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the hair of the head and beard has been long hair, it is a glory to her, for her held, more or less, in a sort of mystical hair is given her for a covering (1 Cor. respect in most nations. It may be traced xi. 14, 15). in our own country, perhaps, in the re- 63. The ancient Egyptian ladies wore puted use of the human hair in spells and their hair long, and plaited. The back incantations. To this day, the Arabs and part was made to consist of a number of other Orientals, treat the hair which falls strings of hair, reaching to the bottom of or is taken from them, with a degree of the shoulder-blades; and on each side care which indicates the superstitious feel. other strings, of the same length, deings which they connect with it. They scended over the breast. The hair was bury very carefully, that no one may plaited in the triple plait, the ends being see it, or employ it to their prejudice."'* left loose ; or, more usually, two or three

From the passage in Numbers, it is plaits were fastened together at the extherefore evident that the hair was worn tremity, by woollen strings of correspondlong by men earlier than B. c. 1490. In ing colour. Around the head was bound the year B. C. 1027, we also find that an ornamental fillet, with a lotus bud, by Absalom, the king's son, wore his hair way of feronière, falling over the forehead; very long; and that “when he polled his and the strings of hair at the sides were head (for it was at every year's end that separated and secured with a comb, or a he polled it, because the hair was heavy band, ornamented in various ways accordon him, therefore he polled it), he weighed ing to the fancy of the wearer, and occathe hair of his head at two hundred shekels sionally a round stud or pin was thrust after the king's weight.” (2 Samuel xiv. 26). | into them the front. There cannot be a doubt that Absalom The short hair at the side of the face, wore his hair unusually long, because we which the ingenuity of ancient Romans,* afterwards find (2 Samuel xviii. 9), that and modern European ladies has, by the as he was riding a mule, and passing aid of gum, compelled to lie in an inunder the thick boughs of an oak, that movable curve upon the cheek, was inter" his head caught hold of the oak, and woven with several of its longer neighhe was taken up between the heaven and bours; and these, being bound together the earth ; and the mule that was under at the end with string, fell down before him went away." When we remember the ear-ring, which they partially conthat it was the custom at that time to cealed. Many of the mummies of women anoint the head with ointments, and then have been found with the hair perfectly to sprinkle the hair with gold dust, so preserved, plaited in the manner I have that it might loo handsome, we may mentioned ; the only alteration in its almost account for the great weight of appearance being the change of its black Absalom's hair; and in this we are some hue, which became reddened by exposure what assisted by the passage "after the to great heat, during the process of emking's weight,” which refers to the lesser balming.+ shekel in use among the Hebrews at that 64, Sir G. Wilkinson also tells us tha“, time. The suspension of Absalom by his slaves or servants dressed their hair differhair is a remarkable proof of the strength ent the ladies. “ They generally of hair (§ 30, p. 201, vol. 2, of the New bound it at the back part of the head, Series), and calculating at the rate of 10 into a sort of loop, or ranged it in one or grains as the weight sustained by every more long plaits at the back, and eight or hair, and the number of hairs as 648 to nine similar ones were suffered to hang the

square inch of his head, we shall find | down at either side of the neck and face.” that Absalom's hair was quite capable of Several woodcuts are given to illustrate sustaining the weight of his body (see $ 21). the various methods of dressing the hair,

62. In the New Testament we are told " that if a man have long hair, it is a


* This little aecroche cæur appears in the busts shame unto him; but if a woman have of several Roman ladies of the time of the em


† “ Manners and Customs of the Ancient * The Pictorial Bible, edited by Dr. J. Kitto. Egyptians,” by Sir Gardner Wilkinson. Vol. i., note at p. 393.

edition, vol. iii. pp. 369, 370.

Third * "A complete History of the Dress of the


both by the ancient Egyptian ladies, and has undergone, to be exceedingly interesttheir slaves or servants; and in one of ing, and have, therefore, traced the various them, we observe that the side hair is changes from the earliest period to the confined by a comb, * and falls in six present time. plaits down the side of the neck, while the 72. It appears that Boadicea, Queen of short hair before it is arranged in three the Iceni, allowed her light hair to fall separate plaits on the cheek.

down her shoulders unrestrained by plait65. The custom of plaiting the hair is ing, and unconfined by band or diadem. referred to in the Bible (1 Peter iii. 3), 73. The Druids and early Britons dyed and we learn from Josephus and other their hair with herbs, and applied grease historians, that certain of the Jewish to it pretty freely. women gained a living by adorning and 74. From the year A. D. 78 to 400, or, plaiting the hair of the women of that as it is called, the Roman British period, period. It was not an ordinary mode of the hair of both sexes was cut and dressed plaiting the hair, as we may easily see in the same style as the Romans. from the statues in the British Museum, 75. From the eighth to the tenth cen. but required great skill and taste. tury, or during the Anglo-Saxon period,

66. The Etruscan ladies, if we may long hair was the distinguishing characjudge from paintings and statues, wore

teristic of the Teutonic tribes.

