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sustains the four ends of the four long resting them at intervals in the centre of tubes, which span the distance from shore the sections. Another trial was a train of to shore. There are two pairs of short twenty-eight wagons and two locomotives, and two of long tubes, the lengths of these with 280 tons of coal, drawn into all pairs being 250 feet and 470 respectively. four of the tubes, the deflections being The Egyptian lions are 25 feet 6 inches carefully noted. These deflections, in long, 12 feet 6 inches high, 8 feet wide, every case, by means of a nice apparatus and weigh 80 tone. Two thousand cubit for the purpose, were ascertained to be feet of stone were required for each lion. exactly three fourths of an inch over the The total quantity of stone in the bridge | immense mass and area of iron. After an is 1,400,000 cubic feet. The weight of | interesting rehearsal of these experimental malleable iron in the tubes is 10,000 tons, ordeals, which occupied several hours, the of cast iron, 1,400 tons. The whole length train of 280 tons, with its two locomotives, of the entire bridge, measuring from the was taken out about a mile distant from extreme front of the wing walls, is 1,833 the tube, and then suddenly shot through feet, and its greatest elevation at Britannia it with the greatest attainable rapidity, and
pier, 240 feet above low-water mark. The the result was very interesting, as detertotal cost of the structure is £601,865. mining a much-discussed question ; it
“ As a matter of history,” says the Times, being found that the deflection at this “a chronological summary of the struc- immense velocity of the load was sensibly ture will be interesting. On June 30, less, in the way of undulation or collapse, 1845, the Bill sanctioning the construction than when the load was allowed to remain of the Britannia Bridge was passed by at rest in the tube. The manner in which Parliament. In July the preliminary these results were registered and arrived experiments to determine the form of at was by means of a new and curious structure commenced; April 13, 1846, contrivance, it being found that the the first workmen were engaged on the tremor occasioned by trains in transit bridge ; April 21, the first stone of the prevented these deflections from being Britannia tower was laid ; June 13, 1847, accurately read by the ordinary spiritthe first vessels arrived with iron at level. This contrivance consists in a the Straits ; August 10, the first rivet large pipe containing water, laid along was inserted ; February 22, 1849, the the lower cells of the tube, one end rising Caernarvon and Anglesea towers were up within the tube at the centre, and the completed; April, 1849, the pontoons other end fixed against the stonework or were brought to bear; May 4, first tube the abutments of the bridge. Both exwas completed and platform cut away ; tremities of this pipe are furnished with June 20, first tube floated : June 22, last glass tubes and graduated scales, by which stone in Britannia tower laid ; November the relative levels of the water are easily 9, first tube deposited in permanent bed ; ascertained. As the slightest leakage or December 4, second tube floated; Fe- evaporation over the ordinary thermomebruary 7, 1850, second tube deposited on tric expansion of the water would derange permanent bed; March 3, Caernarvon the level, while only half the actual deflecsmall tube lowered ; March 5, first engine tion of the tube was registered at each end passed through tube, and last rivet inserted; of the pipe, these disadvantages are obviMarch 18, single line of tube opened for ated by the addition of a large reservoir of public traffic ; June 10, third tube of water in the interior of the tube, which is second line floated ; July 11, third tube covered with oil and placed beside the deposited ; July 25, last tube floated ; graduated scale. This larger area exOctober 21, second line of tube opened hibits the whole of the deflections at the for public traffic.”
abutment extremity, and the apparatus Before the bridge was allowed to be presents a perfect mirror of all the deflecused for the conveyance of passengers and tions of the great structure. merchandise, it was subjected to very According to the resident engineers,
“ The first and principal who have watched minutely from day to experiment consisted in passing two day, all the developed peculiarities of the locomotive engines through the tube, and novel undertaking, many curious and interesting results have been produced bottom form excellent speaking tubes ; These gentlemen state that the heaviest and, by elevating the voice, persons may gales through the Straits do not produce converse through the entire length of the so much motion over the extent of either bridge, more than 500 yards. If one end tube as the pressure against the side of of the cells be closed they return a powerthe tube of ten men; and that the pres- ful echo; but, although a whisper is thus sure of ten men, keeping time with the distinctly repeated, the loudest whistle vibrations, produces an oscillation of 11 does not appear capable of returning any inch, the tube itself making 67 double echo. vibrations per minute. The strongest gusts of wind that have swept up the
