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Attentive Athens caught the sound,
CONVERSATIONS ON GEOLOGY.
PAPA, STEPHEN, AND WILLIE.
And felt its just control :
STEPHEN. Oh! papa, what can be the
PAPA. Why this piece of paving-stone Thy breath inspires the poet's song, is a very nice bit of a rock, called granite, The patriot's free unbiass'd tongue,
and contains a mineral called tourmaline. The hero's generous strife : Thine are retirement's silent joys,
If you will look at it you will find three And all the sweet, endearing ties
other substances in it-felspar, quartz, Of still, domestic life!
and mica; all the substances composing No more to fabled names confined,
the crust, for each are divided into two To thee, supreme, all-perfect Mind, My thoughts direct their flight:
great groups, the stratified and the unstraWisdom's thy gift, and all the force
tified. This granite is one of the unstratiFrom thee derived, unchanging source fied rocks.
Or intellectual light!
Willie. But, papa, the earth has not To regulate my doubtful way
got a crust, has it ? Through life's perplexing road :
PAPA. Oh, yes, our earth is just a big The mists of error to control,
globe of melted matter, cooled on the And through its gloom direct my soul outside. Now this cooled outside is called
To happiness and good ! Beneath her clear discerning eye,
the crust, and we live on it ; perhaps it is The visionary shadows fly,
not more than one hundred miles thick. Of folly's painted show:
Willie. Oh! how strange; but, papa, She sees, through every fair disguise, how do you know, for nobody has ever That all, but virtue's solid joys,
been inside ? Is vanity and woe.
STEPHEN. Yes, and why don't we feel Her chief original prose compositions the heat through? were letters, and two numbers in the
PAPA. Well, one at once. No one has Rambler,” Nos. 44 and 100. The former | ever been down lower than perhaps the tooth consists of an allegory, wherein religion part of the depth; but, you know, there and superstition are contrasted in a most
are such places as coal-pits, and other admirable manner.
deep shafts. Now, it is found, by careful
experiments, that the temperature increases ON THE USE AND ABUSE OF AMUSE- as we descend into the interior of these MENTS.-It were unjust and ungrateful mines, to the extent of about 1° of Fahto conceive that the amusements of life renheit for every fifty-four feet of vertical are altogether forbid by its beneficent depth. In some mines in NorthumberAuthor. They serve, on the contrary, land it is 1° for every forty-four feet, so important purposes in the economy of that if the rate of increase be constant, human life, and are destined to produce there would, at a depth of sixty thousand important effects both upon our happiness feet, be a low, red heat; and at a depth of one and character. They are, in the first hundred miles, everything there will be in place, in the language of the Psalmist, a fused state. So you see, that although is the wells of the desert;" the kind rest- no one has ever been there, yet, by a little ing-places in which toil may relax, in observation, we can ascertain the probable which the weary spirit may recover its condition of the earth's centre. tone, and where the desponding mind Stephen, with reference to what you said, may resume its strength and its hopes. It I will just mention a fact to you, and you is not, therefore, the use of the innocent can form your own ideas on the subject; amusements of life which is dangerous, but I will be glad to tell you more about but the abuse of them : it is not when it another time. The fact is this, that a they are occasionally, but when they are thickness of half an inch of clay and sand constantly pursued ; and when, from being intercepted the heat of a mass of eleven an occasional indulgence, it becomes an tons of white, hot, melted cast-iron, for habitual desire.
twenty minutes, without the heat on the
And now, I'll try,
outside of the vessel being sufficient to words ge and logos, and means something pain the hand.
said, or a discourse about the earth. GeoSTEPHEN. Well, I understand that; graphy means something written about but what is a stratified rock?
the earth ; but geography only treats of PAPA. The word stratified just means the surface of the globe, while geology made in layers, and a stratified rock is embraces inquiries into the inside as well one that has been so formed. Suppose as the outside. You will find your little you take a glass of muddy water, and let knowledge of the principal gases, &c., of it stand for an hour or two, what hap- great value, when I have to explain how pens ?
rocks are decomposed and remade-how Willie. Why, the mud sinks to the coal has been formed—and how shells bottom.