It was a their hair in plaits down the back, with mark of the highest rank amongst the two long tresses on either side of the face Franks, none of whom but the first and partly resting upon the bosom, which nobility and princes of the blood, were are, as Mr. Dennis remarks in his work permitted to wear it in flowing ringlets, upon the Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, an express law commanding the people to (vol. i. p. 422),“ just such as are cherished cut their hair close round the middle of now-a-days by misses in their teens.” the forehead. The plaits, to the number of ten or twelve, Amongst the Anglo-Saxons the law were tied together near the end, so that made no invidious distinctions; but the when viewed from behind, this style pre- clergy preached for centuries against the sented a very singular appearance.

sinfulness of long hair, which seems most 67. The ancient Greek women braided perversely to have grown the faster for the the hair, and frequently passed a band of prohibition. In the illuminations, it apthe hair, thus braided, across the top of pears not ungracefully worn, being parted the head.

on the forehead, and suffered to fall natur68. The ancient Greek and the Phry- ally down the shoulders."'* gian women frequently used network to 76. The Anglo-Saxon females of the confine the hair.

same period ($ 75) paid great attention 69. The ancient Grecian men wore their to their hair. The wife described by hair somewhat long, trimly curled, and Adhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, who wrote falling in clusters over the ears.

in the eiglich century, is particularly 70. The Panathenaic full dress of the mentioned as having her twisted locks

was completed by the head- delicately curled by the iron of those dress, which consisted of three braids of adornirg her; and in the Anglo-Saxon hair, falling behind each ear on the poem of “ Judith," the heroine is called shoulders ; a fillet or band round the fore- * The maid of the Creator with twisted head ; at the back of the head, an edifice locks.”+ of curls; and lastly, a thick braid of hair 77. During the Anglo-Danish period falling loosely, and invariably powdered (from A. D. 1016 to 1041) the men prided with the sacred barley-flour.”+

themselves upon their long hair.“ Harold 71. We regard the examination of the Harfagre, that is, Fair locks, who derived mutations, that the mode of wearing the his name from the length and beauty of hair among the inhabitants of England



Inbabitants of the British Islands,” by J. R. * This proves that side-combs are very an- Planché, Esq. 1846. p. 27. A work to which we are

greatly indebted for much information. + Hare's “ Ancient Greeks,” 1836. p 310. + Ibid, p. 36.




his hair, which is said to have flowed in was passed in 1095 by the council of thick ringlets to his girdle, and to have Rouen against the fashion of wearing been like golden or silken threads, made the hair long, but that it failed to produce a vow to his mistress to neglect his pre- the desired effect. cious curls till he had completed the con- 82. During the reign of Henry I., the quest of Norway for her love. And a fashion of wearing long hair still prevailed, young Danish warrior, going to be be- so that the practice was denounced by headed, begged of his executioner that various preachers. Among others, Serlo his hair might not be touched by a slave d'Abon, preaching before Henry I. on or stained with his blood. In the Anglo- Easter day 1105, against the sinfulness Saxon poem on Beowolf, mention is made of beards and long hair, put forth such

an eloquent discourse that he moved the

monarch and his courtiers to tears, and “The long-hair'd one, illustrious in battle, The bright lord of the Danes."

taking advantage of the effect he had

produced, he coolly drew a large pair On their arrival in England we still of scissors from his pocket, after the find them attentive to these fowing locks, sermon, and went from seat to seat mercicombing them once a day ; but a few years lessly cropping the king and the whole afterwards the fashion of cropping was congregation.* imported from France.*

83. In the reign of Stephen, the long 78. During the reigns of Edward the hair again became the prevailing fashion Confessor and Harold II. (from A. D. until 1139, when it received a sudden 1042 to 1066) the hair was worn cut quite check from an exceedingly trifling cirshort.

cumstance. A young soldier, whose chief 79. In the reign of William the Con- pride lay in the beauty of his locks, which queror (from A. D. 1066 to 1087) the hung down almost to his knees, dreamed Normans adopted the Aquitanian fashion one night that a person came to him, and of shaving the back of the head and crop- strangled him with his own luxuriant ringping the hair in front quite close, which lets. This dream had such an effect upon occasioned the spies of Harold to report him that he forthwith trimmed them to a that they had seen no soldiers, but an

rational length. His companions followed army of priests. The Saxons, however, his example, and superstition spreading continued to wear the hair long and flow- the alarm, cropping became again the ing; so that when William returned to order of the day. But this reformation Normandy after his coronation, attended

was of very short duration ; scarcely had by some of his Saxon subjects, the cour

a year elapsed before the people returned tiers of the Regent of France were to their former follies, and such, especially, astonished at the beauty of the long-haired as would be thought courtiers, permitted English.

their hair to grow to such a shameful 80. The Anglo-Norman ladies wore length, that they resembled women rather the hair long and Aowing; but sometimes than men; those whom nature had denied it was plaited in two or more divisions, the abundance of hair supplying the defiafter the Gothic fashion. I

ciency by artificial means. Wigs, there81. In the reign of William II. (1087) fore, may date in England from the time the hair was allowed to grow to a great of Stephen. length; in fact, the people appeared to 84. From 1087 to 1154, the Norman think that it could not be too long, thus ladies not only plaited their hair, but running into the opposite extreme of the also encased the plaits in silk, or bound fashion in the time of William I., so that them round with ribbon. we find William of Malmsbury exclaiming 85. From 1154 to 1216, or during the against the inordinate length of the hair reigns of Henry Il., Richard I., and as much as he did against the cropping John, there was little change in the fashion system, and we also learn that a decree of wearing the hair among gentlemen,

* Planché, on British Costume, p. 45. + Ibid, p. 57. 1 Ibid, p. 63.

