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cularly the former ; this is often done for PRACTICAL SCIENCE.
the purpose of joining another tube to it.
When you wish to pierce a tube, seal one GLASS-WORKING.
end (14), then, closing the other end (Continued from page 40.)
with your finger, direct the flame of the 9. Soldering. When the tubes to be blow-pipe upon the part you wish to soldered are of the same diameter and pierce, and maintain a reddish white heat thickness, they should be heated at the until the air within expands with the heat, points of junction, and the edges slightly and bursts a hole through the softened glass
. turned out by means of a piece of iron Sometimes, especially if the tube is long, wire, as directed § 7. When the two parts or the vessel large, the hole is made by are bordered, heat them both to a cherry | blowing forcibly into the vessel, when the red heat, and join them together just as glass has become heated to a reddish they fuse, taking care not to use too much white. force, and to maintain the heat until the When the tube has been pierced, it two tubes are cemented or soldered toge- becomes necessary to submit it again to ther. A little practice will soon enable the influence of the blow-pipe flame, in you to accomplish this operation neatly order to border the edges, and prepare it and quickly ; but you will always dis- for soldering. tinguish the part where they have been 11. Choking is not the actual closing soldered.
or stopping of a tube, but the contraction In soldering tubes or glass of any de- of its diameter, like the part between a and scription, be sure always to unite two of bin & 8, p. 40. This operation is performed the same kind, otherwise the joint is liable by heating the part to be choked to a to give way as it cools, on account of the cherry-red heat, and then gently drawing irregular contraction of the glass.
it out until the tube is sufficiently choked. When a tube requires to be soldered To make a fine glass funnel. Select a to the side of another, it becomes neces
tube of the proper diameter and sary to draw out the one tube, and then
proceed to draw out one part having cut off the superfluous part, bor
of it as directed in § 8, p. 40; dered it, and heated the edges to a cherry
but take care to do this gradually, red heat, the other tube is to be bordered
so as to make the part drawn and soldered to the first, as directed above,
out assume the form of a fine and shown in the accompanying figure.
tube, as in the annexed figure ; When the soldering is
when the proper length for the effected, warm the point
neck of the funnel has been of junction until it be
obtained, cut off the irregular comes perfectly soft,
part, when the glass has cooled and then blow gently
down. It now only remains to into the tube, so as to border the upper part in the manner make the softened part directed in g 7, p. 40. bulge out; then work 13. To enlarge the diameter of a tube. It it gently backwards and is sometimes necessary to enlarge the forwards, until the sur- diameter of a tube at one end, and when face becomes almost this is required, you must heat the part uniform.
to be widened in the flame of a spirit-lamp, Sometimes it is necessary to solder a and when it is soft, insert a stout piece of small piece of glass over a hole in some warm iron wire, and work it round and vessel. When this is the case, proceed round with a firm and even pressure, the thus : dry the vessel well, then fuse the same as if you were bordering the tube ; part to be soldered ; and having heated a but observing that the iron rod is intropiece of glass to a cherry-red heat, lay it duced further into the tube than when upon the part, and heat until they fuse bordering. The operation of widening together.
must be repeated over and over again, 10. Piercing. It is necessary sometimes until the tube is sufficiently enlarged. pierce a tube or other vessel, but parti- 14. Sealing. We hava frequently to
KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM.
Knowledge and wisdom, far from being one, Have ofttimes no connection. Knowledge dwells In heads replete with thoughts of other men ; Wisdom in minds attentive to their own.