ADVICE TO PIANISTS. channel during very stormy weather did Always insist on having your instrunot cause a vibration of more than a ment purely tuned. quarter of an inch. The broadside of a A player may cram his memory with storm causes an oscillation of less than finger passages; they all, in time, grow an inch; but when the two tubes are commonplace, and must be changed. braced together by frames, which is now Only where such facility serves higher being done, these motions will be almost ends, is it of any worth. Play nothing, annihilated, and all apprehension from as you grow older, which is merely wind or weather, from their being secured fashionable. Time is precious. One must together, will cease. The meteorological have a hundred human lives, if he would results, since the tubes have occupied their acquaint himself with all that is good. elevation, have materially differed from You must carry it so far that you can unthose that were observed when they lay derstand a piece of music upon paper. along the Caernarvonshire coast. The Strive to play easy pieces well and beautiaction of the sun at midday, instead of fully; it is better than to render harder bending them two or three inches, does pieces only indifferently well. You should not move them more than two or three sedulously practice scales and other finger eighths of an inch. The daily expansion exercises. But there are many persons and contraction of the tubes varies from who imagine they have accomplished half an inch to three inches, attaining everything when they have spent many either the maximum or minimum at about hours each day for years in mere mechathree o'clock A. M. and P. M. These and nical exercise. It is about as if one other interesting results, as indicating the should busy himself daily with repeating safe working of the great machine, are the A-B-C as fast as possible, and always read by means of self-registering ther- faster and faster. Use your time better. mometers that record the constant tem- Accustom yourself, even though you perature, placed in mahogany cases, have but little voice, to sing at sight withprotected by plate-glass, and under lock out the aid of an instrument. The sharpand key. There is also a self-acting ness of your hearing will continually clock-work apparatus that elevates a shaft improve by that means. But if you are
a vertical plane, all the minutest the possessor of a rich voice, lose not a motions of the tubes being delineated by moment's time, but cultivate it, and conan arm carrying a pencil, which is fixed sider it the fairest gift which Heaven has to the tube. If a compass be held over lent you. You must not only be able to play any part of the bottom of the cells, the little pieces with the fingers; you must be south pole is affected, and if held over the able to hum them over without a piano. tops of the cells, the north pole is affected; Sharpen your imagination so that you and this effect is observable in all parts of may fix in your mind not only the melody the tube, whether at the centre or end, of a composition, but also the harmony although their position is only about belonging to it. 10° W. of the magnetic meridian.
The cultivation of hearing is the most Some of the acoustic effects produced | important matter. Take pains early to by the bridge are curious. The report of distinguish tones and keys by the ear. a pistol fired beneath it is repeated three The bell, the window-pane, the cuckoo or four times. The cells of the top and ask yourself what tones they each give out.
THE HUMMING-BIRD, THE BEE, AND
A Humming-bird, on lightning wing,
Was hovering near a lovely bower, A glancing, rapid, humming thing,
That bore the hue of every flower. Swift to a blooming rose he flew,
To sip the dainty, scented sweetA sparkling drop of honey dew,
Dropp'd at the pistil's golden feet. Just as he sought to probe the cell,
With keen desire to find the store, A Honey Bee that knew it well,
Sung while the wealth away he bore. Thus Pleasure oft allures for naught,
And leaves the soul unsatisfied; Which, like the Humming-bird untaught,
Reproaches Fate, as when he cried
Nor murmuring tribes from me derive
Thrice twenty summers I have seen
“Why didst thou give thy nectar up
To that unfashion'd, droning thing? I claim alone the ruby cup,
When I come by with rainbow wing. “With soft, sweet tone and soothing strain,
I here my earthly vows renew,
In drops of amber ever new."
Of innocence, and duty done,
To catch the June enlivening sun : And answerd, " This may teach thee why
Thou, fair bright visitor! would'st sip The bounty of the morning sky,
And take the sweetness from my lip: " And so doth he-but wisely turns
E'en drops to luscious stores of sweet, And by his faithful labour earns
The homage I each day repeat. “ The labourer who sings and prays
In sweet Employment's busy hum, Shall worship in the sunny rays,
And find ere night the answer come. “The labourer who toils and sings,
Shall sing because his toil is love, Whose spirit hovers on the wings
Of Hope-the toiler's early dove."
“WATER! Water !” cries the bird,
With his singing, gentle note; And the liquid cry is heard
Pouring from the little throat, Water ! water ! clear and sweet!
“To-weet! To-weet!” “ Water! Water!" roars the ox,
While it rushes at his side, Down among the mossy rocks
Rippling with its crystal tide ; Water! water ! pure and true!
“Moo! Moo!” “Water! Water !" said the tree,
With its branches spreading high; . “Water ! Water !" rustled he,
For his leaves were very dry; Water! water! for the tree !
Pure and free ! “Water ! Water !” said the flower,
Whispering with its perfumed breath “Let me have it in an hour,
Ere I thirsting droop in death! Water, water, soft and still,
Is my will !” “Water! Water !” said the grain,
With its yellow head on high; And the spreading, fertile plain,
Ripening, join'd the swelling cry;
Wealth untold !
Giveth Nature everywhere-
It will never prove a snare !
Yes! and thee !
Drink it, crystal-like and sweet!
Crush him underneath your feet! Water! Water! Youth for thee
Thee and me!
THE BEECH TREE'S PETITION. o leave this barren spot to me! Spare, woodman, spare the beechen tree! Though bush or flow'ret never grow My dark unwarming shade below; Nor summer bud perfume the dew Of rosy blush, or yellow hue ! Nor fruits of autumn, blossom-born, My green and glossy leaves adorn;
INTERESTING VARIETIES. AMBtion is like love, impatient
THREE times as many children die in the first Both of delays and rivals.