* “An Introduction to English Antiquities," I by James Eccleston, B.A. 1847. p. 126.

And everich on her head

until the latter part of the reign of John, the centre, and allowed to fall in curls when the hair was curled with crisping- below the ears, a fashion that continued irons, and bound with fillets or ribbons. during the reign of Edward III. This fashion was considered such an 91. The ladies continued to enclose the improvement, that we find it recorded hair in network, but they also kept it back that the beaux of that period walked about from the forehead with a peculiar kind of the streets, and even in the country with fretwork which passed across the head out caps, so that the beauty of their curls and covered the ears with sloping lappets, might be admired.

so as to leave the back and upper part of 86. During the reign of Henry III. the head exposed. The back hair was (from 1216 to 1272), the hair of the men brought to the sides and concealed by the was worn in flowing curls, but not very fretwork. The fashion of enclosing the long.

hair in a network of gold, silver, or silk, 87. The ladies of the reign of Henry continued throughout the reign of Edward III. dressed their hair nearly in the same III. (from 1327 to 1377.) style as the present day, the hair being 92. During the reign of Richard II. confined by a net attached to a circlet or (from 1377 to 1399), the hair of the men garland, and, therefore, the fashion was was worn long, and curled with great care, completely altered, for the plaited tails so that the courtiers prided themselves were unbound, and the hair turned up upon their curly locks, taking pattern by behind to be enclosed in a network the king, who was the greatest fop of the of gold, silver, or silk thread.


93. The ladies of this period still A fret of golde she had next her here." CHAUCER — Legend of Good Women.

adhered to the fashion of confining the

hair in a caul of network: Sometimes a chaplet of roses or other flowers was worn over the hair alone, or

A rich fret of golde, which, withouten drede, over the network of gold ; thus, we find Was full of stately net-stones set.' the following lines in the Roman de la

94. During the reign of Henry IV. Rose, by William de Lorris and John de (from 1399 to 1411), the ladies continued Meun :

to confine the hair in a network ; but its Un chappel de roses tout frais

arrangement was different to that of the Eut dessus le chappel d'Orfrays." preceding reign, the hair being brought And Chaucer mentions it in the “The more from the back to supply the side of Flowre and the Leaf :"

the head, so that the outline resembled the

half of a French roll affixed to the ears. And every lady had a chapelet

The hair is said to have been dressed On her head of branches fair and green," &c.

square, horned, or in a net. 88. In the reign of Edward I. (from 95. The men of the same period (894), 1272 to 1307), the hair of the gentlemen wore their hair cropped close round above was curled with crisping-irons, the same the ears, the same as in the following reign as in the reign of John (§ 85.)

($ 96.) 89. The hair of the ladies of the time 96. From 1411 to 1422, or the period of Edward I. continued to be dressed during which Henry V. reigned, the hair much in the same style as during the was worn by the men the same as during preceding reign, with this exception, that the reign of Henry IV. a distinction was made between that worn 97. The ladies of the reign of Henry by married and single, the former enclos- V. wore the hair confined by the network ing theirs in a caul of golden network, used in preceding reigns, and they were while the latter had flowing ringlets, also distinguished for the heart-shaped, bound by a ribbon, or fillets of gold or and horned head-dress. silk, or by the elegant chaplet of natural 98. In the reign of Henry VI. (from flowers.

1420 to 1461), the men wore the hair the 90. In the reign of Edward II. (from same as in the former reign, and the 1307 to 1327), the hair of the men was ladies also adhered to the same frightful cut short upon the forehead or parted in fashions.

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men wore their hair long, and sometimes it was powdered.

109. The ladies of the above period wore their hair in ringlets on each side, and several short curls hanging over the brow; the back hair was worn like that of the present day.

110. The men of the reign of Charles II. (from 1660 to 1685) wore their hair very long, or else perukes, a fashion said to have been introduced from France. Nearly every person is familiar with the portrait of Charles II., with the long curls falling upon his shoulders. The hair of the ladies of this period was a mixture of false and real ringlets.

111. In the reign of James II. the periwig was worn very large indeed, so as to fall over the shoulders, and half way down the back, and the beaux of that period used to comb out their perukes publicly with large ornamented combs, which they carried about with them.

112. The ladies of the period of James II. wore their hair brushed off the forehead and arranged in four tiers of curls on each side, while a curl was allowed to escape from underneath and to fall somewhat negligently over the shoulders.

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