On a fine sunny day
In the sweet month of May, When the flowers unfolded just ready to bloom,
The birds in the bushes,
Jays, Robins, and Thrushes,
As he whetted his bill, “Good day, neighbour Robin, how fares it with
“Quite well,” Robin said,
As he nodded his head,
(Long, indeed, I've design'd,) To ask a few friends for a sociable call;
And the day is so fine,
I shall ask them to dine;
Said the Thrush, “Bring your bride!" And flew to the woods to invite other friends;
And they brush'd up their wings,
From the Linnet that sings, To the gravest old bird that his counsel extends,
I am sure 'twas a sight
That would give you delight,
With the balmy May air,
But a Magpie was there,
(For the Thrush did not dare To pass her quite by-'twould have given offence)
And her voice was soon heard,
Breaking in every word,
She had stories to tell
Of the snow-drops that fell
I heard her protest,
And a sober old Rook
Though their heads are so weak
ON REVISITING MY BIRTH-PLACE,
BY WILLIAM JONES.
“The remembrance of youth is a sigh."-ALI.
Now blessings on thee, House of mine,
Where kindred hearts long had their dwelling, How many tales, were voice but thine,
Thou couldst of quiet love be telling ! Of hopes that grew with rip'ning years,
of friendships time could not dissever, Of sunny smiles, and chast’ning tears !
That bind me to thy hearth for ever!
The humble roof without a grace,
To save thee from the proud man's scorning, The shelter of a simple race,
Their honest worth their best adorning. How touching art thou, Olden Pile !
That others pass without a greeting, But where I rest my steps awhile,
With soften'd eye, and bosom beating !
No roses deck the latticed door,
No woodbine to thy side is clinging, No garden stretches out before,
A thousand sweets from Flora bringing. For Nature shuns the city's gloom,
O'er broad green fields and forest reigning, While man within a darken'd room,
Toils on,—the lamp of life fast waning.
Time was, my Home, thou hadst thy charms,
And now my childhood comes before me, A dream of old my fancy warms,
And casts a spell of beauty o'er thee! The pleasant days of infant mirth.
The wisest too with all their folly,
And innocence shuns melancholy !
How gaily, House, with bays we dress'd thee,
Our merry, glowing faces bless'd thee. Ah! then no vacant place remain'd
To cloud our youthful hearts with sorrow, No boding ill or care profaned,
The peace that came with every morrow!
And thou, sweet Mother, long removed,
From scenes thy presence made so cherish'd ; With thee, so gentle, wise, and good,
The glory of our household perish'd. And from the cradle of my birth,
I turn to where thou now art sleeping, Beside the church, beneath the earth,
That tears, the dew of love, are steeping.
Alas, thou’rt changed, old House of mine!
And stranger feet now heedless press thee : They will not see one charm of thine,
Nor feel the warmth with which I bless thee. And other voices now are heard
Where softly rose our hymns at even, Unlike the notes of each fond bird,
That left thy nest, to sing in Heav'n.
FLOWERS. GLOVE-MAKING employs nearly three thousand of the Parisians.
The plants look up to heaven, from whence
SHAKSPERE. FINE-TOOTH combs are now made of india- | They have their nourishment. rubber.
To me the meanest flower that blows, can give A single female house-fly produces in one
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.
WORDSWORTH. season 20,090,380 eggs. METALLIC lace is one of the inventions of 1852.
FOSTER the good, and thou shalt tend the flower It is made of fine wire, by the use of the same
Already sown on earth :machinery as is emyloyed for ordinary cotton
Foster the beautiful, and every hour
Thou call'st new flowers to birth. lace.
SCHILLER. The first opera ever composed was “Daphne," YE are the Scriptures of the earth, sung at Florence, near the end of the sixteenth
Sweet flowers fair and frail : century, the words by Rinucinni, and the music A sermon speaks in every bud by Peri.
That woos the summer gale.
ANONYMOUS. MOROCCO leather is so called from being first
THERE is a lesson in each flower, brought froin Morocco, or from the mode of making it originating in that country. It is
A story in each stream and bower ; made of goat-skin.
On every herb on which you tread'
Are written words which, rightly read, The emigration from Europe is gradually Will lead you from earth's fragrant sod, changing the character of the vegetation in To hope, and holiness, and God. Australia. Native plants are giving way to
ALLAN CUNNINGHADI. those which have been introduced by man; and
PALE winter flowers ! the clouds aloft nearly one hundred species are found growing wild, which have been brought from Europe
The sunless skies deform,and the Cape.
