hole in the cork, then it expedient, the oxygen comes over with is required to push the end of a glass rod great facility, not even requiring a char- tightly through it; and the young chemist, coal fire, but merely the flame of a spirit- in trying to accomplish this, is frequently lamp. A very curious point, too, is this :- apt to forget that glass is glass. He is the black oxide of manganese, although apt to employ an injurious amount of promoting the evolution of oxygen from force, just the amount he would have the chlorate, yet undergoes no change employed had the glass tube been a rod of itself.
iron or of wood. Thus the tube becomes Before performing the experiments shattered, and not unfrequently the operapresently to be described, it will be neces- tor's hands are cut. The chief impediment sary to generate a further portion of oxy- / to the ready passage of the extremity of
a glass tube through a cork is this. The wide-mouthed pint bottles ; an expedient, end of the tube, when cut or broken off by the way, which will prove far more exfrom another piece, has usually sharp pensive than the purchase of some proper edges, like a knife, which edges pressing gas jars at oncc. against the soft matter of the cork, drive Resuming the thread of his discourse, the latter in fragments before them, and Professor Faraday said : “Let us now see thus spoiling the accuracy previously the effects of this oxygen gas when existing of the perforation. To obviate brought to bear on certain bodies which this defect, the knife edges must be de- are known to be combustible even in stroyed. This can be very easily accom- atmospheric air. First of all let us see plished by means of the spirit-lamp flame, its effects on charcoal ; for this purpose in which, if the end of the tube be held for I take a piece of charcoal, through which a time, the knife edges fuse, and the a hole has been perforated; I pass through orifice of the tube becomes slightly con- the hole a wire, having previously tied the tracted, thus favouring its passage through end of the wire into a sort of knot; then the cork. If it be pressed whilst still hot at its other extremity the wire is passed through the latter, all the better.
through a round metallic disc, and finally It now remains to adjust the outside through a cork, in such a manner that of the cork exactly to the diameter of the when all are put together, as indicated, an distilling tube. This is not accomplished apparatus may be formed of the kind repre. by cutting, but by careful filing, the cork sented.” We illustrate the combination by being fashioned into a tapering shape in a diagram. “ The charcoal thus suspended such a manner that the very extremity
on a wire, I. ignite by holding it is somewhat less than the orifice of the
in the flame of a spirit lamp; the tube. Finally, all the preceding direc
slightest point of ignition is suffitions having been attended to, the tube cient, and when thus ignited I itself will require to be bent, which can plunge it into a jar containing be readily accomplished_by holding it oxygen gas. Remark, now, how in the spirit lamp flame. Does any reader beautifully, how brilliantly the
charcoal burns, throwing off its tedious, trivial, unimportant? The case Fig. 24. coruscations in every direction, is simply this, if they be not absolutely like so many little meteors shooting attended to the operations to be described through the jar; remark, too, the kind oi will fail. Therefore let the reader take combustion which ensues—it is rapid
, his choice, either to set about his experi- violent, but totally devoid of flame. This ments according to our directions, taking distinction between combustion with, and heed of every adınonition, however minute, combustion without flame, is highly imporor to forego these experiments altogether. tant, and I shall have a good deal to say
Supposing, then, the distilling appa- concerning the subject hereafter. I will ratus to be quite ready; about two tea- only state at this time, that flame can spoonfuls of chlorate of potash, intimately only result from the burning of a volatile mixed with an equal portion of black substance, such as a vapour or a gas; an oxide of manganese, are to be put into the illuminating flame can only, then, occur large tube, and the various parts of the under certain circumstances. apparatus being joined, heat is to be “Now charcoal is not volatile; on the
applied, and the oxygen gas contrary, it is one of the most fixed bodies which comes over is to be with which we are acquainted. If heated collected. The proper vessels in a closed vessel out of contact with to be employed in perform- atmospheric air or oxygen, it suffers no ing the experiments, pre- diminution of weight; hence during comsently to be described, with bustion it does not yield a flame. Yet by
oxygen are gas jars, as illus- a beautiful and wonderful provision of Fig. 23.