DENHAM. year as in the second; a greater number indeed HOPE is the gay to-morrow of the mind
die in the first year than in the six succeeding That never comes.
CAMPBELL. Love is a fire self-fed, and does not need
GERMAN physiologists affirm, that of twenty Hope to preserve the fame.
SHIEL. deaths of men between eighteen and twents. The truly noble are not known by pomp;
eight years of age, ten originate in the waste of
the constitution induced by smoking. But inborn greatness and diffusive good. Anox. The good are better made by ill,
By the mere action of the lungs of the inAs odours crush'd are sweeter still. ROGERS. habitants of Liverpool, a stratum of air sufWAEN the stem dies, the leaf that grew
cient to cover the entire surface of the town, to Out of its heart must perish too. MOORE.
the depth of three feet, is daily rendered unft
for the purposes of respiration. Who has not known ill-fortune, never knew Himself, or his own virtue.
It has been ascertained that the quantity of THERE was a small clear lake,
soap annually consumed in the metropolis is
about 12,000 tons, which, at £50 per toi, Costi From whence the morning, like a beauty, came
£600,000 : and of soda, for washing, about 3,0w Fresh from her bath.
tons, which at £10 per ton, costs £30,000. In His love was passion's essence as a tree
all £630,000 a year. On fire by lightning ; with ethereal flame
The quantity of water consumed daily in LonKindled he was, and blasted.
BYRON. don is equal to the contents of a lake fifty acres THERE's a proud modesty in merit!
in extent, and of a mean depth of three feet; Averse to asking, and resolved to pay
this quantity is by no means proportionate to Ten times the gift it asks.
the great and growing wants of the population.
According to the last returns, there were 70,00 FROM every blush that kindles in her cheeks, Ten thousand little loves and graces spring
houses without any supply whatever. To revel in the roses.
The parliamentary investigations into the
cause of shipwrecks, show that a very large Meek-eyed Eve,
proportion of the accidents at sea arise from Her cheek yct warm with blushes, slow retires
intoxicating liquors being allowed on board the Through the Hesperian gardens of the west,
vessels. In the report, it appears that the aveAnd shuts the gates of day. Mrs. BARBAULD.
rage annual loss to this country, by shipwrecks, Her eyes, her lips, her cheeks, her shape, her is £2,836,166, and we are within the truth whet features,
we state that two-thirds of this loss of property Seem to be drawn by Love's own hand; by Love is the result of our drinking system. Himself in Love.
MR. BROTHERTON made the following state A foot more light, a step more true,
ment in his place in the House of Commons, ot. Ne'er from the heath-flower dash'd the dew;
the 22nd of January, 1847 :-“Of twenty shil E'en the slight hare-bell raised his head Elastic from her fairy tread.
lings expended in spirits the amount paid for WALTER SCOTT.
labour was only eightpence; but if twenty shil Breaking hearts lings were laid out in articles of manufacture
, Require a drapery to conceal their throbs from six shillings to ten shillings went into the From cold inquiring eyes; and it must be pocket of the artizan. Ample and rich, that so their gaze may not Explore what lies beneath. MRS. HEMANS.
FERMENTATION destroys part of the flour or
meal. We find, in consequence, that a sack of In vain I strive to put her from my thoughts, 280lbs., which makes 3601bs, of bread, or 9 To drive her out with empire and revenge ; quartern loaves, by fermentation, gives 408lbs., Still she comes back, like a retiring tide,
or 102 quartern loaves, by effervescence. The That ebbs awhile, but straight returns again, loss by refining is still greater: a quarter of And swells above the beach. ROWE wheat, weigbing 520lbs., or 65lbs. per bushel
, THE frigid and unfeeling thrive the best;
produces 512lbs. of meal; and these, after a And a warm heart, in this cold world, is like course of screening, yield only 416lbs. of flour, A beacon-light, wasting its feeble flame
-a din inution of 96lbs., or 18 per cent. Upon a wintry deep that feels it not, And trembling with each pitiless gust that 16,000,000, the annual waste of life 35,000, 22
The population of England and Wales is about blows, Till its faint fire is spent. HENRY NEELE.
the cases of unnecessary sickness little short of
1,000,000; so that of the total waste of life in There are some happy moments in this lone England and Wales, somewhat less than one
And desolate world of ours, that well repay third, or about two-sevenths, and the same The toil of struggling through it, and atone proportion of cases of preventable sickness take
For many a long sad night and weary day. place in London. The population of the United They come upon the mind like some wild air Kingdom is about 28,000,000, the annual waste Of distant music, when we know not where, of life upwards of 60,000! and the cases of unOr whence, the sounds are brought from; and necessary sickness, more than a million and 3
half! so that a sixth of the total waste of health Though brief, is boundless. HALLECK. and life takes place in the metropolis.