How can ye spread your blossoms soft
To face the pelting storm ? The expenditures of the British nation, dur- Ye have a root beneath, ing the year 1815, the last year of their great
Defying stormy hours ; struggle with Napoleon, reached the unpa- Ye are like fearless faith, ralleled sum of £110,000,000 sterling; about O precious winter flowers. £38,000,000 of which was raised by loans, and
MISS M. A. BROWNE, no less than £11,035, 232 of it paid in the shape
THE sickliest leaf, of subsidies to other nations of Europe, to aid
The feeblest efflorescence of the moss, them in carrying on the war.
That drinks thy dew, reproves our unbelief. DURING the reign of Henry VIII., England The frail field-lily, which no florist's eye produced very little wheat; the wealthy only Regards, doth win a garniture from thee lived on wheat bread; the mass of the people To kings denied. So while to dust we bow lived on rye, barley, and oats: and at the revolu- | Needy and poor, oh, bid us learn the lore tion of 1688, the annual wheat crop of England Graved on the lily's leaf, as fair and clear and Wales was estimated at bt 1,750,000 quar- As on yon disk of fire-to trust in thee. ters, or fourteen million bushels, over and
MRS. SIGOURNEY. above the seeds; or about one-sixth part as
THE enlivening sap, much as it was in 1840.
Obedient to Thy laws, through fitted tubes In experiments to obtain spiders' threads to Ascends fermenting, and, at length matured, tise as silk, 4,000 were collected, but they soon Breaks forth in gems, and germinates in leaves. destroyed each other. Again, it required twelve | By thee each family of flowers is clothed spiders to produce the quantity of one silk-worm, In one unvarying dress, and breathes the same whose cocoons weigh three or four grains, while Transmitted essences; and though the loom a good spider produced but half a grain. So No virgin-fingers ply to swell her pride, that a pound of silk produced by 2,300 worms, The lily shines, more gorgeously array'd would require 27,600 spiders, and all females. Than monarchs, where the East, with hand But some in Java make webs which require a profuse, knife to cut them.
Showers on their pomp barbaric pearl and gold. In the manufacture of hats of every descrip
SMART. tion, exclusive of straw, there are more than OBSERVE the rising lily's snowy grace, 20,000 persons employed; and, besides those Observe the various vegetable race; consumed at home, between fifty and sixty They neither toil nor spin, but careless grow, thousand dozens are annually exported to the Yet see, how warm they blush ! how bright British colonies and the Brazils, the value of they glow! which has been estimated at about £130,000 ; What regal vestments can with them compare i whilst the value of all the hats manufactured What king so shining ! or what queen so fair! annually at the principal marts, namely, Lon- If ceaseless thus the fowls of heaven He feeds, don, Manchester, Glasgow, Liverpool, &c., &c., If o'er the earth such lucid robes he spreads; is little under two millions and a half, a prodi- Will He not care for you, ye faithless, say? gious sum expended for one single article of Is He unwise ?-or are ye less than they? dress.
tinually changing: the age and size (especially RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. the thickness) of the pieces, the quality of the
coals, the weather, the currents of air in the (Concluded from page 179.)
kitchen, the more or less attention of the cook, VEGETABLES and meat are sometimes steamed : and the time of serving, are all to be considered. that is, they are put into vessels resembling Hence, epicures say of a well-roasted joint, “It cullenders, and being placed over boiling water,
is done to a turn.' the steam from it rises through the holes of the Roast meats should be sent to table the vessel, and then through the vegetables and moment they are ready, if they are to be eaten ineat, which are thus as effectually boiled as if in perfection. they were put into the boiling water.