and bones have become altered. PAPA. Exactly so. Well, every river WILLIE. What is coal, papa ? when it falls into the ocean carries down a PAPA. Coal is all made up of decayed quantity of mud. This mud, by its own plants; but I'll tell you more about coal byspecific gravity being heavier than that and-by, and I will also, when we next of water, sinks to the bottom, just as the have a conversation on geology, pursue mud does in the tumbler. Some rivers some method, and talk only of one submay carry down sand, others silt, and so ject. I think that the agencies modifying on; so that at the bottom of the sea are the crust of the globe will be an interestimmense beds of sand, mud, gravel, &c. ing topic for a little conversation. What happens now has happened in the STEPHEN. Do you mean, papa, those former ages of our world's history; and causes which wear down rocks and so all our bits of sandstone, limestone, chalk, on? have once been exposed to the action of Papa. Yes. If you think
over the water, and are indeed the beds of ancient subject, you will be better prepared for seas and oceans. Now these are called what I may have to tell you. stratified rocks—that is to say, have all
Willie. Thank you, papa. been formed as sediment from water, and too, and brother Stephen will help me, but are, consequently, found in layers or I wish you would let sister Mary join us. strata. Do you understand me?
I'm sure she would be pleased ? STEPHEN. Yes, and I think I know PAPA. Very well, bring her too. now what those shells and petrified snakes are that you have up-stairs. PAPA. Well, what are they?
THE Good Man.-A good man lives STEPHEN. Why, they are shells of to his own heart. He thinks it not good animals that lived in the seas and oceans manners to slight the world's opinion ; which made the mud which has since though he will regard it only in the second become stratified rock; and I suppose the place. A good man will look upon every snakes must have lived on the land. accession of power to do good as a new
PAPA. Your theory about the shells trial to the integrity of his heart. A good is correct; but what you call snakes are man, though he will value his own countryshells also-called ammonites.
men, yet will think as highly of the worthy WilliE, Oh, papa, why didn't you tell men of every nation under the sun. A us some of these things before ? I often good man is a prince of the Almighty's wondered at the old stones you collected, creation. A good man will not engage and couldn't think what use they were. even in a national cause, without ex
PAPA. As you have already learned a amining the justice of it. How much little chemistry, I have no objection to more glorious a character is that of the teach you geology; because it is both an friend of mankind, than that of the conexceedingly useful and a very interesting queror of nations ?' The heart of a worthy study. Herschel says it ranks next to man is ever on his lips ; he will be pained astronomy in the scale of the sciences. when he cannot speak all that is in it. STEPHEN. What does the word itself | An impartial spirit will admire goodness
or greatness wherever he meets it, and PAPA. It is derived from two Greek whether it makes for or against him.
SUITABLE WORK FOR A BEGINNER,
THE WORK-TABLE FRIEND. fine piping cord, covered with silk; and
pierce holes for the tie, sewing them round INFANT'S SHOE, EMBROIDERED IN with silk of the same colour as the emCHAIN-STITCH.
broidery Materials.-Pink silk, a few skeins of white
If gros de Naples is thought too delicate sewing silk, white sarsenet ribbon, of an inch wide. Muslin and flannel.
or expensive a material, fine French This very pretty and comfortable little merino of any pretty colour may be used shoe is to be embroidered entirely in for this shoe. chain-stitch. The pattern is given so clearly in the engraving, that no difficulty
SMALL LAMP MAT. can occur in drawing it. It must be marked the silk in the ordinary Materials.-7 shades of crimson wool, vary. The size of the shoe must be ing, from very dark to light, and 2 skeins of
maize-coloured crochet silk, with 4 yards of suitable for the child, and a paper pattern cotton-mat cord. Of the 2 lightest and 3 should first be prepared, of a very ample darkest colours, 1 skein only will be required. size, as the quilted lining of the shoe takes of the others, 2 skeins. up a considerable space. Mark out the With the darkest wool, work a few silk, allowing a very ample margin in every stitches over the end of the cord, and close direction, making the toe in one piece, the it into a round, on which, with the same ankle-piece for another, and the sole for shade, work another round, increasing the third. Cut out pieces of muslin and sufficiently to keep it flat. Another must flannel to correspond, and quilt them be done with the same shade. Join on together in small diamonds with sewing- next tint, and work three rounds with it, cotton.
increasing sufficiently to make it flat, and Work the pattern on the silk; then making enough stitches to cover the cord make up the shoe very neatly, running the completely. With the next shade do sole in parallel lines from heel to toe, tak- three more rounds in the same way. ing the needle through the thicknesses of Repeat it also with the 4th shade. With silk, flannel, and muslin.
the 5th shade, do only two rounds, and Bind the upper part of the shoe with a with the sixth and seventh, one will be
enough. Cut the end of the cord in a
POISONOUS TEAS. slanting direction, so as to terminate it gradually
It is a singular fact that a Chinese Thread a coarse embroidery needle with never drinks cold water, thinks it dethe maize silk, and work five stitches over structive to health, and hates it. Unthe cord of the last round but one, then coloured tea is his beverage from morning over the next, and all the others to the till night—the essence of the herb drawn centre, not straight down, but in a curved out in pure water, and swallowed without direction, (something like one of the milk and sugar. If he travels, he stops spokes of a Catherine's wheel). Do eight in his chair to take his cup, not of these curved lines, at equal distances glass.” If he pays a visit, he is offered from each other, and all meeting in the tea; if he receives a visitor, he proffers it. centre.