trated by the annexed wood the Almighty, this property of carbon is cut; but provided such cannot be ob- so far modified in certain instances, heretained, tolerably efficient substitutes may after to be described, that it yields a flame of be made by cutting off the lower parts of the most vivid kind. However, our pre
sent theme is oxygen, not charcoal; there- i combustion of charcoal. The result, howfore I will pass on to show you the effects ever, is very different in this case, as we of this element upon ignited sulphur. shall make out hereafter ; for whilst all the Having placed some sulphur in a little charcoal by combustion seems to have copper tube attached to a copper wire, been dissipated, on account of its conver. and the latter to a metallic disc and cork, sion into a gaseous or invisible form, the as before, I ignite the sulphur by holding iron wire by combustion has been changed it in the flame of a spirit-lainp, and into little fused globules, not of iron, but of plunge it into a glass-jar containing an oxide of iron, or combination of iron oxygen. Rapid combustion, you observe, with oxygen ; some of these globules have ensues, a peculiar blue light being diffused been heated to such a degree of intensity, all around. In this operation of combus- that, falling against the sides of the glass tion, there is a flame, a very beautiful flame, jar, they have almost perforated the latter, but not highly illuminative. The condi. and falling on the plate, have even buried tions necessary to illumination are still deeply into it, notwithstanding they must not here. Let us now perform a third have previously sunk through a layer of experiment. Instead of charcoal or sul- cold water. phur, let us take iron; a substance which “On the facts supplied by the burning of has already been demonstrated capable of a piece of iron wire in oxygen gas, hangs a burning, even in the atmospheric air. celebrated and a most important chemical Let us see what will be the result of doctrine. This doctrine I shall have causing it to burn in oxygen gas. The occasion to advert to hereafter ; meantime, details necessary for the successful per- what I have stated respecting a great and formance of this experiment are as fol. all important chemical doctrine being lows :-a length (some eighteen inches) of founded on a correct observation and insteel piano-wire, being tightly wound round terpretation of appearances rendered evia small rod or glass tube, a coil is formed. dent by this result, will teach you the This coil now being unfolded, and slightly propriety of thinking attentively on the extended, a helix or corkscrew-like form bearings of every appearance manifested results. One end of this helix is to be in the course of an experiment. unwound and straightened; then it is to “A philosopher desirous of extending the be fitted with metallic disc and cork, as boundaries of our knowledge, should set already described ; the other end being out in his career with the determination supplied with a very small chip of wood. to consider nothing as trivial—to regard The point of a match is very good for this no phenomenon, however seemingly uninı. purpose, but it must not be attached to portant, as beneath his notice. It is the wire by simply thrusting the latter absolutely impossible to value correctly through it. The very extreme point of the importance of any new truth. To the wire being filed thin, like the point of correct thinkers, it may seem trivial, or it a needle, is to be tightly wound round may seem important just in proportion as the chip of wood, by means of a small an immediate application for it may be pair of pliers. All matters being thus evident; but the philosopher regards no arranged, the chip of wood may be ignited truth as trivial or unimportant. Years— by holding it in the flame of a candle or centuries may, perhaps, roll on without an spirit-lamp, and when ignited it may be application for it being found. No plunged into a jar containing oxygen gas. matter. Though not for us, or our immeThe chip will immediately take fire, and, diate successors, a discovered truth is burning, will set fire to the fine extremity nevertheless new impulse directed of iron wire, which begins to throw off towards the moral elevation of mankind. coruscations in all directions, and the fire One more experiment with oxygen in gradually extending, proceeds, from the illustration of its powerfully combustive very end of the wire considerably further force, and we will pass on to the considerback into its corkscrew-like portion. Here ation of other elements; yet oxygen will again,” remarked Professor Faraday, “ we come before us indirectly again and again ; have no flame ; sparks are evolved just as we cannot avoid this mighty element, if we we noticed them to have been during the would ! In one condition or another it
pervades the whole economy of the world. of its combustion is a solid. These cirGas vapour, liquid or solid, oxygen may cumstances, however, will be rendered exist in all. In the thin, mobile, fleeting more evident by and bye. Thus have we atmosphere, the mighty oxygen is there : accomplished the combustion of four difin water,--that very type of inactivity-it ferent bodies with oxygen; namely, charis there. In aquafortis and oil of vitriol, coal, sulphur, iron, and phosphorus. We still this wonderful element exists. In have seen the most intense effects proflint, and in clay, in saltpetre, gunpowder, duced. We have seen each substance dis. in the very earth we tread upon, in the appear, and light and heat evolved. substance of trees and plants, in blood * At length the question presents itself, and hair, skin and muscle, nerve and where has the oxygen gone? Is there bone, -oxygen pervades all and every one. any oxygen in the jars now?
We can We cannot bid farewell to this mighty easily ascertain this, you know. by the element if we would, but we can bid fare very simple experiment of dipping into well to it in its pure simple, uncombined the jars respectively an ignited chip of gaseous form; for that state exists not in wood. If oxygen be present, the wood nature, it is produced by the disposing will not only burn, but it will burn with agency of man. One experiment more, great brilliancy. If oxygen be not present, then, for the purpose of illustrating the the fire will be extinguished. Well
, I combustion-supporting powers of oxygen commence with the jar in which charcoal in this state.
has been burned and observe the wood, “The combustion of phosphorus in oxy- instead of burning, is immediately extingen is exceedingly brilliant and not guished. I try the same mode of testing dangerous, if the following instructions be on the remaining jars, and in every case implicitly attended to. The copper we discover that the oxygen is no longer
ladle in which the combustion is there. Where, then, can it have gone! effected must be of considerable you will ask. Is it destroyed ? Once, depth, and the phosphorus em- and for all, banish this word from your ployed should not be more than suf- minds,--that is to say, from your minds ficient to half fill, when fused, the as philosophers. Nothing whatever is copper dish. Moreover, the phos- destroyed. Not even combustion itself phorus employed must be per- can destroy the smallest atom. To make
fectly dry, the drying to be accom- use of the word 'destruction' in common Fig. 25. plished by means of contact (not language is, with certain restrictions, friction) with blotting-paper. Finally, the permissible. Thus, if I burn a stick, the phosphorus, when placed in the ladle, is to stick, as such, no longer exists ; it is disbe ignited by touching it on the surface sipated in many gaseous forms. Yet, with a piece of hot wire, not by holding in these forms, disguised, still exist every the ladle which contains it in the flame of atom of which the vegetable portion of a candle or spirit-lamp. All these direc- the stick was composed. If I burn a tions having been attended to, the phos-candle, again, the candle, in ordinary lanphorus, as soon as ignited, may be plunged guage, is said to be destroyed; but there rapidly but steadily into the glass jar is no destruction here any more than designed to contain it, and standing, as there was in the case of a burned stick;
usual, in the middle the elements entering into the composition of a soup-plate with of the candle are merely dispersed in water. The combus- various forms. And so is it with chartion resulting is ex- coal, and so is it with sulphur; the mateceedingly brilliant, be- rial of these bodies is, by combustion in cause, in the instance oxygen, dispersed in the gaseous form. under consideration, Not so, when phosphorus, or iron ore are the two conditions ne burned in oxygen gas. The results of
cessary to accomplish burning either of these substances are Fig. 26.
this result are sup- not gases or vapours, but solid bodies,
plied. The phospho. which give us no great trouble to collect. rus itself is a volatile body, and the result On looking at the jar in which the phos