Broiling. -Broiling requires a brisk and clear Roasting.–The success of every branch of fire, proportioned to the article to be broiled; cookery depends upon the good management of for example ; mutton chops require a clear the kitchen fire: roasting, especially, requires rather than a brisk fire, else the fat will be a brisk, clear, and steady fire; if made up close wasted before the lean is warmed through ; but to the bars of the grate.
for a beef steak, the fire can neither be too The spit being wiped clean, the joint to be brisk nor clear, if the gridiron be placed at the roasted should be carefully spitted even, and proper distance. Fish requires a steady fire; tied tight; and if it will not turn round well, as also does under-done meat. balance skewers, with leaden heads, should be Much, however, depends on the substance of used; for, if the meat be not evenly spitted, it the article to be broiled: if it be thick, it must will probably be burned on one side, and not be placed at a greater distance, at first, to warm done on the other. Avoid running the spit it through; if thin, the fire must be brisk, else through the prime parts of joints. Cradle spits the meat will not be of a good colour. answer best.
The gridiron should be wiped clean after it A leg of mutton should never he spitted, as has been used, so that the bars may be kept 4 the spit lets out the gravy, ar
leave an un- bright on top; they should be allowed to get sightly perforation just as you are cutting into hot before the article is laid on them, but not the pope's eye.
too hot, else they will burn the meat or fish: Make up the roasting-fire three or four inches the latter, especially. To prevent this, the bars longer than the joint, else the ends of the meat should be rubbed with fat. will not be done.
A charcoal fire is best for broiling. In stirring the fire, be careful to remove the To prevent the fat dripping into the fire set dripping-pan, else dust and ashes may fall in. the gridiron aslant. On no account let the fire get dull and low, as For turning the broiling article, use tongs, as a strong heat is requisite to brown the meat. a fork will let out the gravy. When the article
A thin joint requires a brisk fire; a large is done, it will feel firm if touched with the joint, a strong, sound, and even fire. When tongs : by no means cut the meat to ascertain steam rises from the neat, it is done.
if it be done, as that will let out the gravy. Large joints should be put at a moderate distance from the fire, and gradually brought Frying-is "to scorch something solid in fat, 210arer; else the meat will be overdone half. or oil," or butter. Lard, clarified suet, or way through the joint, and be nearly raw at the dripping, is well adapted for fish, eggs, potatoes, bone.
and meat generally. Olive oil is much used for Such meat as is not very fat should have fish ; and the same oil will serve for more than paper placed over it, to prevent it from being one frying. Butter is used, but it is not as scorched.
well adapted for frying as either of the other Do not sprinkle the meat with salt when articles. first put down, as the salt draws out the gravy. Be careful that the fat or oil is fresh, clean,
Old meats require more cooking than young. and free from salt, else what you fry in it will The longer the meat has been killed, the less be of bad colour and flavour; salt will prevent it time it requires to roast it. Very fat meat re- from browning quires inore time than usual.
Fat or oil, to be used again, should be The general rule is to allow fifteen minutes to strained through a sieve before it is set aside. a pound for roasting with a good fire, and ten Fat becomes richer from having meat fried or twenty minutes over, as the family like it into it, and may be used repeatedly; but the well done or not.
fat that has been used for fish cannot be used Baste the meat first with fresh dripping, and again for meat. then with its own fat or dripping: and within The fat must have left off bubbling and be the last hour of roasting, take off the paper, and quite still before you put in the articles. sprinkle the meat with salt and flour, to brown To prepare crumbs for frying, dry thoroughly and froth it; but some cooks dredge the meat in a warm oven, or before the fire, any waste with four earlier, so that it may imbibe the pieces of bread; then pound them in a mortar gravy, a practice which should be specially and sift them, and put them away till wanted. avoided.
This is much better than grating bread as it is The spit should be wiped dry immediately needed, or using oatmeal, &c. after it is drawn from the meat, and washed When you wish fried things to look as well and scoured every time it is used.
as possible, do them twice over with egg and Perfection in roasting is very difficult, and no crumbs. certain rules can be given for it, as success If eggs be very dear, a little flour and water may depends on many circumstances which are con- be substituted for them in preparing fish to fry.