Before dinner he takes his tea as the For the border, work over a mesh with French take oysters—as a zest. After the tapestry needle, as in ordinary rug dinner, he sips his tea as a Scotchman work, taking a double needleful, both of takes his whiskey—as a digester. This is silk and wool. Four stitches are to be taken done not only without injuring their in silk, immediately opposite the five stomachs, but with positive advantage to stitches on the cord; then four of each their bodily health and general comfort. shade of wool, from the darkest to the Yet, Englishmen will swallow tea, go to lightest, which should occupy the space to bed, turn and toss, keep awake, get up, the next silk. Cut the edges of the fringe. I complain of unstrung nerves and weak digestion, and visit the doctor, who shakes
STORIES FOR THE YOUNG. his head, and solemnly says, “ Tea!” This is what he says; but what he means, if he has given attention to the subject, is
MY PETS. “ metallic paint.” “ Foreigners,” say
IV. KETURAH, THE CAT. the Chinese, “ like to have their tea uniform and pretty," so they poison the This pet, in whose history you will leaves for the advantage of the English take great interest, came into my possesand American merchants. The Chinese sion when I was about nine years old. would not think of drinking dyed tea such I remember the day as plainly as I reas we daily imbibe ; but the more gypsum member yesterday. I was going home and blue he can communicate to the plant, from school, very sad and out of humour the higher becomes its value in the eyes with myself, for I had been marked of the English merchant, and the dyeing deficient in geography, and had gone process, accordingly, goes on in China to down to the very foot in the spellingan extent which is actually alarming. In class. On the way I was obliged to pass every hundred pounds of coloured green a little old log-house, which stood near tea consumed in England, more than half the road, and which I generally ran by a pound of colouring powder, made from in a great hurry, as the woman who lived blue and gypsum, is contained. The fact there had the name of being a scold and is not now made known to the British a sort of a witch. She certainly was a public for the first time ; we therefore hope stout, ugly woman, who drank a great that this lucrative dyeing trade will deal of cider, and sometimes beat her husdecrease in the Celestial Empire. The band, which was very cruel, as he was Chinese may easily regard us with pity a mild, little man, and took good care of and surprise, as the coats of our stomachs the baby while she went to mill. But may well rebel against the intrusion of so that day I trudged along carelessly and much mineral trash. Our venerable slowly, for I was too unhappy to be afraid, ancestors, the ancient Britons, painted even of that dreadful woman. Yet I themselves, and lived upon acorns; and started, and felt my heart beat fast, when we, who live luxuriously, smile at their she called out to me. “Stop, little girl!" lamentable ignorance. In one respect, she said ; “ don't you want this 'ere however, the Britons had the advantage of young cat ?” and held out a beautiful us: they painted their stomachs blue, and white kitten. I ran at once and caught used the colour only on the outside—not it from her hands, thanking her as well in.—Times' Review of “ Fortune's Journey as I could, and started for home, careto the Tea Countries of China.”
fully covering pussy's head with my pina
fore, lest she should see where I took her, IMPORTANCE OF MORAL EDUCATION. and so know the way back.
She was -Under whose care soever a child is put rather uneasy, and scratched my arms a to be taught during the tender and flexible good deal ; but I did not mind that, I years of his life, this is certain ; it should was so entirely happy in my new pet. be one who thinks Latin and languages the When I reached home, and my mother least part of education; one who, knowing looked more annoyed than pleased with how much virtue and a well-tempered soul the little stranger, and my father and is to be preferred to any sort of learning or brothers would take no particular notice language, makes it his chief business to form of her, I thought they must be very hardthe mind of his scholars, and give that a hearted indeed, not to be moved by her right disposition; which, if once got, though beauty and innocence. My brother Wilall the rest should be neglected, would in liam, however, who was very obliging, and due time produce all the rest; and which, quite a mechanic, made a nice little house, if it be not got, and settled so as to keep or “cat-cote,” as he called it, in the back out ill and vicious habits-languages, and yard, and put in it some clean straw for sciences, and all the other accomplishments her to lie on. I then gave her a plentiful of education, will be to no purpose but to supper of new milk, and put her to bed make the worse or more dangerous man. with my own hands. It was long before